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Showing 6 results for Symbiosis

Mehdi Sadravi,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (3-2012)
Abstract

Arbuscularfungi are root symbiontsof 80% of plants, such as most field crops and fruit trees. They establish in root tissue, arbuscule in endodermis cells, and an extramatrical fine hyphal net. These fungi byincreasing absorption of water and nutrient elements for plants, making changes in chemical constituents of plant tissues, competition with pathogens for nutrients and establishment site, structural changes in roots, alleviation of environmental stresses, and increasing population of useful bacteria in soil, help management of diseases caused by fungi, fungal like organisms, nematodes, bacteria, phytoplasmas and physiological disorders. Collection, identification, purification, propagation, and inoculation of these useful fungi to plants, can decrease usage of chemical fertilizers and pesticides that are harmful to consumers of agricultural products as well as to the environment
Mehdi Sadravi, Najmeh Gharacheh,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (9-2013)
Abstract

Contamination of the soil in limited arable areas with toxic substances has increased during recent decades. Phytoremediation is a technology in which plants are applied to remove, degrade or reduce the hazardous effects of toxic substances in the soil. Symbiotic fungi in symbiosis relation with plant roots efficiently increase the plants ability to remove the toxic substances from contaminated soils. The ectomycorrhizal fungus Hebeloma mesophaeum which is in symbiosis with norway spruce, beech, alder, willow and pussy, can uptake the heavy metals of soil and disable them in its hartig net in the root epidermis. It helps plants to maintain optimal growth and establish in contaminated soil. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Funneliformis mosseae, Claroideoglomus etunicatum, Septoglomus deserticola, Glomus versiforme and G. intraradices help to deploy for optimal growth, and more absorption of nutrients in contaminated soils to cadmium, lead, zinc, arsenic and petroleum in maize, soybean, clover, subterranean clover, tomato and eucalyptus. These fungi can fix and disable these elements and pollutants in intraradical hyphal net. Accordingly, mycorrhizal fungi are powerful biological restoratives in contaminated lands.
Azim Ghasemnejad , Aminallah Bagherifard, Saeid Nasrallahnejad, Abbas Bagheri Najafabad,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (3-2014)
Abstract

Most of the symbiotic fungi can improve the growth of the host plants by increasing in water and nutrients absorption. Among the symbiotic fungi, Piriformospora indica or Piri have a good potential in symbiotic relation with plants and well known for its effect on host plants by increasing adventitious roots and growth stimulation in above and below ground parts of the plants. The effects of this fungus on vegetative growth of some medicinal plants and accumulation of the secondary metabolites have been discussed.
Ali Baradar, Roohallah Saberi Riseh, Ebrahim Sedaghati, Abdolreza Akhgar,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (3-2015)
Abstract

Baradar  A., Saberi Riseh  R., Sedaghati  E. & Akhgar A. 2015. Mycorrhiza helper bacteria. Plant  Pathology  Science 4(1):46-53.

Mycorrhizal fungi increase water and nutrient elements absorption to the plant and plant provide carbohydrates for the fungus and this is beneficial for both parties . Many plants need to these fungi for absorption some mineral elements and resistance to environmental stresses such as drought, soil contamination to heavy metals such as lead, zinc and cadmium. Some soil borne bacteria have been identified as third part of the mycorrhiza, which cause improving the performance of this symbiotic relationship, and have been named as mycorrhiza helper bacteria.
— mehdi Sadravi, Farzaneh Talaei,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (3-2015)
Abstract

Sadravi M. and Talaei F. 2015. Methods of mass production of inoculum of endomycorrhizal fungi. Plant Pathology Science 4(1):13-22. 
 Endomycorrhizae or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, play an important role in the life of field crops, flower and fruit gardens and vegetables. They increase nutrient uptake and yield of plants and resistance to soil-borne pathogens of plants as well. As these beneficial fungi, are obligate root symbiotic, mass production of their inoculum is only possible on the living tissue of root. The first method for this purpose was pot culturing, then the hydroponic, aeroponic and root organ culture have been devised. Methods and factors affecting the mass production of these beneficial fungi are described and discussed here.

Hamidreza Rahmani, Ebrahim Mohamadi Goltapeh,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (8-2016)
Abstract

Rahmani  H. R. &  Mohamadi-Goltapeh E. 2016. Six forest species of truffles. Plant Pathology Science 5(2):1-12.

Edible mushrooms that are known as the truffle are classified in apothecial ascomycetes. They are obligate ectomycorrhiza of plants and produce their fruiting bodies on or below the surface of the soil. The genus Tuber belongs to the order Pezizales, class Pezizomycets, and has numbers of species with universal distribution. So far, France, Italy, United Kingdom and New Zealand have tried for the commercial production of truffle. Among the species of edible truffle of the universe, two valuable species, the white truffle, T. magnatum, and the black truffle, T. melanosporum, are the most valuable species. Because of their economic and medicinal importance, this is necessary to perform scientific research for their accurate identification.



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