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Showing 14 results for Plant

Mirmaesum Iraqi,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (3-2012)
Abstract

In last decades, development of Biology science, importance of protection of environmentand high demand to the nutrients is caused that usage of the biological materials, in order to increase crop yield, have been viewed by researchers. Some of the Bacilli, Rhizobia and Trichoderma species are distinguished as Plant Growth Promoting. These micro-organisms with colonization and abundant sporulation in soil especially in rhizosphere of most of the cultivated and non-cultivated plants not only decrease the pathogenic agents, but also increase growth of the plants by bio-chemical mechanisms. With attention to isolate and study of many Trichoderma species in Iran, importance of performance researches about plant growth promoting effects of theTrichoderma species is necessary. In this paper, review of the plant growth promoting effects of Trichoderma is presented.
Mehdi Sadravi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (9-2012)
Abstract

Genetic engineering has begun about 160 years ago with discover inheritance laws of biological traits, isolation and purification of DNA from inner cell, replication and propagation of its pieces with polymerase chain reaction in vitro, identification and purification favorable genes and transfer them with Agrobacterium  tumefaciens bacterium, or directly to plants cell, by gene gun, and produce whole transgenic  plant, from gene modified cell with tissue culture methods innovation and fully developed in recent 4 decades. With this technology transfering  favorable genes, without accompaniment with  unwanted genes, into plants is possible, and resistance transgenic plants to fungal, bacterial, viral and nematodes, and tolerant to environmental stress produced. Genetic engineering has created hope for better plants diseases management and increase agricultural production to meet food needs of a growing human population.


Asad Masoumiasl,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (3-2013)
Abstract

There are some strategies for adaptation to environmental changes in plants, including a range of molecular-biochemical and also intent or induced mechanisms. The proper response of plant is occurred when it receives extracellular signals and transfers those inside the cell. Ethylene, identified as a plant hormone which regulates the plant reactions under some circumstances. Ethylene production has been enhanced in response to biological stresses like plant infection by pathogens or herbivores attack. Most of induced defense genes are regulated by transduction pathways signal. The biosynthesis pathway of ethylene from the amino acid methionine has been studied well. In this pathway, the produced ethylene activates the resistant genes resulting to incidence of plant resistance. The responsible genes in rice and also the ethylene-expressed resistance genes have been discussed in this review.
Marziye Maleki1 , Reza Mostowfizadeh-Ghalamfarsa2,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (3-2013)
Abstract

Regarding to the need of improving the quality and quantity of agricultural products, the science of plant protection has been taken under consideration. Accurate identification and detection of plant pathogens is one of the best ways for successful plant disease management. One of the useful methods is analysis of the volatile organic compounds, which spread from diseased plants. In this method, specificity of the volatile organic compounds and also the factors that affect the identifying of plant diseases and effective methods on these compounds are important. First, these compounds should be collected and then be analyzed. The best method for analysis of these compounds is dynamic sampling followed by gas chromatography and using the proper probes. Although the high costs of the tools make it difficult to apply this method for agricultural purposes, but by using the statistical methods and estimations the costs can be decrease.
Mehdi Sadravi, Ghaem Kheradmand Motlagh,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (9-2013)
Abstract

Nanotechnology is the science of identification, production and use of materials at nanometer (10-9 m) scale. Regarding to application of this technology in plant pathology, this technology provides power to organize producing biological nanosensors for rapid detection of pathogens, production of nano silver and nano silica-silver to control bacteria and fungi, and the preparation of pesticides as nano capsules, at molecular level. Metal nanoparticles, the inhibitor of plant pathogens are derived from some fungi, bacteria and some plants including sunflower, alfalfa, Indian mustard, magnolia and Japanese persimmon.
Zahra Amjadi , Habiballah Hamzehzarghani,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (3-2014)
Abstract

Metabolomics or analysis of all cellular metabolites is a new and powerful tool that provides possible quick view to the large number of small molecules (metabolites) within the cell and indicates dynamics of these molecules under different conditions. Quantitative and qualitative measurements of large number of cellular metabolites provide a broad view of the biochemical status of an organism that can be used to monitor and assess gene function. Today, metabolomics is widely being used in agriculture for classification of plants, studying phytochemical diversity of medicinal plants, assessment of the changes which occur in the biochemical composition of foods occurring, for example, during the pasteurization of Basmati rice for long-term storage or the boiling for direct consumption. In plant pathology, metabolomics has been mainly used to study plant responses to a wide range of biotic or abiotic stresses including resistance of plants to pathogens and also as a powerful tool for functional genomics studies. Profiling of the transcriptome and proteome has received some criticism due to their inability to predict gene function but profiling of the metabolites is promising as it provides instantaneous large amounts of data from cell physiology. Study of plant genetic resistance is one of the most important applications of metabolomics. Since metabolites are final products of gene expression and all changes in gene expression is reflected in metabolite profiles, hence metabolite profiles produce a more comprehensive understanding of plant defense mechanisms against stresses such as pathogen challenge. On the other hand, breeders are looking for rapid, simple and accurate tools for identifying metabolites associated with resistance as biomarker for screening cultivars resistant to diseases. In addition, understanding resistance mechanisms at the level of metabolome may help breeders for better understanding of resistant gene function and pyramiding suitable resistant gene in elite cultivar. This article is a review of the science, its applications in plant pathology, methods of study metabolites and their administrative problems.
Ali Reza Sholevarfard, Seyed Mohammad Reza Moosavi,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (3-2014)
Abstract

Plant diseases are the most important limiting factors in agricultural production. Currently the major control method of plant diseases is based on the use of chemicals that raises serious concerns about food quality, environmental hazards and development of resistance to agrochemicals. These concerns have increased the need for other alternative disease management techniques. Macro- and micronutrients are normally applied to increase crop production and improve general plant health and quality. They can also increase the disease tolerance or resistance of plants, however there are some opposing reports. Although our knowledge on the impact of mineral nutrients on plant diseases, many other factors that control plant's response and dynamic interactions among plant, environment and pathogen is not sufficient, manipulating soil nutrients through amendment or modification is always an essential part in plant disease control as well as in sustainable agriculture. Mineral nutrients are generally the first and the most important line of defense against plant diseases which affect all parts of the disease triangle. Nutrients can satisfactory decrease diseases, or at least diminish them to a level at which additional control measures are more successful and less expensive. Here we review the most recent data regarding the influence of mineral nutrients on plant disease resistance and tolerance, plant histological or morphological structure and the virulence or capability of pathogens to survive.
Azim Ghasemnejad , Aminallah Bagherifard, Saeid Nasrallahnejad, Abbas Bagheri Najafabad,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (3-2014)
Abstract

Most of the symbiotic fungi can improve the growth of the host plants by increasing in water and nutrients absorption. Among the symbiotic fungi, Piriformospora indica or Piri have a good potential in symbiotic relation with plants and well known for its effect on host plants by increasing adventitious roots and growth stimulation in above and below ground parts of the plants. The effects of this fungus on vegetative growth of some medicinal plants and accumulation of the secondary metabolites have been discussed.
Arash Irandoost, Fatemeh Salmaninezhad, Reza Mostowfizadeh-Ghalamfarsa ,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (9-2014)
Abstract

Phytoplasmas are some plant pathogens that establish and propagate in plant phloems. They have transmitted by sucking insects. Phytoplasmas have a different lifecycle as compare to bacterial pathogens. They have ability to infect different hosts two different kingdoms, planta and animalia (insects). They systemically infect their hosts. Phytoplasmas have various approaches for adaptation to their hosts. Some of adaptation mechanisms include: changes in the level of gene expression, variation and recombination in extrachromosomal DNA and potential mobile units, production of effectors and suppression of defense signaling pathways. These approaches enable them to establish, propagate and infect various hosts. Recognizing these strategies would be a major step on the effective management of these pathogens.
Habiballah Charehgani,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (2-2016)
Abstract

Charehgani H. 2016. Application of microarray technology in plant nematology. Plant Pathology Science 5(1):76-89.

During a compatible interaction, root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) induce the root cells dedifferentiation into multinucleate feeding cells, known as giant cells. Hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the cells surrounding the head of nematode lead to the formation of a root gall. Different studies showed that the transformation of root cells into hypertrophied feeding structures, with unique morphology and functions, require some changes in the expression of a large number of genes. Previous approaches, based on differential gene expression between healthy and infected plants, analyses of known candidate genes by promoter GUS fusion or in situ hybridization and promoter trap strategies, have resulted in the characterization of about 50 genes of plant that are up regulated and 10 genes that are down regulated in giant cells. Microarray technology makes it possible to generate large-scale information about patterns of gene expression during plant–nematode interactions. A DNA microarray is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface. Each DNA spot contains 10−12 moles of a specific DNA sequence, which are known as probes. These can be a short section of a gene or other DNA element that are used to hybridize a cDNA or cRNA sample that called as target. Probe-target hybridization is usually detected by detection of fluorophore or silver labeled targets.


Banafsheh Safaiefarahani, Reza Mostowfizadeh-Ghalamfarsa,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (2-2017)
Abstract

Safaiefarahani B. & Mostowfizadeh-Ghalamfarsa  R. 2017. Phytophthora spp. interspecific hybrids and their danger for agriculture. Plant Pathology Science 6(1): 33-46.

Interspecific hybridization is an important evolutionary process contributing to adaptation and speciation. During the last decade, advances in the molecular taxonomy techniques have led to increasing the number of descriptors interspecific hybrids in the genus Phytophthora. In Phytophthora hybrids, inheriting and recombining genes from both parents may result in increased aggressiveness and broader host range compared with either parent. Some Phytophthora natural hybrids have also been reported in Iran to date. Consequently, identification, pathogenicity and host range tests of these hybrids as well as preventing the formation of new hybrids before experiencing large economic losses are recommended for management of plant diseases caused by this fungal-like organisms.


Yalda Vasebi, Saeid Buroon, Mohammad Mehdi Faghihi ,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (9-2017)
Abstract

Vasebi Y., Buroon S. and  Faghihi M. M. 2017. Common pathogenic agents of plant and human. Plant Pathology Science 6(2):78-88.

Some plant pathogens are also serious threats to human health. Pathogenic fungi from the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Cladosporium, Claviceps, Fusarium, Paecilomyces and Exserohilum, and some bacteriaa genera including Burkholderia, Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Escherichia, Erwinia, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Salmonella, Serratia and Xanthomonas can cause harmful diseases in human. Diseases caused by these microorganisms in plants and human are described here and some researches to identify them on raw fruits and vegetables are suggested.
 


Nasser Beikzadeh, Hamid Afzali,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2020)
Abstract

Beikzadeh N, Afzali H (2020) Impact of six essential oils on strawberry gray mold. Plant Pathology Science 9(1):129-140.       DOI: 10.2982/PPS.9.1.129.
 
Introduction: Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is the most important disease after strawberry fruit harvest. The use of chemical fungicides can have a negative effect on the health of consumers, so the use of plant essential oils for disease management has been considered. The effect of six plant essential oils on the pathogen and the contamination of strawberry fruits was investigated in this research to identify suitable essential oil to control the disease. Materials and Methods: The pathogen was isolated from infected strawberry fruits in northeastern Iran. The inhibitory effect of different concentrations of peppermint, savory, caraway, cumin, eucalyptus and thyme essential oils on mycelial growth and germination of the pathogen spores was tested by mixing them with culture medium. Then, the effect of these essential oils in liquid and vapor phases on the contamination of strawberry fruits was tested. After normalization, the data of these experiments were analyzed by analysis of variance with MSTAT-C software and the means were compared with Duncan test. Results: Essential oils of caraway and eucalyptus had the greatest effect in inhibiting the growth of pathogen mycelium. Essential oils of caraway, cumin, savory, thyme and peppermint had the greatest effect in inhibiting the germination of pathogen spores. The essential oils of caraway, cumin, savory, thyme and peppermint in the vapor phase, the essential oils of caraway and eucalyptus in the liquid phase, prevented further contamination of the fruit. Conclusion: The findings of this study show that all of these plant essential oils can significantly prevent the growth of mycelium and germination of pathogen spores and contamination of strawberry fruits, but the effect of caraway essential oil in most cases is better than others. Thus, it can be used as an alternative to fungicides on strawberry fruit.

Habiballah Charehgani,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (8-2020)
Abstract

Charehgani H (2020) Effect of wood vinegar, humic acid and Effective Microorganisms against Meloidogyne javanica on tomato. Plant Pathology Science 9(2):73-84.                DOI: 10.2982/PPS.9.2.73.
 
Introduction: Root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica is the most economically important plant-parasitic nematode worldwide. Because of the environmental hazards of chemical nematicides used to control this nematode, there is an urgent need to replace these nematicides with alternative compounds that are environmentally friendly. Material and methods: An experiment was conducted to control M. javanica infestation on tomato plants (cv. Early-Urbana) using wood vinegar at the rates of 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 percent (v/v), Effective Microorganisms (EM®) at the rates of 5, 10 and 15 percent (v/v), humic acid at the rates of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 percent (v/v) and tervigo (positive control) at the rate of 0.4 percent (v/v), in greenhouse. Results: EM® at the highest concentration (15%) was the most effective organic compound which reduced the nematode indices. Shoot length, shoot fresh weight and shoot dry weight increased by 41, 28 and 36%, respectively. The number of eggs, galls, egg masses per root system and reproduction factor were decreased by 58, 48, 49 and 57% in treated tomato with EM® at the rate of 15%, compared to control (non-treated) plants, respectively. Conclusion: The organic compounds used in the present study are effective to control M. javanica on tomato under greenhouse conditions.


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