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Showing 6 results for Meloidogyne

Elmira Abutorabi,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (9-2013)

Management of soil borne disease of tomato with the aim of reducing the use of chemical pesticides and produce healthy products needs to provide appropriate policy. Grafting is one of the most effective control measures of soil borne pathogens result in healthy crop production and is an excellent substitute for chemical control. According to some investigations, grafting the commercial varieties on resistant rootstocks results in higher yield as well as the better quality. In addition to obtain higher product quality and optimize plant growth, disease management can be achieve by minimum application of pesticides.
Mohammad Abdollahi, Negin Akramipoor,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (9-2014)

Plant-parasitic nematodes are one of the most important pests worldwide and cause considerable economic loss to many of agricultural products. Some of soil inhabited nematodes are affected by some of antagonistic bacteria, so they can be used in biological control. Nematodes can be affected by bacteria in different ways such as direct suppression, promotion of plant growth, and facilitation of rhizosphere colonization. In overall, regarding to effect of soil inhabits bacteria on nematodes they can be classified as toxin producing, antibiotic producing and enzyme producing as well as plant growth promoting groups. Based on the recent researches, bacteria are divided to six groups including: parasitic bacteria (nematophagous bacteria), opportunistic parasitic bacteria, rhizobacteria, endophytic bacteria, symbionts of entomopathogenic nematodes and cry protein-forming bacteria. Combination of bacteria with some other antagonistic microorganisms was successful in control of plant parasitic nematodes.
Habiballah Charehgani,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (2-2016)

Charehgani H. 2016. Application of microarray technology in plant nematology. Plant Pathology Science 5(1):76-89.

During a compatible interaction, root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) induce the root cells dedifferentiation into multinucleate feeding cells, known as giant cells. Hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the cells surrounding the head of nematode lead to the formation of a root gall. Different studies showed that the transformation of root cells into hypertrophied feeding structures, with unique morphology and functions, require some changes in the expression of a large number of genes. Previous approaches, based on differential gene expression between healthy and infected plants, analyses of known candidate genes by promoter GUS fusion or in situ hybridization and promoter trap strategies, have resulted in the characterization of about 50 genes of plant that are up regulated and 10 genes that are down regulated in giant cells. Microarray technology makes it possible to generate large-scale information about patterns of gene expression during plant–nematode interactions. A DNA microarray is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface. Each DNA spot contains 10−12 moles of a specific DNA sequence, which are known as probes. These can be a short section of a gene or other DNA element that are used to hybridize a cDNA or cRNA sample that called as target. Probe-target hybridization is usually detected by detection of fluorophore or silver labeled targets.

Leila Sadeghi, Salar Jamali,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (8-2016)

Sadeghi  L. & Jamali  S. 2016. Molecular plants defense mechanisms against nematodes. Plant Pathology Science 5(2):90-100.

Plant  parasitic  nematodes can devastate a wide range of  crop  plants. They are obligate parasites and have evolved compatible parasitic relationship with their host plants to obtain nutrients that are necessary to support their development and reproduction. Suppression of host defense is a key step for pathogenesis in the compatible interaction. Plant defense response is activated from the moment a nematode penetrates the plant root. Stylet and secretions of esophageal glands play central roles at during invasion to host, migration inside the roots and establishment of feeding site on host cells. New findings demonstrate that secretions of esophageal  glands of  some  nematodes as  effectors deliver  into the apoplast and cytoplasm of host cells to active plant defense responses in resistant host. Molecular  plants defense mechanisms against nematodes described in this paper.

Maryam Hatamabadi Farahani,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (3-2019)

Hatamabadi-Farahani M. 2019. Root knot disease of pomegranate. Plant Pathology Science 8(1):38-49. DOI:10.2982/PPS.8.1.38.
 Pomegranate is an important fruit crop which is attacked by several pests and pathogens. Diseases caused by nematodes are of economic importance. The root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) causing considerable yield losses in pomegranate.  Root knot nematodes are sedentary endoparasite that are basically parasites of the roots, produces knots on root which cause weak root function in the absorption and transfer of water and nutrient. Above ground symptoms include dwarfing the plants, yellowing and reduction of foliage, falling leaves and yield losses. Under favorable temperature and moisture, eggs are hatching and second stage pathogenic juveniles are released. The management strategies are including sanitation, construction of nursery in healthy areas, annual plowing of garden, drip irrigation, soil solarization, organic amendment of soil and strengthen the trees.

Ali Asghar Dehghan, Reza Ghaderi,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2020)

Dehghan AA, Ghaderi R (2020) Application of seaweeds in plant diseases management. Plant Pathology Science 9(1):101-107.         DOI: 10.2982/PPS.9.1.101.
Algae are the most important plant growth stimulants due to their high content of minerals, amino acids, vitamins and growth regulators such as auxin, cytokinin and gibberellin. Use of these stimuli in crops can improve rooting, yield, photosynthetic capacity and their resistance to pathogens. Application of algae (mainly seaweeds) against various plant diseases including bacterial, fungal, viral and nematode diseases as well as pests has been proven. Seaweeds are used as a powder or extract mixed with soil, or foliar spray to control of plant diseases. They are usually involved in controlling plant pathogens by inducing plant resistance, antagonistic activity by induced activity of other microorganisms, and enhancing plant growth. In general, seaweeds can be applied as biofertilizers, biostimulators and soil amendments in integrated plant diseases management programs.

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