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Arash Irandoost, Fatemeh Salmaninezhad, Reza Mostowfizadeh-Ghalamfarsa ,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (9-2014)

Phytoplasmas are some plant pathogens that establish and propagate in plant phloems. They have transmitted by sucking insects. Phytoplasmas have a different lifecycle as compare to bacterial pathogens. They have ability to infect different hosts two different kingdoms, planta and animalia (insects). They systemically infect their hosts. Phytoplasmas have various approaches for adaptation to their hosts. Some of adaptation mechanisms include: changes in the level of gene expression, variation and recombination in extrachromosomal DNA and potential mobile units, production of effectors and suppression of defense signaling pathways. These approaches enable them to establish, propagate and infect various hosts. Recognizing these strategies would be a major step on the effective management of these pathogens.
Mousa Najafiniya, Abdolnabi Bagheri, Mehdi Azadvar, Mohammad Salehi,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (8-2016)

Najafiniya  M.,  Bagheri  A., Azadvar M. & Salehi M. 2016. The situation of witches broom disease of sour lime in Iran. Plant Pathology Science 5(2):23-31.

Lime is one of the most important economic and horticultural plants in the southern part of Iran. Among the diseases of citrus in south of Iran, Witches Broom Disease of Lime (WBDL) is one of the major citrus diseases. The causal agent of WBDL is a phytoplasma with the proposed name, Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia. The symptoms of disease start with appearance of witches broom at one-side of the infected tree. The disease then spread to whole parts of plant showing leaf proliferation, shortened internodes, small and pale green leaves, no formation of any spine, flower or fruit and finally death of the infected plants. To control the disease, integrated management and cultural practices has shown to be effective methods. Elimination of symptomatic trees as well of the newly emerged infected branches, chemical or mechanical weed control and a periodic spraying by systemic pesticides against the vector insect, or a combination of these methods is highly recommended. Among the control measures, chemical control of the vector has showed is very effective for reducing the disease spread and severity.

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