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Showing 13 results for Fusarium

Vahid Rahjoo , Majid Zamani ,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (9-2012)

Fusarium ear rot is one of the most important diseases of corn in Iran. This disease cause by Fusarium moniliforme fungus. Its symptoms are pink to red spots on ear, cause it completely rot and eventually loss of yield quantity and quality. Identification and cultivation resistant or semi-resistant corn hybrids is the best management method of this disease. Artificial infection of maize hybrids with fungal suspension of causal agent is an affective method to study their reactions, determine base on disease severity index (%DS). According to research conducted in Iran, between 12 planting hybrids, 2 hybrids K3493 / 1 × K18 and KLM 77029/8-1-2-3-2-3 × MO17 are resistant, and 9 are semi- resistant . With extension, cultivation of these hybrids, can manage the disease and increase the quality and quantity of maize hoped.
Elmira Abutorabi,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (9-2013)

Management of soil borne disease of tomato with the aim of reducing the use of chemical pesticides and produce healthy products needs to provide appropriate policy. Grafting is one of the most effective control measures of soil borne pathogens result in healthy crop production and is an excellent substitute for chemical control. According to some investigations, grafting the commercial varieties on resistant rootstocks results in higher yield as well as the better quality. In addition to obtain higher product quality and optimize plant growth, disease management can be achieve by minimum application of pesticides.
Eisa Nazerian, Seyed Saeid Modares Najaf Abadi , Mekameh Mahdavi,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (9-2013)

Fusarium yellows causing yellow, brown and wilted leaves. The gladiola bulbs rot and reduce quantity, quality and marketability of flowers. Four Fusarium species, especially F. oxysporum. f.sp. gladioli cause this disease. These fungi can survive as microconidia, macroconidia, clamydospore and mycelium, in the soil. Bulb discoloration is the most common symptom of the disease. In storage, the diseased corms get softened, mummified and wrinkled. Many researches have been carried on to investigate the methods of disease control, but all were unsuccessful so far. Disease management is based on resistant varieties, chemicals, cultural and biological measures. However, a combination of several methods provides a better opportunity to manage this disease.
Omid Shenavar, Reza Mostowfizadeh-Ghalamfarsa,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (9-2015)

Shenavar  O. & Mostowfizadeh-Ghalamfarsa  R. 2015. Computerized interactive keys for identification of fungi. Plant Pathology Science 4(2):41-52

Accurate identification of fungi and fungus-like organisms is one of the most important steps for finding an approach to employ or control them. Nevertheless, this process is usually laborious and slow. Application of interactive keys is one of the ways to save the time and have an accurate identification of the species. An interactive key is a computer program in which the user enters morphological or molecular attributes of the specimen and the program compares them with the data of its database to find a match species with the highest similarity.  Such keys also allocate separate images and other data for any known species. In this paper some of the interactive identification keys and their function is discussed.

Najmeh Gharacheh , Mehdi Sadravi,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (9-2015)

Gharacheh N. & Sadravi  M. 2015. Five important fungal diseases of  pulse crops in Iran. Plant Pathology Science 4(2):17-25. 

Bean, pea, lentil, vetch and broad bean grains are rich in protein.  Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad (a province in the southwest Iran) is one of the cultivation area of the pulses. In this province, five important fungal diseases included Fusarium wilt, Fusarium root rot, Ascochyta blight, Alternaria blight, and charcoal rot, are common on these plants. Symptoms of these diseases, key morphological characteristics of the pathogens and their distribution areas in Iran and the world is described.


Mehdi Sadravi, Mahya Rahimizadeh,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (2-2016)

Sadravi  M. & Rahimizadeh  M. 2016. Ten  useful  Penicillium species. Plant Pathology Science 5(1):1-13.

Penicillium species have saprophytic live on plants debris, in the soil and also on some plant products, fresh and juicy damaged fruits as well as the storage fruit and grains.  They can characterized by studying the features of their colony, conidiophores, phialids  and conidia on selective culture media. The ability of some isolates of P. aurantiogriseumP. bilaiae, P. chrysogenum, P. citrinum, P. funiculosus, P. glabrum, P. griseofulvumP. oxalicum, P. purpurogenum and P. simplicissimum to control plants diseases such as Fusarium and Verticillium wilt of tomato, pulse white and gray molds, brown rot and blight twig of peach, late blight and cyst of potato has been proved. They also can act as plant growth promoter. Key  morphological characteristics of  these ten species of Penicillium  is described in this paper. Most of these species are reported from Iran, thus identification and use of the efficient isolates of them can be suggested in management of plants diseases or in enhancement of plants growth programs. 

Mahya Rahimizadeh, Mehdi Sadravi,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (2-2017)

Rahimizadeh M. & Sadravi  M. 2016. Eight useful Aspergillus species. Plant Pathology Science 6(1): 22-32.

Aspergillus species are saprophytic fungi which can live on plant debris in the soil and water and also on some plant products, stored fruits and grains. They can be identified by studying the features of colonies, conidiophores, vesicles, phialids and conidia, on selective culture media. The biocontrol potential of some isolates of A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. piperis, A. repens, A. tamarii, A. terrus and A. tubingensis, against some plant diseases such as cocoa black pod, root galls and Fusarium root rot of tomato, Alternaria leaf spot, Fusarium dry rot, potato pink and soft rot of tubers has been proven. They also can act as plant growth promoter and aflatoxin reducer agent in seeds and nuts. Key morphological characteristics of these eight species of Aspergillus is described in this paper. Most of these species are reported from Iran, thus identification and application of their efficient isolates can be suggested in plant diseases management as well as the plant growth enhancement programs.

Abolghasem Hosseinzadeh, Mahdi Davari, Aziz Habibi-Yangjeh,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (9-2017)

Hoseinzadeh A., Davari M. and Habibi-Yangjeh A. 2017. Applications of nanomaterials in the fungal plant diseases management. Plant Pathology Science 6(2):68-77.

The use of nanotechnology in plant disease management has been seriously considered by researchers in recent years. Some of these reteaches have shown the antifungal effects of nano zinc oxide on Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum; nano copper oxide on Aspergillus flavus; silver nanocomposite compounds (SiO₂/Ag₂S) on Aspergillus niger; Fe₃O₄/ZnO/AgBr on Fusarium graminearum, F. oxysporum and Botrytis cinerea, and carbon nanomaterials on F. graminearum. Their antifungal mechanisms are including: degradation of lipid and protein, damage to cell membranes, water channels blocking by nanomaterials and loss of spore water and plasmolysis and the inhibition of growth or destruction of fungal hyphae and prevent the sporulation.

Malihe Erfani, Mahdi Davari,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (9-2018)

Erfani M. and Davari M. 2018. Protease inhibitors and their application against plant pathogens. Plant Pathology Science 7(2):60-72. DOI: 10.2982/PPS.7.2.60
 Proteases cleave the peptide bonds in proteins and in this way prevent protein activity by degrading them. Proteases are classified into four categories: serine proteases, cysteine proteases, aspartic proteases and metalloproteases. Plant pathogens utilize these vital molecules in plant infecting process. In the other hand, the activity of proteases is inhibited by protease inhibitors of plants. Serine is one of the protease inhibitors. The plants produce the materials inhibiting pathogenic proteases. These molecules are produced in plant cells during pathogenic microorganisms and viruses attack. Protease inhibitors are divided into several families based on sequence similarity and structure. Because the risk of pathogen resistance to this defense strategy is low, it seems these molecules could be use for biological control against plant pathogens.

Mousa Najafiniaya, Mehdi Azadvar,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2020)

Najafiniya M , Azadvar M (2020) Review of durable management of soil-borne plant pathogens. Plant Pathology Science 9(1):68-77. DOI: 10.2982/PPS.9.1.68.
Plant diseases play a critical and limiting role in crop production and their control by using pesticides cause serious problems regarding food safety and environmental health and increase the need for other sustainable disease management techniques. Some of plant pathogens may infect the aerial parts of plants, but spent part of their life cycle in the soil and maintained their survival. In such cases, part of the life cycle of the plant pathogen in soil may be very important, even if that microorganism does not infect the roots. Mono culturing and cultivation of crops belonging to the same family increase the potential of disease incidence. Using and applying the suitable and correct cultural practices that limit damage of root diseases is necessary for sustainable management of soil-borne pathogens. Cultural operations, including the use of cover green crops, crop rotation, organic composts, certified seeds and propagative materials, amended organic material to soil, proper tillage systems, soil solarization, resistant cultivars, mycorrhizal fungi, all are reported and confirmed as management options for long time saving soil quality and good sustainable management of soil borne diseases.

Soghra Ghasemi-Doodaran, Mahdi Davari,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (8-2020)

Ghasemi-Doodaran S, Davari M (2020) Fungal diseases of hazelnut in Iran. Plant Pathology Science 9(2):85-94. DOI: 10.2982/PPS.9.2.85.
Hazelnut tree has natural habitats in northwestern Iran in the forests of Ardabil and Gilan provinces. Decline disease is a threatening agent of hazelnut trees in these areas. Symptoms of the disease include weakness, reduced growth, leaf fall and dieback of the branches, branch and trunk canker and root rot that eventually lead to the gradual death or decline of the tree. In Iran the fungi cause hazelnut decline disease, Diaporthe amygdali, and Cytospora fuckelii as canker and Fusarium semitectum, F. lateritium, F. anthophilum and Armillaria mellea as root rot causative agents. This article describes symptoms of hazelnut decline in Iran, pathogenic fungi and management strategies.

Ali Rostami, Mehdi Sadravi, Mr Rasool Rezaee, Mohammad Abdollahi,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (8-2020)

Rostami A, Sadravi M, Rezaei R, Abdollahi M (2020) Biological control of Fusarium root rot of bean with two Trichoderma species and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Plant Pathology Science 9(2): 14-27.  Doi: 10.2982/PPS.9.2.14
Introduction: Fusarium root rot with damage reported up to 85% of the crop yield, caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli, is one of the most important bean diseases in the world. Biological control is a healthy and environmentally friendly way to manage this soil-borne disease. Materials and Methods: Bean farms in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province were visited and the rotten roots of diseased plants were sampled. Two isolates of the pathogen were isolated, purified and identified. The pathogenicity of these two isolates was tested on two bean varieties Drakhshan and Pak under greenhouse conditions. The colony growth inhibition rate of the hypervirulant isolate of the pathogen was assessed by 14 native isolates of Trichoderma harzianum, four isolates of Trichoderma virens, two isolates of Trichoderma atroviridae, and five native isolates of Pseudomonas florescens and P. florescens CHAO with hyperparasitic ability and production of antibiotics in vitro. Finally, the effect of four superior T. harzianum isolates, one T. atroviridae isolate and two P. florescens isolates on disease severity were examined in a completely randomized design in the greenhouse. Results: All isolates of three species of Trichoderma had the ability to hyperparasite and destroy pathogenic hyphae. Four T. harzianum isolates showed a more significant ability to produce non-volatile and volatile antibiotic materials. All treatments significantly reduced the disease severity, but a T. harzianum isolate was more effective in vivo. Conclusion: Fusarium root rot is also found in bean fields in southwestern Iran. Native isolates of T. harzianum, T. virens and T. atroviridae have the hyperparasitic ability on the pathogen. These fungi and isolates of P. florescens have the ability to inhibit the growth of the pathogen colony by producing antibiotic substances. Isolates of Trichoderma harzianum, T. atroviridae and P. florescens CHAO have the ability to reduce the severity of the disease in vivo.

Mrs. Mahsa Samiee, Mahdi Davari,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (8-2020)

Samiee M, Davari M (2020) Important diseases of turf in Iran. Plant Pathology Science 9(2):119-128.        DOI: 10.2982/PPS.9.2.119.

Turf grass is the most important grown plant in urban green space, which functions such as temperature adjustment, increase in relative humidity, air softness and dust absorption. Fungal and fungal-like diseases are the most common lawn diseases in Iran, affecting this plant at all stages of growth, causing its decline. Pythium, Fusarium, Microdochium, Rhizoctonia, Bipolaris, Pyricularia and Colletotrichum species are known as damping-off, root and crown rot, leaf spot and anthracnose pathogens of lawns in Iran. The symptoms of these diseases, the morphological characteristics of pathogens and the methods for their management are described.

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