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Showing 9 results for Fungus

Mehdi Sadravi,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (3-2012)
Abstract

Arbuscularfungi are root symbiontsof 80% of plants, such as most field crops and fruit trees. They establish in root tissue, arbuscule in endodermis cells, and an extramatrical fine hyphal net. These fungi byincreasing absorption of water and nutrient elements for plants, making changes in chemical constituents of plant tissues, competition with pathogens for nutrients and establishment site, structural changes in roots, alleviation of environmental stresses, and increasing population of useful bacteria in soil, help management of diseases caused by fungi, fungal like organisms, nematodes, bacteria, phytoplasmas and physiological disorders. Collection, identification, purification, propagation, and inoculation of these useful fungi to plants, can decrease usage of chemical fertilizers and pesticides that are harmful to consumers of agricultural products as well as to the environment
Mehdi Nasresfahani, Ghazaleh Kaseb, Shaban Shafizadeh,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (3-2012)
Abstract

The Pepper (Capsicum annuum) is one of the important field crops in the worlds, which its cultivation has been developed, because of its food value and consumptions. But, there are certain diseases, which limited the growth and productivity, out of which the fungal diseases are of high severity. Thus, for this very purpose, a survey was conducted in the pepper growing areas including field and glass houses for fungal diseases identification in Isfahan provinces. The infected pepper plants were collected in the plastic bages and transferred, into the lab. The macro and microscopic studies indicated that there are severed fungal diseases infecting the pepper plant on the areal parts, including Powdery mildews, Downy mildews, Sclerotinia stem rot, early blight and Botrytis molds. Except the Downy and Powdery mildews being obligate parasite, which cannot be cultured the rest were culture from the margin in the infected parts, where the disease were under development on PDA for purification and identifications through tip culture. The results revealed that, there are several fungal species involving including Peronosporatabacina for Downy mildew, Levielullatauricafor Powdery mildew, Early blight, Alternariaalteanataand A. solani, fruit rot, Botrytis cinerea and stem rot due to Sclerotiniasclerotiorum from areal parts.
Mehdi Sadravi,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (3-2013)
Abstract

Powdery mildew fungi are important obligate parasites of plants. They produce white cover on aerial parts of host plants, which then turn to yellow. The diseased plant becomes yellow and then wilted result in reducing quality as well as quantity of products in field and vegetable crops and also fruit trees. Among all of the control measures against powdery mildew, the most common method is application of the chemical fungicides, after disease incidence. Regarding to the hazards of agrochemicals and also considering the probability of incidence of resistant races of the pathogen, the biological control is considered as a safe and useful method for controlling the disease. The fungi Ampelomyces quisqualis, Pseudozyma flocculosa and Lecanicillium longisporum the bacterium Bacillus subtilis the mite Tydeus lambi and twenty-spotted lady beetle Psyllobora vigintimaculata , have been used effectively against the powdery mildew of cucumber, squash, tomato, pepper, grape and rose. Some of these biological agents have been introduced to the market, commercially.
Azim Ghasemnejad , Aminallah Bagherifard, Saeid Nasrallahnejad, Abbas Bagheri Najafabad,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (3-2014)
Abstract

Most of the symbiotic fungi can improve the growth of the host plants by increasing in water and nutrients absorption. Among the symbiotic fungi, Piriformospora indica or Piri have a good potential in symbiotic relation with plants and well known for its effect on host plants by increasing adventitious roots and growth stimulation in above and below ground parts of the plants. The effects of this fungus on vegetative growth of some medicinal plants and accumulation of the secondary metabolites have been discussed.
Vahid Ghazi-Mohseni, Seyed Kazem Sabbagh, Sedigheh Esmaili Bahabadi,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (3-2015)
Abstract

Ghazi-Mohseni V., Sabbagh S. K. & Esmaili Bahabadi S. 2015. Application of chitosan in plant diseases management. Plant Pathology Science 4(1):54-63. Chitosan is a biodegradable natural compound derived from the bark of crabs and shrimp which have antimicrobial role against fungi and bacteria. Chitosan has directly effects on morphology of treated pathogens which reflect its fungistatical and fungicidal activity. It has been shown that chitosan increases production of glucanohydrolase, phenolic compounds and specific phytoalexin synthesis with antifungal activity and reduces enzymes such as polygalacturonase, pectin methyl-esterase that related to soft rot . In addition, chitosan can develop structural barriers via lignin synthesis. Therefore chitosan is considered as a new non-toxic biological material, inducer resistance of plants against diseases.
Ali Baradar, Roohallah Saberi Riseh, Ebrahim Sedaghati, Abdolreza Akhgar,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (3-2015)
Abstract

Baradar  A., Saberi Riseh  R., Sedaghati  E. & Akhgar A. 2015. Mycorrhiza helper bacteria. Plant  Pathology  Science 4(1):46-53.

Mycorrhizal fungi increase water and nutrient elements absorption to the plant and plant provide carbohydrates for the fungus and this is beneficial for both parties . Many plants need to these fungi for absorption some mineral elements and resistance to environmental stresses such as drought, soil contamination to heavy metals such as lead, zinc and cadmium. Some soil borne bacteria have been identified as third part of the mycorrhiza, which cause improving the performance of this symbiotic relationship, and have been named as mycorrhiza helper bacteria.
— mehdi Sadravi, Farzaneh Talaei,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (3-2015)
Abstract

Sadravi M. and Talaei F. 2015. Methods of mass production of inoculum of endomycorrhizal fungi. Plant Pathology Science 4(1):13-22. 
 Endomycorrhizae or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, play an important role in the life of field crops, flower and fruit gardens and vegetables. They increase nutrient uptake and yield of plants and resistance to soil-borne pathogens of plants as well. As these beneficial fungi, are obligate root symbiotic, mass production of their inoculum is only possible on the living tissue of root. The first method for this purpose was pot culturing, then the hydroponic, aeroponic and root organ culture have been devised. Methods and factors affecting the mass production of these beneficial fungi are described and discussed here.

Zeinab Sharafi , Mehdi Sadravi,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (3-2015)
Abstract

Sharafi Z. & Sadravi M. 2015. Ten seed borne pathogenic fungi. Plant Pathology Science 4(1):34-45. 
Most crops are propagated by seed. A large number of pathogenic fungi can transmitted by seed and cause epidemy of destructive plant diseases. Treatment of seeds has been shown to prevent plant disease epidemics caused by seedborne fungal pathogens. In this paper, morphological characteristics of ten pathogenic fungi belong to the genera, Alternaria, Aspergillus and Bipolaris, which can decay or reduce the germination of seeds or cause the brown leaf spot disease of cereals, has been described.

Mahsa Abadkhah, Davoud Koolivand,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (9-2018)
Abstract

Abadkhah M. and Koolivand D. 2018. The biosensors and their application in plant pathology. Plant Pathology Science 7(2):47-59. DOI:10.2982/PPS.7.2.47
 
 Preventing plant disease damage requires the use of new, powerful, simple and portable tools to quickly diagnose pathogens. Today, biosensor technology  known as a powerful tool for evaluating conventional methods in agricultural sciences. Sensitivity, selectivity and portability of biosensors made it possible to develop them as special tools for rapid analysis of compounds in samples with low concentration. Biosensors have three main components, biological element, transducer and readout system. The most important application of biosensors in plant pathology is rapid detection of plant pathogens, in order to reduce the use of expensive and environmentally-damaging chemicals. This article introduces different types of biosensors and their applications in plant pathology.


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