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Vahid Ghazi-Mohseni, Seyed Kazem Sabbagh, Sedigheh Esmaili Bahabadi,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (3-2015)

Ghazi-Mohseni V., Sabbagh S. K. & Esmaili Bahabadi S. 2015. Application of chitosan in plant diseases management. Plant Pathology Science 4(1):54-63. Chitosan is a biodegradable natural compound derived from the bark of crabs and shrimp which have antimicrobial role against fungi and bacteria. Chitosan has directly effects on morphology of treated pathogens which reflect its fungistatical and fungicidal activity. It has been shown that chitosan increases production of glucanohydrolase, phenolic compounds and specific phytoalexin synthesis with antifungal activity and reduces enzymes such as polygalacturonase, pectin methyl-esterase that related to soft rot . In addition, chitosan can develop structural barriers via lignin synthesis. Therefore chitosan is considered as a new non-toxic biological material, inducer resistance of plants against diseases.
Rasool Rezaei,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (3-2015)

Rezaei R. 2015. Pathogenicity and virulence factors of plant pathogenic bacteria. Plant Pathology Science 4(1):23-33.
 Plant pathogenic bacteria have evolved specialized strategies to infect their hosts. In this regard, the key virulence factors are effector proteins, cell wall degrading enzymes, toxins, extracellular polysaccharides and phytohormones. The interactions between plant pathogenic bacteria and their hosts have resulted in an evolutionary system between host defense responses and pathogen virulence factors. Pathogenic bacteria are continually under pressure to diversify their mechanisms to prevent host defenses and optimize nutrient availability. In turn, these virulence mechanisms have shaped the evolution of plant innate immunity. In this paper, the pathogenicity and virulence factors of plant pathogenic bacteria are discussed.

Malihe Erfani, Mahdi Davari,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (9-2018)

Erfani M. and Davari M. 2018. Protease inhibitors and their application against plant pathogens. Plant Pathology Science 7(2):60-72. DOI: 10.2982/PPS.7.2.60
 Proteases cleave the peptide bonds in proteins and in this way prevent protein activity by degrading them. Proteases are classified into four categories: serine proteases, cysteine proteases, aspartic proteases and metalloproteases. Plant pathogens utilize these vital molecules in plant infecting process. In the other hand, the activity of proteases is inhibited by protease inhibitors of plants. Serine is one of the protease inhibitors. The plants produce the materials inhibiting pathogenic proteases. These molecules are produced in plant cells during pathogenic microorganisms and viruses attack. Protease inhibitors are divided into several families based on sequence similarity and structure. Because the risk of pathogen resistance to this defense strategy is low, it seems these molecules could be use for biological control against plant pathogens.

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