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Showing 2 results for Effector

Rasool Rezaei,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (3-2015)

Rezaei R. 2015. Pathogenicity and virulence factors of plant pathogenic bacteria. Plant Pathology Science 4(1):23-33.
 Plant pathogenic bacteria have evolved specialized strategies to infect their hosts. In this regard, the key virulence factors are effector proteins, cell wall degrading enzymes, toxins, extracellular polysaccharides and phytohormones. The interactions between plant pathogenic bacteria and their hosts have resulted in an evolutionary system between host defense responses and pathogen virulence factors. Pathogenic bacteria are continually under pressure to diversify their mechanisms to prevent host defenses and optimize nutrient availability. In turn, these virulence mechanisms have shaped the evolution of plant innate immunity. In this paper, the pathogenicity and virulence factors of plant pathogenic bacteria are discussed.

Leila Sadeghi, Salar Jamali,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (8-2016)

Sadeghi  L. & Jamali  S. 2016. Molecular plants defense mechanisms against nematodes. Plant Pathology Science 5(2):90-100.

Plant  parasitic  nematodes can devastate a wide range of  crop  plants. They are obligate parasites and have evolved compatible parasitic relationship with their host plants to obtain nutrients that are necessary to support their development and reproduction. Suppression of host defense is a key step for pathogenesis in the compatible interaction. Plant defense response is activated from the moment a nematode penetrates the plant root. Stylet and secretions of esophageal glands play central roles at during invasion to host, migration inside the roots and establishment of feeding site on host cells. New findings demonstrate that secretions of esophageal  glands of  some  nematodes as  effectors deliver  into the apoplast and cytoplasm of host cells to active plant defense responses in resistant host. Molecular  plants defense mechanisms against nematodes described in this paper.

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