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Showing 6 results for Charehgani

Habiballah Charehgani,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (2-2016)

Charehgani H. 2016. Application of microarray technology in plant nematology. Plant Pathology Science 5(1):76-89.

During a compatible interaction, root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) induce the root cells dedifferentiation into multinucleate feeding cells, known as giant cells. Hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the cells surrounding the head of nematode lead to the formation of a root gall. Different studies showed that the transformation of root cells into hypertrophied feeding structures, with unique morphology and functions, require some changes in the expression of a large number of genes. Previous approaches, based on differential gene expression between healthy and infected plants, analyses of known candidate genes by promoter GUS fusion or in situ hybridization and promoter trap strategies, have resulted in the characterization of about 50 genes of plant that are up regulated and 10 genes that are down regulated in giant cells. Microarray technology makes it possible to generate large-scale information about patterns of gene expression during plant–nematode interactions. A DNA microarray is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface. Each DNA spot contains 10−12 moles of a specific DNA sequence, which are known as probes. These can be a short section of a gene or other DNA element that are used to hybridize a cDNA or cRNA sample that called as target. Probe-target hybridization is usually detected by detection of fluorophore or silver labeled targets.

Ehsan Fatemi , Habiballah Charehgani,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (3-2018)

Fatemi E. and Charehgani H. 2018. Root lesion nematode Pratylenchus thornei. Plant Pathology Science 7(1):28-39.

Root lesion nematodes are one of the most important and fatal plant parasites. They often move between soil and host plants roots, during all stages of their life. Root lesion nematodes migrate and feed within the roots, therefore they cause necrotic lesions on the surface and throughout the cortex of infected roots. Their attack to the root can result stunting of plant root system as well as reduction in plants growth and eventually host kill. Different management methods such as the planting of resistant genotypes, crop rotation, fallow periods and use of biological control agents are successfully practiced against these nematodes. In this paper a brief discussion of economic damages, importance, taxonomy, biology and symptoms of Pratylenchus thornei attack and the most efficient management methods are presented.

Habiballah Charehgani,
Volume 9, Issue 2 ((Spring and Summer) 2020)

Charehgani H (2020) Effect of wood vinegar, humic acid and Effective Microorganisms against Meloidogyne javanica on tomato. Plant Pathology Science 9(2):73-84.                DOI: 10.2982/PPS.9.2.73.
Introduction: Root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica is the most economically important plant-parasitic nematode worldwide. Because of the environmental hazards of chemical nematicides used to control this nematode, there is an urgent need to replace these nematicides with alternative compounds that are environmentally friendly. Material and methods: An experiment was conducted to control M. javanica infestation on tomato plants (cv. Early-Urbana) using wood vinegar at the rates of 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 percent (v/v), Effective Microorganisms (EM®) at the rates of 5, 10 and 15 percent (v/v), humic acid at the rates of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 percent (v/v) and tervigo (positive control) at the rate of 0.4 percent (v/v), in greenhouse. Results: EM® at the highest concentration (15%) was the most effective organic compound which reduced the nematode indices. Shoot length, shoot fresh weight and shoot dry weight increased by 41, 28 and 36%, respectively. The number of eggs, galls, egg masses per root system and reproduction factor were decreased by 58, 48, 49 and 57% in treated tomato with EM® at the rate of 15%, compared to control (non-treated) plants, respectively. Conclusion: The organic compounds used in the present study are effective to control M. javanica on tomato under greenhouse conditions.

Somayeh Vahabi, Habiballah Charehgani, Mohammad Abdollahi, Rasool Rezaei,
Volume 10, Issue 2 ((Spring and Summer) 2021)

Vahabi S, Charehgani H, Abdollahi M, Rezaei R (2021) Response of eight melon cultivars to Meloidogyne javanica. Plant Pathology Science 10(2):65-73.       Doi: 10.2982/PPS.10.2.65.
 Introduction: The Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are one of the most damaging plant pathogens with a wide host range and cause major losses to agricultural crops. The use of resistant cultivars is considered a safe, economical, and effective method to control these nematodes. Materials and Methods: In the present study, eight melon cultivars namely Ahlam, 105, Tracey, Ronak, Deltagrin, Mac, Holar, and Veno were evaluated for their response to M. javanica. The seeds were planted in 2 kg pots and maintained under natural conditions in Khormuj city, Bushehr province. Seedlings at the four-leaf stage were inoculated with 5000 eggs and second-stage juveniles. The factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with five replicates. Sixty days after nematode inoculation, the plants were harvested and the plant growth and nematode population indices were evaluated. Results: The results showed that the nematode reproduction factor was significantly lower in Ronak, Deltagrin, and Veno than in the other cultivars. No significant difference was observed in shoot fresh weight of nematode inoculated and non-inoculated plants of Ronak cultivar. Conclusion: Ronak, Delta-green and Veno cultivars are less susceptible to M. javanica.
Morteza Bavand, Mehdi Sadravi, Habiballah Charehgani,
Volume 12, Issue 2 ((Spring and Summer) 2023)

Bavand, M., Sadravi, M., & Charehgani, H. (2023). Screening of fifteen tomato varieties for resistance to early blight disease. Plant Pathology Science 12(2),1-10. 
 Introduction: Early blight caused by Alternaria species is one of the major tomato diseases worldwide, causing losses of up to 86% of yield. Identifying and cultivating resistant varieties is the best method for disease management. Considering the prevalence and importance of diseases in Iran, this study was conducted to identify resistant cultivars among 15 available varieties. Materials and Methods: In Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad province in southwestern Iran, a severely affected tomato field by the disease was visited and samples of the diseased plants were taken. The pathogenic fungus was isolated on potato dextrose agar medium from the diseased tissues of the plant after their surface disinfection and after its purification by the single spore method and its morphological properties were examined and measured. The collected data were compared with the descriptions of Alternaria species and based on that, the pathogen was identified. Seedlings of 15 tomato varieties were inoculated with a conidia suspension at the 4-leaf stage in a completely randomized statistical design and maintained in a growth chamber with a temperature of 28oC, relative humidity of 90%, and a photoperiod of 16 hours of light and eight hours of darkness. Eighteen days after inoculation, the response of each cultivar to the disease was determined by calculating the percentage of infected leaves as well as the number and size of spots, and the disease index. Results: Alternaria alternata has been identified as the cause of early blight in tomatoes in this region. Varieties 10552, King Stone, Super Chief and Ventero with minimal symptoms were scored as resistant; 4129, 3725, 4224, Retino, Aras, Flat 111 and Super Pooya as semi-resistant and 7806, Early Pooya, 11057 and CH Pooya were known to be susceptible to the disease. Conclusion: Cultivation of resistant or semi-resistant varieties can be recommended for disease control. The occurrence of tomato blight disease caused by A. alternata is reporting here for the first time from the region.


Fatemeh Heidari, Habiballah Charehgani, Mohammad Abdollahi, Ebrahim Adhami,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (9-2023)

The pinto bean with a considerable amount of protein plays a key role in human life. Plant parasitic nematodes are known to attack pinto bean plants worldwide. Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne species) causes extensive damage to legume fields annually. The use of chemical fertilizers leads to instability in agricultural systems and endangers human health. The use of organic fertilizers can be a suitable alternative. The present study examined the effects of different concentrations of pigeon and poultry manures on M. javanica-infected pinto bean under greenhouse conditions. Poultry and pigeon manures were individually mixed with steam-sterilized soil at three different concentrations [1, 2, and 3% (w/w)] and the soil was poured into the 1.5 kg plastic pot. Pinto bean seeds were sown in pots and the seedlings were watered until the end of the test and fertilized as needed. Seedlings at the four-leaf stage were inoculated with 4000 eggs of M. javanica. The plants were harvested after 60 days and plant growth indices and nematode population indices were determined. The experiment was conducted in completely randomized design tests with five repetitions. The results showed that application of 2% poultry manure was the best treatment that increased shoot length, fresh and dry shoot weight, and fresh root weight in nematode-infected plants. In addition, this amount of poultry manure resulted in a reduction in the number of galls, egg mass and eggs in the root system, the number of second stage juveniles in the soil and the reproductive factor compared to the untreated inoculated control. The results of this study showed that under greenhouse conditions, the effect of poultry manure in reducing nematode damage to pinto beans was greater than that of pigeon manure.


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