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Farzaneh Talaei, Mehdi Sadravi, Ebrahim Adhami,
Volume 11, Issue 2 ((Spring and Summer) 2022)
Abstract

Talaei F, Sadravi M, Adhami E (2022) Correlation between arbuscular mycorrhiza in wheat and physicochemical characteristics of soil. Plant Pathology Science 11(2):32-41.   Doi: 10.2982/PPS.11.2.32
 
Introduction: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in symbiosis with plant roots help to absorb more phosphorus, and increase the growth and development of plants. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between population and diversity of AMF, and physicochemical characteristics of soil in wheat fields of Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad province in southwestern Iran. Materials and Methods: Thirty wheat fields in this province, were visited near harvest time, and their rhizosphere and aerial organs were sampled. AMF spores were isolated by sieving the rhizosphere suspension in water and centrifuging in Sucrose solution. The spore population of these fungi was count. The percentage of root length colonization by these fungi was calculated in every sample. The morphological characteristics of the isolated spores were studied and the collected information was compared with the descriptions of AMF and the fungi present in each sample were identified. Texture, soil dispersion, soil and plant phosphorus content were determined and the correlation coefficient between AMF population and diversity with physical and chemical characteristics of soil and wheat plant were calculated. Results: Fifteen arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi belonging to nine genera: Acaulospora, Archaeospora, Entrophospora, Gigaspora, Claroideumglomus, Funeliformis, Rhizoglomus, Septoglomus and Scutellospora were identified. The diversity of these fungi in the samples was (2-)2.9(-5) and F. mosseae was dominant species with 90% relative frequency. The population of these fungi had a negative correlation with soil pH, but with soil soluble phosphorus and plant phosphorus content had a positive correlation. The diversity of these fungi had a positive correlation with soil soluble phosphorus. There was a positive correlation between the amount of sand in the soil and the root length colonization. Conclusion: AMF have a greater population and diversity in soils with light texture, less moisture along with low amounts of soluble phosphorus and organic matter. The positive correlation between the population of these fungi and plant phosphorus indicates their usefulness for the plant.

 
Fatemeh Heidari, Habiballah Charehgani, Mohammad Abdollahi, Ebrahim Adhami,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (9-2023)
Abstract

The pinto bean with a considerable amount of protein plays a key role in human life. Plant parasitic nematodes are known to attack pinto bean plants worldwide. Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne species) causes extensive damage to legume fields annually. The use of chemical fertilizers leads to instability in agricultural systems and endangers human health. The use of organic fertilizers can be a suitable alternative. The present study examined the effects of different concentrations of pigeon and poultry manures on M. javanica-infected pinto bean under greenhouse conditions. Poultry and pigeon manures were individually mixed with steam-sterilized soil at three different concentrations [1, 2, and 3% (w/w)] and the soil was poured into the 1.5 kg plastic pot. Pinto bean seeds were sown in pots and the seedlings were watered until the end of the test and fertilized as needed. Seedlings at the four-leaf stage were inoculated with 4000 eggs of M. javanica. The plants were harvested after 60 days and plant growth indices and nematode population indices were determined. The experiment was conducted in completely randomized design tests with five repetitions. The results showed that application of 2% poultry manure was the best treatment that increased shoot length, fresh and dry shoot weight, and fresh root weight in nematode-infected plants. In addition, this amount of poultry manure resulted in a reduction in the number of galls, egg mass and eggs in the root system, the number of second stage juveniles in the soil and the reproductive factor compared to the untreated inoculated control. The results of this study showed that under greenhouse conditions, the effect of poultry manure in reducing nematode damage to pinto beans was greater than that of pigeon manure.

 

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