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Showing 7 results for Penicillium

Mehdi Sadravi,
year 1, Issue 1 (3-2012)

Arbuscularfungi are root symbiontsof 80% of plants, such as most field crops and fruit trees. They establish in root tissue, arbuscule in endodermis cells, and an extramatrical fine hyphal net. These fungi byincreasing absorption of water and nutrient elements for plants, making changes in chemical constituents of plant tissues, competition with pathogens for nutrients and establishment site, structural changes in roots, alleviation of environmental stresses, and increasing population of useful bacteria in soil, help management of diseases caused by fungi, fungal like organisms, nematodes, bacteria, phytoplasmas and physiological disorders. Collection, identification, purification, propagation, and inoculation of these useful fungi to plants, can decrease usage of chemical fertilizers and pesticides that are harmful to consumers of agricultural products as well as to the environment
Mehdi Sadravi, Mahya Rahimizadeh,
year 5, Issue 1 (3-2016)

Sadravi  M. & Rahimizadeh  M. 2016. Ten  useful  Penicillium species. Plant Pathology Science 5(1):1-13.

Penicillium species have saprophytic live on plants debris, in the soil and also on some plant products, fresh and juicy damaged fruits as well as the storage fruit and grains.  They can characterized by studying the features of their colony, conidiophores, phialids  and conidia on selective culture media. The ability of some isolates of P. aurantiogriseumP. bilaiae, P. chrysogenum, P. citrinum, P. funiculosus, P. glabrum, P. griseofulvumP. oxalicum, P. purpurogenum and P. simplicissimum to control plants diseases such as Fusarium and Verticillium wilt of tomato, pulse white and gray molds, brown rot and blight twig of peach, late blight and cyst of potato has been proved. They also can act as plant growth promoter. Key  morphological characteristics of  these ten species of Penicillium  is described in this paper. Most of these species are reported from Iran, thus identification and use of the efficient isolates of them can be suggested in management of plants diseases or in enhancement of plants growth programs. 

Amir Ramzani, Dr Safarali Mahdian,
year 5, Issue 1 (3-2016)

Ramezani A.  &  Mahdian S. A. 2016. Biological control of post-harvest citrus diseases. Plant Pathology Science 5(1):14-25.

Post- harvest rot of citrus fruits is one of the most important limiting factors that reduce the life of harvested products and are one of the most important economical diseases in world’s citrus production areas. Two most important fungi that affect the citrus fruits, are green and blue molds which are produced by Penicillium digitatum and P. italicum, respectively. The disease are mainly managed by using the synthetic fungicides, but because of environmental hazards and appearance of resistant strains of the pathogen, the biological control by the use of bacterial, fungal and yeast antagonists can be suggested. The efficiency of yeasts such as Candida guilliermondii, C. saitoan, Pichia guilliermondi and Aureobasidium pullulans; the bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus subtilis, Pantoea agglomerans and the fungus Muscodor albus, in controlling the green and blue molds of citrus is reported so far. In this paper, we tried to explain the method of biological control with emphasizing on the identification of useful microorganisms and their operation. 

Abolghasem Hosseinzadeh, Mahdi Davari, Aziz Habibi-Yangjeh,
year 6, Issue 2 (9-2017)

Hoseinzadeh A., Davari M. and Habibi-Yangjeh A. 2017. Applications of nanomaterials in the fungal plant diseases management. Plant Pathology Science 6(2):68-77.

The use of nanotechnology in plant disease management has been seriously considered by researchers in recent years. Some of these reteaches have shown the antifungal effects of nano zinc oxide on Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum; nano copper oxide on Aspergillus flavus; silver nanocomposite compounds (SiO₂/Ag₂S) on Aspergillus niger; Fe₃O₄/ZnO/AgBr on Fusarium graminearum, F. oxysporum and Botrytis cinerea, and carbon nanomaterials on F. graminearum. Their antifungal mechanisms are including: degradation of lipid and protein, damage to cell membranes, water channels blocking by nanomaterials and loss of spore water and plasmolysis and the inhibition of growth or destruction of fungal hyphae and prevent the sporulation.

Musa Mohammadi, Ahmad Hosseini, Ebrahim Sedaghati , Samin Hosseini,
year 7, Issue 1 (3-2018)

Mohammadi  M., Hosseini A., Sedaghati E. and Hosseini S. 2018. Mycoviruses  application in biocontrol of fugal pathogens. Plant Pathology Science 7(1):51-62.

Mycoviruses or fungal parasitic viruses have dsDNA, dsRNA or ssRNA genome. Some of these viruses have a restricted host range and can infect certain strains of host species. In contrast, some other viruses have wider host range and can infect different species of a fungal family. In most cases these viruses are transmitted by anastomosis of mycelium. In a phenomenon called hypovirulence, most of these viruses decrease the virulence of their host fungus. Discovery of  hypovirulence revealed the biocontrol ability of mycoviruses. In summary, mycoviruses could be implemented as powerful agents for biocontrol of fungal pathogens and induction of resistance in plants.
Banafsheh Safaiefarahani, Reza Mostowfizadeh-Ghalamfarsa,
year 8, Issue 1 (3-2019)

Safaei-Farahani B. and Mostowfizade-Ghalamfarsa R. 2019. Fungal plant disease management by natural essential oils. Plant Pathology Science 8(1):24-37.
DOI: 10.2982/PPS.8.1.24.

 Essential oils are hydrophobic, volatile and aromatic compounds that have been used as fragrances and flavors for a long time. Recent studies have shown that some plant essential oils have fungicidal effects against some important plant pathogens. For instance, the essential oil of thyme inhibits the mycelial growth of Penicillium italicum and the essential oil of lavender shows the fungistatic effect on ‎ Botrytis cinerea, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger. The essential oil of thyme has also been used to control the black rot of orange caused by Alternaria citri and grey mold of strawberry fruits caused by Botrytis cinerea. Antifungal activities of essential oils are mainly related to their effects on fungal cell wall, cell membrane, mitochondria and nitric oxide level. As a result of increased concern about harmful chemical pesticides, essential oils can have a good place in the market as natural fungicides. In this paper, application of essential oils as natural fungicides, their mode of actions and some safety aspects of their application have been discussed.

Vahideh Rafiei, Zia Banihashemi,
year 8, Issue 2 (9-2019)

Rafiei V and Banihashemi Z (2019) Fungi in desert areas of Yazd province. Plant Pathology Science 8(2):110-121. DOI:10.2982/PPS.8.2.110.
Introduction: The Fungi which are able to grow at the temperatures above 40 degrees Celsius are known as thermophilic fungi. So far, no study has been carried out on fungi in desert areas of Iran so the present study was aimed to isolate and identify the fungi in desert areas of Yazd province. Materials and Methods: Four desert regions of Yazd province were visited and samples were taken from soil and plant roots. The fungi were isolated by soil dilution method and were cultured on potato-agar extract medium. Genus and species of fungi were identified by valid identification keys. Results: Eighteen fungi from eight genera vs. Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Ulocladium, Stemphylium, Paecilomyces, Rhizopus and Fusarium were identified in this study. Conclusion: The species of Penicillium and Aspergillus were the most abundant species in desert soils of this province. All fungi identified in this study are reported for the first time from Iranian desert soils.

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