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Showing 14 results for SADRAVI

Mehdi SADRAVI,
year 1, Issue 1 (3-2012)
Abstract

Arbuscularfungi are root symbiontsof 80% of plants, such as most field crops and fruit trees. They establish in root tissue, arbuscule in endodermis cells, and an extramatrical fine hyphal net. These fungi byincreasing absorption of water and nutrient elements for plants, making changes in chemical constituents of plant tissues, competition with pathogens for nutrients and establishment site, structural changes in roots, alleviation of environmental stresses, and increasing population of useful bacteria in soil, help management of diseases caused by fungi, fungal like organisms, nematodes, bacteria, phytoplasmas and physiological disorders. Collection, identification, purification, propagation, and inoculation of these useful fungi to plants, can decrease usage of chemical fertilizers and pesticides that are harmful to consumers of agricultural products as well as to the environment
Mehdi SADRAVI,
year 1, Issue 2 (9-2012)
Abstract

Genetic engineering has begun about 160 years ago with discover inheritance laws of biological traits, isolation and purification of DNA from inner cell, replication and propagation of its pieces with polymerase chain reaction in vitro, identification and purification favorable genes and transfer them with Agrobacterium  tumefaciens bacterium, or directly to plants cell, by gene gun, and produce whole transgenic  plant, from gene modified cell with tissue culture methods innovation and fully developed in recent 4 decades. With this technology transfering  favorable genes, without accompaniment with  unwanted genes, into plants is possible, and resistance transgenic plants to fungal, bacterial, viral and nematodes, and tolerant to environmental stress produced. Genetic engineering has created hope for better plants diseases management and increase agricultural production to meet food needs of a growing human population.


Mehdi SADRAVI,
year 2, Issue 1 (3-2013)
Abstract

Powdery mildew fungi are important obligate parasites of plants. They produce white cover on aerial parts of host plants, which then turn to yellow. The diseased plant becomes yellow and then wilted result in reducing quality as well as quantity of products in field and vegetable crops and also fruit trees. Among all of the control measures against powdery mildew, the most common method is application of the chemical fungicides, after disease incidence. Regarding to the hazards of agrochemicals and also considering the probability of incidence of resistant races of the pathogen, the biological control is considered as a safe and useful method for controlling the disease. The fungi Ampelomyces quisqualis, Pseudozyma flocculosa and Lecanicillium longisporum the bacterium Bacillus subtilis the mite Tydeus lambi and twenty-spotted lady beetle Psyllobora vigintimaculata , have been used effectively against the powdery mildew of cucumber, squash, tomato, pepper, grape and rose. Some of these biological agents have been introduced to the market, commercially.
Mehdi SADRAVI, Ghaem Kheradmand Motlagh,
year 2, Issue 2 (9-2013)
Abstract

Nanotechnology is the science of identification, production and use of materials at nanometer (10-9 m) scale. Regarding to application of this technology in plant pathology, this technology provides power to organize producing biological nanosensors for rapid detection of pathogens, production of nano silver and nano silica-silver to control bacteria and fungi, and the preparation of pesticides as nano capsules, at molecular level. Metal nanoparticles, the inhibitor of plant pathogens are derived from some fungi, bacteria and some plants including sunflower, alfalfa, Indian mustard, magnolia and Japanese persimmon.
Mehdi SADRAVI, Najmeh Gharacheh,
year 2, Issue 2 (9-2013)
Abstract

Contamination of the soil in limited arable areas with toxic substances has increased during recent decades. Phytoremediation is a technology in which plants are applied to remove, degrade or reduce the hazardous effects of toxic substances in the soil. Symbiotic fungi in symbiosis relation with plant roots efficiently increase the plants ability to remove the toxic substances from contaminated soils. The ectomycorrhizal fungus Hebeloma mesophaeum which is in symbiosis with norway spruce, beech, alder, willow and pussy, can uptake the heavy metals of soil and disable them in its hartig net in the root epidermis. It helps plants to maintain optimal growth and establish in contaminated soil. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Funneliformis mosseae, Claroideoglomus etunicatum, Septoglomus deserticola, Glomus versiforme and G. intraradices help to deploy for optimal growth, and more absorption of nutrients in contaminated soils to cadmium, lead, zinc, arsenic and petroleum in maize, soybean, clover, subterranean clover, tomato and eucalyptus. These fungi can fix and disable these elements and pollutants in intraradical hyphal net. Accordingly, mycorrhizal fungi are powerful biological restoratives in contaminated lands.
Mehdi SADRAVI,
year 3, Issue 1 (3-2014)
Abstract

Yellow rust is a major disease of wheat in Iran. Airborne spores fungal pathogen are the primary source of contamination. Temperature, humidity, wind intensity and direction, reaction of growing cultivars to the disease, presence of wheat in summer, planting time and nutritional status of wheat are effective factors in epidemy of the disease. The importance of the disease in the world, symptoms of the disease , effective factors in disease spread, forecasting model and its administrative procedures, and suitable fungicides to control the disease have been described .
Mehdi SADRAVI, Marzie Tavakoli,
year 3, Issue 2 (9-2014)
Abstract

Downy mildew, caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis, is the most important disease of cucumber production in humid areas and greenhouses in Iran. The yield loss of cucumber due to downy mildew may reach to 100%. Because the chemical control is the main method of disease control, especially in susceptible cultivars, establishing a forecasting program which is based on estimation of pathogen population, recording the temperature and relative humidity of field and greenhouse, can reduce the risk of disease epidemic. So by proper application of a protective or systemic fungicide can reduce the disease incidence, production costs and the most important, the amount of fungicide residue.
— mehdi SADRAVI, Farzaneh Talaei,
year 4, Issue 1 (3-2015)
Abstract

Sadravi M. and Talaei F. 2015. Methods of mass production of inoculum of endomycorrhizal fungi. Plant Pathology Science 4(1):13-22. 
 Endomycorrhizae or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, play an important role in the life of field crops, flower and fruit gardens and vegetables. They increase nutrient uptake and yield of plants and resistance to soil-borne pathogens of plants as well. As these beneficial fungi, are obligate root symbiotic, mass production of their inoculum is only possible on the living tissue of root. The first method for this purpose was pot culturing, then the hydroponic, aeroponic and root organ culture have been devised. Methods and factors affecting the mass production of these beneficial fungi are described and discussed here.

Zeinab Sharafi , Mehdi SADRAVI,
year 4, Issue 1 (3-2015)
Abstract

Sharafi Z. & Sadravi M. 2015. Ten seed borne pathogenic fungi. Plant Pathology Science 4(1):34-45. 
Most crops are propagated by seed. A large number of pathogenic fungi can transmitted by seed and cause epidemy of destructive plant diseases. Treatment of seeds has been shown to prevent plant disease epidemics caused by seedborne fungal pathogens. In this paper, morphological characteristics of ten pathogenic fungi belong to the genera, Alternaria, Aspergillus and Bipolaris, which can decay or reduce the germination of seeds or cause the brown leaf spot disease of cereals, has been described.

Najmeh Gharacheh , Mehdi SADRAVI,
year 4, Issue 2 (9-2015)
Abstract

Gharacheh N. & Sadravi  M. 2015. Five important fungal diseases of  pulse crops in Iran. Plant Pathology Science 4(2):17-25. 

Bean, pea, lentil, vetch and broad bean grains are rich in protein.  Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad (a province in the southwest Iran) is one of the cultivation area of the pulses. In this province, five important fungal diseases included Fusarium wilt, Fusarium root rot, Ascochyta blight, Alternaria blight, and charcoal rot, are common on these plants. Symptoms of these diseases, key morphological characteristics of the pathogens and their distribution areas in Iran and the world is described.

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Mehdi SADRAVI, Mahya Rahimizadeh,
year 5, Issue 1 (3-2016)
Abstract

Sadravi  M. & Rahimizadeh  M. 2016. Ten  useful  Penicillium species. Plant Pathology Science 5(1):1-13.

Penicillium species have saprophytic live on plants debris, in the soil and also on some plant products, fresh and juicy damaged fruits as well as the storage fruit and grains.  They can characterized by studying the features of their colony, conidiophores, phialids  and conidia on selective culture media. The ability of some isolates of P. aurantiogriseumP. bilaiae, P. chrysogenum, P. citrinum, P. funiculosus, P. glabrum, P. griseofulvumP. oxalicum, P. purpurogenum and P. simplicissimum to control plants diseases such as Fusarium and Verticillium wilt of tomato, pulse white and gray molds, brown rot and blight twig of peach, late blight and cyst of potato has been proved. They also can act as plant growth promoter. Key  morphological characteristics of  these ten species of Penicillium  is described in this paper. Most of these species are reported from Iran, thus identification and use of the efficient isolates of them can be suggested in management of plants diseases or in enhancement of plants growth programs. 


Mahya Rahimizadeh, Mehdi SADRAVI,
year 6, Issue 1 (3-2017)
Abstract

Rahimizadeh M. & Sadravi  M. 2016. Eight useful Aspergillus species. Plant Pathology Science 6(1): 22-32.

Aspergillus species are saprophytic fungi which can live on plant debris in the soil and water and also on some plant products, stored fruits and grains. They can be identified by studying the features of colonies, conidiophores, vesicles, phialids and conidia, on selective culture media. The biocontrol potential of some isolates of A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. piperis, A. repens, A. tamarii, A. terrus and A. tubingensis, against some plant diseases such as cocoa black pod, root galls and Fusarium root rot of tomato, Alternaria leaf spot, Fusarium dry rot, potato pink and soft rot of tubers has been proven. They also can act as plant growth promoter and aflatoxin reducer agent in seeds and nuts. Key morphological characteristics of these eight species of Aspergillus is described in this paper. Most of these species are reported from Iran, thus identification and application of their efficient isolates can be suggested in plant diseases management as well as the plant growth enhancement programs.


Najmeh Moradi, Mehdi SADRAVI,
year 6, Issue 2 (9-2017)
Abstract

Sadravi  M.  & Moradi N. 2017. Four important oak trees diseases in Iran. Plant Pathology Science 6(2):14-23.

Zagros Mountains in the west of Iran and some areas in the north of Iran are covered by oak trees. Four important diseases of Iranian oak trees are charcoal rot, chestnut blight, sudden death and powdery mildew. The symptoms of these diseases and the characteristics of pathogens as well as their prevalence are described in this article. Some strategies for protecting the oak trees from these diseases are also proposed here.


Aida Ahmadizadeh Esfahani, Mehdi SADRAVI, Sholeh Kazemi,
year 8, Issue 2 (9-2019)
Abstract

Ahmadizadeh Esfahani A, Sadravi M and Kazem S (2019) Effect of nano-chitosan on early blight disease of tomato. Plant Pathology Science 8(2):102-109.
DOI: 10.2982/PPS.8.2.102.
Introduction: Early blight caused by Alternaria species is one of the most important tomato diseases in the world. The disease has been reported from most areas in Iran with up to 90% infection. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of nano-chitosan on the severity of the ‎disease and its use as a replacement‎ of the chemical fungicide, chlorothalonil. Materials and Methods: Diseased tomato plants of fields and greenhouses of Fars province in southern Iran were sampled. Pathogens were isolated from diseased tissues, purified and identified by studying their morphological characteristics. The effect of nano-chitosan at three concentrations of three, five and seven grams per liter and the fungicide chlorothalonil were tested before and after inoculation of two pathogens. The disease severity indexes were measures in Sunseed and 16 cultivars of tomato under greenhouse conditions using a factorial experimental in completely randomized design with four replications. The data were analyzed with comparing the means. Results: The isolated pathogens were identified as A. solani and A. alternata. Results of the greenhouse experiment showed that A. solani was more aggressive than A. alternata and the cultivar 16 was more resistant to the disease. Nano-chitosan at 5 and 7 mg/ l significantly reduced disease severity indexes when use before pathogen inoculation, and at 7 mg/l when use after pathogen inoculation. Conclusion: Nano-chitosan can be used as a bio-fungicide to replace chlorothalonil as a chemical fungicide for disease management.


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