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Showing 15 results for Nematode

Abbas Salahi Ardakani, Seied Abbas Hoseininejad,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (3-2012)

In order to control plant parasitic nematodes, in spite of chemical costs, some may have residue in yield, some kill the natural enemies of nematodes, and many of them may pollute the environment. Based on research carried out by oil, seed kernel extract and powder, and meal of neem, complete bead-tree seed extract and powder, yarrow aerial parts extract and powder, can cause mortality of these onstage juveniles of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. The effect of these plants materials on the nematode mortality compared with control and showed statistically significant difference at the level of 1%. Application of these plants materials maybe reduces of chemical pesticides and risks of their using.

Mehdi Sadravi,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (3-2012)

Arbuscularfungi are root symbiontsof 80% of plants, such as most field crops and fruit trees. They establish in root tissue, arbuscule in endodermis cells, and an extramatrical fine hyphal net. These fungi byincreasing absorption of water and nutrient elements for plants, making changes in chemical constituents of plant tissues, competition with pathogens for nutrients and establishment site, structural changes in roots, alleviation of environmental stresses, and increasing population of useful bacteria in soil, help management of diseases caused by fungi, fungal like organisms, nematodes, bacteria, phytoplasmas and physiological disorders. Collection, identification, purification, propagation, and inoculation of these useful fungi to plants, can decrease usage of chemical fertilizers and pesticides that are harmful to consumers of agricultural products as well as to the environment
Mohammad Abdollahi,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (3-2013)

Most nematodes are free-living. They live in oceans, fresh waters and soil and feed on bacteria, fungi and other nematodes. Some are predators and some are parasites of plants and animals. Some of the latter group are insect-associated. There are different types of relations between insects and nematodes. Beneficial nematodes that cause disease in insects are referred to as “entomopathogenic” and have the ability to kill the insects. Entomopathogenic nematodes from the genera Stein‌ernema and Heterorhabditis have proven to be the most effective as biological control organisms. Only the infective juvenile stage of entomopathogenic nematodes will survive in the soil, find and penetrate insect pests. In this paper, different types of association between nematode and insect with emphazing on entomopathogenic nematode species have been reviewed.
Mohammad Abdollahi, Negin Akramipoor,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (9-2014)

Plant-parasitic nematodes are one of the most important pests worldwide and cause considerable economic loss to many of agricultural products. Some of soil inhabited nematodes are affected by some of antagonistic bacteria, so they can be used in biological control. Nematodes can be affected by bacteria in different ways such as direct suppression, promotion of plant growth, and facilitation of rhizosphere colonization. In overall, regarding to effect of soil inhabits bacteria on nematodes they can be classified as toxin producing, antibiotic producing and enzyme producing as well as plant growth promoting groups. Based on the recent researches, bacteria are divided to six groups including: parasitic bacteria (nematophagous bacteria), opportunistic parasitic bacteria, rhizobacteria, endophytic bacteria, symbionts of entomopathogenic nematodes and cry protein-forming bacteria. Combination of bacteria with some other antagonistic microorganisms was successful in control of plant parasitic nematodes.
Zahra Tanha Maafi, Ramin Heidari,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (9-2015)

Tanha Maafi  Z. & Heidari R. 2015. Review on incidence of soybean cyst nematode in Iran. Plant Pathology Science 4(2):1-16.

Soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, is widespread in major soybean producing countries and is considered as the most suppressed agent of soybean yield in the world. This nematode was reported from northern Iran in 1999 for the first time. Presently SCN is widely distributed in Golestan and Mazandaran provinces and infestation rate is a remarkable showing broad range of infestation. In most fields, the population density is above the damage threshold level reported for this nematode in the literatures. The HG Type 0 (race 3) has been defined as the dominant type in the region and Katoul (DPX) is the only resistant cultivar to this type of SCN in Iran. Importance of soybean cyst nematode, distribution and severity of infection, nematode morphology, symptoms, race/Hg Type, life cycle, reaction of Iranian cultivars against the dominant SCN Hg Type in Iran, and its management, based on the researches conducted in Iran and in the world are presented in this paper.

Habiballah Charehgani,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (2-2016)

Charehgani H. 2016. Application of microarray technology in plant nematology. Plant Pathology Science 5(1):76-89.

During a compatible interaction, root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) induce the root cells dedifferentiation into multinucleate feeding cells, known as giant cells. Hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the cells surrounding the head of nematode lead to the formation of a root gall. Different studies showed that the transformation of root cells into hypertrophied feeding structures, with unique morphology and functions, require some changes in the expression of a large number of genes. Previous approaches, based on differential gene expression between healthy and infected plants, analyses of known candidate genes by promoter GUS fusion or in situ hybridization and promoter trap strategies, have resulted in the characterization of about 50 genes of plant that are up regulated and 10 genes that are down regulated in giant cells. Microarray technology makes it possible to generate large-scale information about patterns of gene expression during plant–nematode interactions. A DNA microarray is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface. Each DNA spot contains 10−12 moles of a specific DNA sequence, which are known as probes. These can be a short section of a gene or other DNA element that are used to hybridize a cDNA or cRNA sample that called as target. Probe-target hybridization is usually detected by detection of fluorophore or silver labeled targets.

Leila Sadeghi, Salar Jamali,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (8-2016)

Sadeghi  L. & Jamali  S. 2016. Molecular plants defense mechanisms against nematodes. Plant Pathology Science 5(2):90-100.

Plant  parasitic  nematodes can devastate a wide range of  crop  plants. They are obligate parasites and have evolved compatible parasitic relationship with their host plants to obtain nutrients that are necessary to support their development and reproduction. Suppression of host defense is a key step for pathogenesis in the compatible interaction. Plant defense response is activated from the moment a nematode penetrates the plant root. Stylet and secretions of esophageal glands play central roles at during invasion to host, migration inside the roots and establishment of feeding site on host cells. New findings demonstrate that secretions of esophageal  glands of  some  nematodes as  effectors deliver  into the apoplast and cytoplasm of host cells to active plant defense responses in resistant host. Molecular  plants defense mechanisms against nematodes described in this paper.

Elmira Abootorabi,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (2-2017)

Abootorabi E. 2017. Four marigold species as control agents of root knot nematodes. Plant Pathology Science 6(1):68-79.

The Root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are major limiting factors in growing many agricultural crops. With the aim of producing a healthy crop, cultivation of some plants with allelopathic effects on nematodes is one of the most effective control measure against root knot nematodes. This method can be used as an excellent substitute of chemical treatment. Marigolds (Tagetes spp.) are herbaceous plants of family Astraceae with more than 50 species, can be used as ornamental cover crops. Nematicidal effects of marigolds on several nematodes had been proved. Marigolds produce alpha-terthienyl enzyme, which can control root-knot nematodes and other pests and pathogens such as fungi, bacteria and insects. It also has positive role in promoting growth of bedding plants. In this article, important marigold species including Tagetes tenuiifolia Cav., T. minuta L., T. patula L. and T. erecta L., have been introduced.

Ehsan Fatemi , Habiballah Charehgani,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (3-2018)

Fatemi E. and Charehgani H. 2018. Root lesion nematode Pratylenchus thornei. Plant Pathology Science 7(1):28-39.

Root lesion nematodes are one of the most important and fatal plant parasites. They often move between soil and host plants roots, during all stages of their life. Root lesion nematodes migrate and feed within the roots, therefore they cause necrotic lesions on the surface and throughout the cortex of infected roots. Their attack to the root can result stunting of plant root system as well as reduction in plants growth and eventually host kill. Different management methods such as the planting of resistant genotypes, crop rotation, fallow periods and use of biological control agents are successfully practiced against these nematodes. In this paper a brief discussion of economic damages, importance, taxonomy, biology and symptoms of Pratylenchus thornei attack and the most efficient management methods are presented.

Zeinab Zolfaghari, Eadi Bazgir, Arezoo Naghavi,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2020)

Z, Bazgir E, Naghavi A (2020) Report of five species of plant parasitic nematodes associated with hawthorn forest trees in western Iran. Plant Pathology Science 9(1):15-29. DOI: 10.2982/PPS.9.1.15
Introduction: The Hoplolaimidae family is one of the largest and economically most important families of the order/ infraorder Tylenchida / Tylenchomorpha. The members of this family spread all over the world and can be found under different climatic conditions. Some species in this family are serious plant parasites and significantly reduce crop yields. Materials and Methods: In the forests of Khorramabad city in western Iran 70 samples were collected from the soil around the roots of hawthorn trees in the period of 2017-2019. After recording the properties of each sample, they were transferred to a laboratory and cooled at 4 °C. The nematodes were extracted from the soil using the tray method, then fixed and transferred to pure glycerin, and permanent slides were made. The morphological and morphometric properties of the nematodes were examined using a light microscope equipped with a Dino Capture camera. The nematode species were identified using scientific identification keys. Results: Five species of plant parasitic nematodes belonging to two genera of Hoplolaimidae were identified in this study, including Rotylenchus goodeyi, Helicotylenchus canadensis, H. digonicus, H. vulgaris and H. tunisiensis. Conclusion: R. goodeyi is reporting as a new record for the nematode fauna of Iran. Morphometrical and morphological characteristics of these nemadodes are described here.

Habiballah Charehgani,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (8-2020)

Charehgani H (2020) Effect of wood vinegar, humic acid and Effective Microorganisms against Meloidogyne javanica on tomato. Plant Pathology Science 9(2):73-84.                DOI: 10.2982/PPS.9.2.73.
Introduction: Root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica is the most economically important plant-parasitic nematode worldwide. Because of the environmental hazards of chemical nematicides used to control this nematode, there is an urgent need to replace these nematicides with alternative compounds that are environmentally friendly. Material and methods: An experiment was conducted to control M. javanica infestation on tomato plants (cv. Early-Urbana) using wood vinegar at the rates of 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 percent (v/v), Effective Microorganisms (EM®) at the rates of 5, 10 and 15 percent (v/v), humic acid at the rates of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 percent (v/v) and tervigo (positive control) at the rate of 0.4 percent (v/v), in greenhouse. Results: EM® at the highest concentration (15%) was the most effective organic compound which reduced the nematode indices. Shoot length, shoot fresh weight and shoot dry weight increased by 41, 28 and 36%, respectively. The number of eggs, galls, egg masses per root system and reproduction factor were decreased by 58, 48, 49 and 57% in treated tomato with EM® at the rate of 15%, compared to control (non-treated) plants, respectively. Conclusion: The organic compounds used in the present study are effective to control M. javanica on tomato under greenhouse conditions.

Shalaleh Moslehi, Negin Eskandarzadeh, Nahid Vaez,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (2-2021)

Moslehi SH, Eskandarzadeh N, Vaez N (2021) Inhibitory effects of aquatic extracts of Datura stramonium, D. metel and Hyoscyamus niger on Meloidogyne javanica. Plant Pathology Science 10(1):27-41.    Doi: 10.2982/PPS.10.1.27.
Introduction: Root-knot nematodes are one of the most important groups of plant parasitic nematodes in terms of economic damage to agricultural products. Biological control is one of the most environmentally friendly methods for management of nematodes. Material and Methods: The effects of aqueous extracts of jimsonweed  (Datura stramonium), metel (Datura metel) and henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) was evaluated against Meloidogyne javanica on cucumber, under greenhouse condition, in this study. Cucumber plants were inoculated with suspension of eggs and second stage juveniles of nematode. After a week, 1.66% concentration of each plant extract were irrigated in the pots. Plants were harvested after 45 days and some plant growth parameters and nematode reproductive parameters were recorded. Results: The extract of any of the plants did not affect the number of knots on the roots and per gram of the roots. However, number of egg- masses per root and gram of root, treatments including nematodes and extracts had fewer masses compared to treatments without plant extracts. Final population and reproductive factor had also lower values in treatments with plant extract compared to treatments without it. In addition, the plant extracts had no negative effect on the growth factors of the cucumber in the greenhouse. Conclusion: The extracts of Datura stramonium, Datura metel and Hyoscyamus niger reduced the reproduction of nematodes respectively, therefore they can be considered as potential agents in biological control of root-knot nematodes.

Saeid Imani, Mohammad Reza Moosavi, Rasoul Zare, Tahere Basirnia,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (9-2021)

Imani S, Moosavi SMR, Zare R, Basirnia T (2021) Optimum substrate and carrier for Purpureocillium lilacinum and its effectiveness against Meloidogyne javanica on tomato. Plant Pathology Science 10(2):50-64.  Doi: 10.2982/PPS.10.2.50.
Introduction: The soil-borne root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) causes heavy losses in tomato plants every year. Their management by chemical nematicides is difficult, expensive, and may also kill soil beneficial microorganisms, so other safer methods should be used to replace them. Purpureocillium lilacinum is an important biological control agent against root-knot and cyst nematodes. This study was carried out to determine the appropriate substrate and carrier of this fungus and its effect on these nematodes in tomatoes. Material and Methods: P. lilacinum was propagated in vitro on seeds of millet, corn, alfalfa, and clover substrates and their spore production was assessed 10, 20, and 30 days after inoculation. The survival of the fungal spores was then examined in talc, kaolin, and corn cob powder as carriers for 12 months. The effect of the fungus in the mentioned carriers against Meloidogyne javanica on tomato was investigated in the greenhouse by means of a completely randomized design experiment. Results: The highest number of spores in one gram of substrate was produced on millet seed on day 30. The highest number of survived spores was detected in the corncob powder carrier at all 12 months of the experiment. The fungus on corn cob powder was able to control M. javanica to 95% was similar to the nematicide Flopyram. This formulation also had a superior effect in establishing the fungus in the rhizosphere and on roots, suppressing the growth parameters of nematode and increasing plant growth. Conclusion: The fungus reproduced well on millet seeds and could last longer if formulated on corn cobs powder. Therefore, corn cobs powder can be a suitable base to produce an effective powdered product against M. javanica.

Somayeh Vahabi, Habiballah Charehgani, Mohammad Abdollahi, Rasool Rezaei,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (9-2021)

Vahabi S, Charehgani H, Abdollahi M, Rezaei R (2021) Response of eight melon cultivars to Meloidogyne javanica. Plant Pathology Science 10(2):65-73.       Doi: 10.2982/PPS.10.2.65.
 Introduction: The Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are one of the most damaging plant pathogens with a wide host range and cause major losses to agricultural crops. The use of resistant cultivars is considered a safe, economical, and effective method to control these nematodes. Materials and Methods: In the present study, eight melon cultivars namely Ahlam, 105, Tracey, Ronak, Deltagrin, Mac, Holar, and Veno were evaluated for their response to M. javanica. The seeds were planted in 2 kg pots and maintained under natural conditions in Khormuj city, Bushehr province. Seedlings at the four-leaf stage were inoculated with 5000 eggs and second-stage juveniles. The factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with five replicates. Sixty days after nematode inoculation, the plants were harvested and the plant growth and nematode population indices were evaluated. Results: The results showed that the nematode reproduction factor was significantly lower in Ronak, Deltagrin, and Veno than in the other cultivars. No significant difference was observed in shoot fresh weight of nematode inoculated and non-inoculated plants of Ronak cultivar. Conclusion: Ronak, Delta-green and Veno cultivars are less susceptible to M. javanica.
Farzad Moradi, Hojatolah Mazaheri-Laghab, Leila Kashi, Seid Saied Mosavi,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (9-2022)

Moradi F, Mazaheri-laghab H, Kashi L, Moosavi SS (2022) Impact of raw and pure saponins of six alfalfa ecotypes on Ditylenchus dipsaci egg hatching. Plant Pathology Science 11(2):61-72.    Doi: 10.2982/PPS.11.2.61
Introduction: The stem and bulb nematode, Ditylenchus dipsaci, is an important and damaging pathogen in a number of agricultural and ornamental plants, including alfalfa. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of raw and pure saponins of six alfalfa ecotypes on the hatching of this nematode's eggs in order to find a biological method for its management. Materials and Methods: The effect of raw and pure saponins of six alfalfa ecotypes on the hatching of stem nematode eggs was investigated in a completely randomized factorial design with two factors of alfalfa ecotypes (six ecotypes) and their saponins (raw and pure) in vitro. Results: Analysis of variance showed that the interaction effect between two factors, ecotype and saponin, is statistically significant. At concentrations of 50 and 90 microliters of crude saponin from different ecotypes, 30-42% and 33-59% of the nematode eggs did not hatch, respectively. The Nishaburi ecotypes caused the most and the Shiraz and Khrisari polycross caused the least number of egg hatching. Concentrations of 10 and 50 microliters of pure saponin resulted in between 56 and 69% and 61 and 79% of total nematode eggs failing to hatch, respectively. The local ecotypes Miandoab and Nishaburi had the highest and Shiraz Polycross the lowest number of egg hatches. Conclusion: Pure saponins of alfalfa ecotypes have a greater effect on nematode egg hatching than raw saponins. Saponins of Shiraz Polycross alfalfa ecotype have a better effect than other ecotypes.


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