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Showing 11 results for Management

Mohaddeseh Zal, Reza Mostowfizadeh-Ghalamfarsa,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (3-2014)

Development of human civilization is closely associated with agricultural crops. The major threat to crops posed by fungal diseases results in the use by growers of enormous amounts of chemicals. Fungicides are compounds, which are toxic to fungi. These materials have been applied for a long time to reduce losses and increase the quality and yield of the agricultural products. Today in addition to improving the quality and quantity of agricultural products and protecting plants by fungicides, the fungicide resistance problem must also be considered. The appearance of resistance has an important factor in limiting the efficacy and useful lifetime of fungicides. In general, systemic fungicides have been associated with resistance problems to a much greater extent than have non-systemic (protectant) fungicides. However, there are some exceptions. This paper discusses the resistance mechanisms to fungicides of some phytopathogenic fungi (e.g. altered target site, reduced uptake of fungicide, removal, detoxification or metabolism of fungicide) at the molecular level and describes methods used in the molecular detection of fungal resistance (e.g. RFLP-PCR, and allele specific real-time PCR) to fungicides.
Zahra Tanha Maafi, Ramin Heidari,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (9-2015)

Tanha Maafi  Z. & Heidari R. 2015. Review on incidence of soybean cyst nematode in Iran. Plant Pathology Science 4(2):1-16.

Soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, is widespread in major soybean producing countries and is considered as the most suppressed agent of soybean yield in the world. This nematode was reported from northern Iran in 1999 for the first time. Presently SCN is widely distributed in Golestan and Mazandaran provinces and infestation rate is a remarkable showing broad range of infestation. In most fields, the population density is above the damage threshold level reported for this nematode in the literatures. The HG Type 0 (race 3) has been defined as the dominant type in the region and Katoul (DPX) is the only resistant cultivar to this type of SCN in Iran. Importance of soybean cyst nematode, distribution and severity of infection, nematode morphology, symptoms, race/Hg Type, life cycle, reaction of Iranian cultivars against the dominant SCN Hg Type in Iran, and its management, based on the researches conducted in Iran and in the world are presented in this paper.

Kaivan Karimi, Asadollah Babai-Ahari, Mahdi Arzanlou,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (9-2015)

Karimi K., Babai-Ahari A. & Arzanlou M. 2015. Strawberry anthracnose disease. Plant Pathology Science 4(2):26-40.

Anthracnose disease is one of the most destructive diseases of strawberry which caused by Colletotrichum acutatum, C. gloeosporioides and C. fragariaeC. acutatum and C. gloeosporioides species complexes possess wider host range. According to the latest multi-gene phylogenetic evaluation, different strains of the causal agent of strawberry anthracnose disease which have been collected from different regions of the world, belong to these two species and are divided into several clusters, related to cryptic species. Despite infecting various parts of the plant, C. acutatum is mostly responsible for fruit rot and in comparison with two other species, causes crown rot and is more prevalent and destructive. Dispersal of pathogen inoculums mainly takes place by rain splash and sprinkler irrigation as well as by movement of human beings and animals. Integrated management of this disease is mainly achieved through cultural, chemical, biological and the use of resistant cultivars. Giving the importance of strawberry anthracnose disease in terms of damage rate and its recent incidence in many strawberry growing areas in Iran, different aspects of the disease, including diagnosis of the causal agent, biology and efficient management methods are discussed in the present review.


Mousa Najafiniya,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (2-2016)

Najafiniya M. 2016. Management of citrus die-back disease. Plant Pathology Science 5(1):26-36.

Citrus trees are very important plants with high economic value and significant cultivation area in south of Iran. During the recent years, citrus die-back disease caused by Neofusicoccum mangiferae became one of the main treats for citrus production in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Iran. The symptoms of die- back disease are including wilting and declining of branches which start from the tip and then develop to down part of the trunk of infected tree, which sometimes has longitudinal cracks with gum exudation. Cortical layers of infected branches are sloughing off and the mass of fungal spores can be observe easily. Based on some investigations, pathogen is inactive during the winter months and its activity starts from spring and terminates at the end of summer season. The disease is more sever when it occurs in the orchards with poor disease management as well as water and nutrient deficiency. Some cultural practices like a well-managed irrigation and enough fertilizing with no pruning during the summer months, are good disease control measures, which in this paper are discussed.

Seyyed Taha Dadrezaei, Mohammed Torabi,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (8-2016)

Dadrezaei S. D. & Torabi M. 2016. Management of wheat rusts. Plant Pathology Science 5(2):81-89.

Wheat is the most important crop in the world and rust diseases cause the most damage to wheat all over the years. There are so many ways to control the disease that the use of resistant cultivars is the most effective and economic way for disease control. Rust has high pathogenicity diversity and evolutionary aptitude. On the other hand, migration and mutation leads to the emergence of non-native races of rusts in a region so virulent pathotypes with the new structures and violence on resistance genes in commercial resistant cultivars were incidence and cause disease in resistant varieties and spread in the wheat fields. Development of effective and sustainable control methods against plant diseases is very much dependent on our knowledge of the disease in our country. This paper introduces wheat important rusts diseases and explains Factors affecting the prevalence, distribution, and relation of air currents in the transmission of rusts and strategies for monitoring and management of rusts in the country.

Somayeh Mousavi, Mahdi Arzanlou,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (8-2016)

Mousavi S. & Arzanlou M. 2016. Cercospora leaf spot disease of sugar beet. Plant Pathology Science 5(2):13-22.

Cercospora leaf spot disease is one of the most important foliar diseases of sugar beet. Over one third of the sugar beet cultivation areas of the world has been affected by this disease. Cercospora beticola is the causal agent of this disease and a high level of interspecific variation of its morphology and genetics has been reported. Disease management is mainly achieved by a combination of cultural practices, cultivation of resistant varieties and application of fungicides. Due to the economic importance of the disease in Iran, some of the different aspects of Cercospora leaf spot disease, including the introduction of disease as well as the biology of the fungus, disease cycle and the efficient measures of disease management, has been reviewed in this paper.

Zabihollah Azami-Sardooei , Abdolrahman Mirzaei , Farnaz Fekrat ,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (2-2017)

Nowadays, control of plant pathogens and weeds is more difficult and expensive than in the past. In last decades, due to adoption of inappropriate management methods and excessive use of agrochemicals, the soil fauna and flora threatened. Accordingly, many of ecologists and plant pathologists tried to find some alternative methods of pest and pathogen control. Soil solarization is of these approaches that is widely used against soil pathogens. This is an ecofriendly and safe as well as low cost and efficient method which can be used to control the plant pathogens, pests and weeds. As a part of integrated pest management program, this approach applies the ecological principles to protect the environment and reduce the hazards of pesticides. In this review, we have described the history and benefits of soil solarization and also the principles of this method

Morteza Golmohammadi , Sayyid Najme Banihashemian ,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (9-2017)

Golmohammadi, M. & Banihashemian S. N. 2017. Management  method of citrus  blast disease. Plant Pathology Science 6(2):1-13.

Citrus bacterial blast is reported from many parts of citrus growing areas of world. It is one of the most important diseases of citrus in north of Iran, but its damage is different because of year-to-year climate variability. The disease is caused by two species of Pseudomonas. In those years that air humidity and temperature are suitable, these bacterial species can cause serious damage to citrus trees. The main symptom of citrus blast disease is wilting and dieback of branches. Some practices for management of this disease are illustrated in this article.

Maryam Hatamabadi Farahani,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (3-2019)

Hatamabadi-Farahani M. 2019. Root knot disease of pomegranate. Plant Pathology Science 8(1):38-49. DOI:10.2982/PPS.8.1.38.
 Pomegranate is an important fruit crop which is attacked by several pests and pathogens. Diseases caused by nematodes are of economic importance. The root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) causing considerable yield losses in pomegranate.  Root knot nematodes are sedentary endoparasite that are basically parasites of the roots, produces knots on root which cause weak root function in the absorption and transfer of water and nutrient. Above ground symptoms include dwarfing the plants, yellowing and reduction of foliage, falling leaves and yield losses. Under favorable temperature and moisture, eggs are hatching and second stage pathogenic juveniles are released. The management strategies are including sanitation, construction of nursery in healthy areas, annual plowing of garden, drip irrigation, soil solarization, organic amendment of soil and strengthen the trees.

Noorallah Hassanpour, Mehdi Arzanlou,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (9-2019)

Hasanpour N and Arzanlou M (2019) Ash dieback disease. Plant Pathology Science 8(2):70-76. DOI:10.2982/PPS.8.2.70
Ash tree is an important symbol of the urban green space in the world, which is also used in the construction of home and sport equipment. Ash dieback disease caused by Hymenoscyphus fraxineus is widespread in the most forests and green areas of the European countries. The disease was first observed in Poland and Lithuania in the early 1990s. The geographical spread of the pathogen has increased in the last two decades and so it is now is considered as a serious threat to the Ash trees. Initial infection is caused by ascospores released from apothecia formed on the previous year's leaves dropped. Disease management can be achieved by prevention and quarantine methods, sanitation, identification and cultivation of resistant cultivars and the use of chemical fungicides. The disease has not been reported from Iran so far, however, the possibility of entering the disease in the future is unclear. Therefore in this article we discuss the various aspects related to this disease including symptoms, pathologic biology, and management methods.

Fariba Ghaderi,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (8-2020)

Ghaderi F (2020) Glume blotch disease of wheat. Plant Pathology Science 9(2):108-118.         DOI: 10.2982/PPS.9.2.108.
Glume blotch caused by the fungus Parastagonospora nodorum is an important disease of bread and durum wheat. The disease reduces the quantity and quality of wheat product. Disease history, pathogen morphology, and disease management methods, including crop rotation, plowing, post-harvest collection of plant debris , weed control, healthy seed culture or seed disinfection with a systemic fungicide, and cultivation of resistant cultivars are described.

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