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Showing 10 results for Gene

Mehdi Sadravi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (9-2012)

Genetic engineering has begun about 160 years ago with discover inheritance laws of biological traits, isolation and purification of DNA from inner cell, replication and propagation of its pieces with polymerase chain reaction in vitro, identification and purification favorable genes and transfer them with Agrobacterium  tumefaciens bacterium, or directly to plants cell, by gene gun, and produce whole transgenic  plant, from gene modified cell with tissue culture methods innovation and fully developed in recent 4 decades. With this technology transfering  favorable genes, without accompaniment with  unwanted genes, into plants is possible, and resistance transgenic plants to fungal, bacterial, viral and nematodes, and tolerant to environmental stress produced. Genetic engineering has created hope for better plants diseases management and increase agricultural production to meet food needs of a growing human population.

Banafshe Safaie Farahani , Reza Mostowfizadeh-Ghalamfarsa,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (3-2013)

DNA microarrays technology is a method for studying the gene expression in large scale, based on investigations of probes and targets hybridization. This technology can also be used for identification of different organisms. DNA microarrays are a set of probes linked to a solid phase as microscopic spots. After hybridization of targets to probes, hybridization level is calculated by means of different methods such as measuring refulgence of fluorescent dyes to determine gene expression level. A microarray examination has different steps: making DNA chips, preparing targets, performing hybridization, and gathering and analyzing data. DNA microarrays technology can be used in different fields of plant pathology such as identification of different species of fungi, bacteria, nematodes and viruses, and to study plant-pathogen interaction.
Munes Bakhshi, Mehdi Arzanlou, Asadollah Babay-Ahari,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (3-2013)

Sexual reproduction of fungi is governed by the mating type (MAT) locus. Because two alternate forms (alleles) are completely dissimilar sequences and encoding different transcription factors, this locus is structurally unusual, yet they occupy the same chromosomal position. Genomic analyses facilitate the definition of MAT locus sequences in many species, so the knowledge of MAT locus structure and evolution has been significantly advanced in recent years. This important genomic feature has been studied most extensively in the largest phylum of the fungi, Ascomycota, which is the largest group of the plant pathogenic fungi. In this article we discuss the different aspects of mating type genes and their structure and organization in Ascomycota. Knowledge on the mating type genes may provide a great assistance to understanding the potential of phytopathogenic fungi for sexual cycle and consequently on genetic diversity in fungal populations. The proper data on sexual reproduction and genetic diversity of phytopathogenic fungi might be useful in different aspects of plant disease management.
Keivan Karimi, Mahdi Arzanlou, Fariba Mirabi,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (3-2015)

Karimi K., Arzanlou M. & Mirabi F. 2015. Barley scald disease. Plant Pathology Science 4(1):1-12. 
Barley is one of the world`s most widely consumed cereal. Rhynchosporium commune, the causal agent of barley leaf scald, is one of the most deleterious pathogens of barley which can cause up to 40% yield loss, under favorable conditions. Primary infection takes place by spores produced on infected plant debris. The secondary infection can be repeated by spore dispersal by rain and wind. Although the teleomorphic stage is unknown, high levels of genetic diversity have been observed within and between populations of this pathogen, attributed to some mechanisms such as gene flow, parasexual cycle and asexual recombination. The management of this disease is mainly achieved through cultural and chemical measures of control and use of resistant cultivars. In this paper, different aspects of pathogen symptoms, taxonomy and biology of pathogen, and management of disease are discussed.

Habiballah Charehgani,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (2-2016)

Charehgani H. 2016. Application of microarray technology in plant nematology. Plant Pathology Science 5(1):76-89.

During a compatible interaction, root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) induce the root cells dedifferentiation into multinucleate feeding cells, known as giant cells. Hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the cells surrounding the head of nematode lead to the formation of a root gall. Different studies showed that the transformation of root cells into hypertrophied feeding structures, with unique morphology and functions, require some changes in the expression of a large number of genes. Previous approaches, based on differential gene expression between healthy and infected plants, analyses of known candidate genes by promoter GUS fusion or in situ hybridization and promoter trap strategies, have resulted in the characterization of about 50 genes of plant that are up regulated and 10 genes that are down regulated in giant cells. Microarray technology makes it possible to generate large-scale information about patterns of gene expression during plant–nematode interactions. A DNA microarray is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface. Each DNA spot contains 10−12 moles of a specific DNA sequence, which are known as probes. These can be a short section of a gene or other DNA element that are used to hybridize a cDNA or cRNA sample that called as target. Probe-target hybridization is usually detected by detection of fluorophore or silver labeled targets.

Nadia Mosharaf, Saeid Tabein, Seyed Ali Akbar Behjatnia , Atena Safi,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2020)

Mosharaf N, Tabein S, Behjatnia SAA, Safi A (2019) Role of betasatellites in interaction of viruses with plants. Plant Pathology Science 9(1):78-90. DOI: 10.2982/PPS.9.1.78.
Betasatellites, as begomovirus-dependent small circular single-stranded DNAs, are multifunctional agents that trigger disease symptoms, suppress gene silencing pathways and also interact with various cellular pathways and factors. These subviral elements have a conserved genome organization that encodes only a functional open reading frame on the complementary sense strand βC1. The encoded beta satellite protein affects only the helper begomovirus cycle factor. The small size with a strong promoter sequence and the ability to replace βC1 with foreign genes made beta satellites suspected tools for the investigation of functional genes. As we expand our knowledge of begomovirus / beta satellite complexes and their interactions with host plants, we develop management approaches for the expansion of begomoviral destructive diseases.

Zahra Mohammadi, Farhad Nazarian-Firouzabadi, Ziba Nazari,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (8-2020)

Mohammadi Z, Nazarian-Firouzabadi F, Nazari Z (2020). The expression level of genes encoding LysM-RLKs of potato after stimulation with chitin. Plant Pathology Science 9(2):37-50.         DOI: 10.2982/PPS.9.2.37.
Introduction: Lysine motif receptor-like kinases (LysM-RLKs) play an important role in the defense reaction of plants to diseases and environmental stresses. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of chitin as a stimulus for the expression of genes that encode LysM-RLKs. Materials and Methods: The expression levels of three genes PGSC0003DMP400010799, PGSC0003DMP400010800 and PGSC0003DMP400061331, which encoded LysM-RLKs due to chitin treatment (150 μg / ml) in young seven-week potato leaves of Jely cultivar, were examined in treated and control leaves. Results: Analysis of the gene expression data showed that the expression of all three genes increased significantly due to the use of chitin compared to the control. Conclusion: Increasing the expression of genes encoding LysM-RLKs using chitin can be effective to induce systemic resistance to plant diseases and environmental stresses.

Shina Soleymani, Zahra Tahmasebi, Ali Asherf Mehrabi, Homayoun Kanouni,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (9-2021)

Soleymani SH, Tahmasebi Z, Asherf Mehrabi A, Kanouni M (2021). Agronomic traits of twenty-one resistant, semi-resistant and susceptible chickpea genotypes to blight disease. Plant Pathology Science 10(2): 82-92.  Doi: 10.2982/PPS.10.2.82.
Introduction: Blight caused by Ascochyta rabiei is the most destructive disease of chickpea worldwide. Identification of agronomic and morphological properties of disease-resistant cultivars is necessary to set up a suitable chickpea breeding program. Materials and Methods: Twelve agronomic and morphological properties of 21 resistant, semi-resistant, and susceptible chickpea genotypes were investigated in a field experiment in a randomized complete block design with six replications in one agronomic year in western Iran. Results: All genotypes were divided into three main clusters based on the UPGMA dendrogram. The lowest yielding genotypes were located in cluster II and IDDMAR-2012-32 genotype was susceptible to disease and desi-type in this cluster. The genotypes with the highest yield were placed in cluster III, and the genotype Gebres 419-2 was resistant to the disease and the desi-type in this cluster. Among the Kabuli-type genotypes, ILC482 was included in cluster III as a high-yielding and semi-disease-resistant cultivar, and low-yielding FLIp-02-65C and FLIp-01-164C lines along with disease resistance were included in cluster I. Conclusion: Gebres 419-2 can be crossed with FLIp-02-65C or FLIp-01-164C to produce robust, high-yielding Kabuli chickpea varieties with large seeds.

Fariba Ghaderi, Seyed Ali Asghar Hashemi,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (9-2022)

Ghaderi F, Hasehemi SAA (2022) Phytophthora citricola as the causal agent of persimmon root rot in Fars province of Iran. Plant Pathology Science 11(2): 1-10.  
Introduction: Phytophthora species are a serious threat to plant products worldwide. Therefore, identifying them is the first step in finding a way to treat the disease. The aim of this study was to identify Phytophthora species causing root and crown rot of persimmon trees in Fars province. Materials and methods: Samples were taken from the crowns and roots of diseased persimmon trees, in the summer of 2018-2019. Infected root and crown tissues were cultured in CMA-PARPH medium. Isolates of Phytophthora species were purified by single spore method and morphological and molecular characteristics were used to identify them. Results: Six isolates were obtained from the roots of diseased persimmon trees and identified as Phytophthora citricola based on their morphological characteristics. Phylogenetic studies based on beta-tubulin (βtub) and 28S rDNA genes showed that all isolates (Iran-Pc1 to Iran-Pc6) were grouped into clade 2 with a validation scale of 100 and confirmed the identification of P .citricola. Conclusion: This is a new report of persimmon root and crown rot caused by Phytophthora citricola in Fars Province.
Keywords: Beta-tubulin, Gene, Persimmon, Phytophthora, 28S rDNA

Saeedeh Dehghanpour Farashah,
Volume 12, Issue 2 (9-2023)

Dehghanpour Farashah S (2023) Defense responses by nitric oxide in plant-pathogen interaction. Plant Pathology Science 12(2):130-142.
The control of diseases in agriculture often relies on pesticides and chemical fertilizers, which negatively affect the rhizosphere natural microflora and ecosystem balance. Today, researchers are looking to replace these chemicals with other environment friendly agents to improve agricultural production and control plant pathogens. Research on the interaction of nitric oxide (NO) with plant pathogens has shown that NO is a key messenger in the response of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. Due to the role of NO in the regulation of plant defense genes, especially through programmed cell death, it has attracted the attention of many plant pathologists. Although NO plays an important role in the hypersensitive reaction in response to various biotic and abiotic stresses, it has been found that NO also plays a role in regulating the expression of genes related to non-specific resistance. In this review, the role of nitric oxide in plant-pathogens interaction has been investigated.

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