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Abolfazl Narmani, Mahdi Arzanlou,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (2-2017)

Narmani A. & Arzanlou M. 2017. Grapevine Esca disease. Plant Pathology Science 6(1): 12-21.

Esca is one of the most important and destructive diseases of grapevines worldwide, decreasing growth and yield in all stages of growth. Phaeoacremonium minimum is known as the main fungal species associated with disease, worldwide and its pathogenicity on grapevines have been documented by several studies in Iran. In the vineyards, infected plant material, soil and reproductive material are the main sources of inoculums. Pruning wounds are the main route for entrance of pathogen and infection. Seasonal and environmental factors such as stress and damage caused by freezing are effective on the symptom developed. Disease management strategies are mainly preventive with pruning and elimination of infected organs and treatment of pruning wounds with fungicides have been suggested.

Maryam Mirtalebi, Reza Mostowfizadeh-Ghalamfarsa,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (9-2017)

Mirtalebi M. & Mostowfizade-Ghalamfarsa R. Integrated management of gray mold disease. Plant Pathology Science 6(2):43-54.
Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea, is one of the most important postharvest diseases on fresh fruits and vegetables worldwide. The disease may start in the field and remain as a latent infection and then develop after harvest, during transportation, packaging, storage and marketing. Nowadays, application of fungicides is the main strategy to control the gray mold disease in conventional agriculture. The presence of fungicide residues in edible fruits and vegetables is a concern for consumers because pesticides are known to have potential harmful effects. Therefore, the search on finding the safe and effective disease control strategies has been accelerated. Integrated management of the disease by using some methods like optimal method of irrigation and fertilization, biological control, use of bioagents, disinfection of fresh fruits and vegetables after harvesting, storing and shipping in a cool and dry condition with low humidity and suitable ventilation are suggested.

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