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Banafsheh Safaiefarahani, Reza Mostowfizadeh-Ghalamfarsa,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (2-2017)

Safaiefarahani B. & Mostowfizadeh-Ghalamfarsa  R. 2017. Phytophthora spp. interspecific hybrids and their danger for agriculture. Plant Pathology Science 6(1): 33-46.

Interspecific hybridization is an important evolutionary process contributing to adaptation and speciation. During the last decade, advances in the molecular taxonomy techniques have led to increasing the number of descriptors interspecific hybrids in the genus Phytophthora. In Phytophthora hybrids, inheriting and recombining genes from both parents may result in increased aggressiveness and broader host range compared with either parent. Some Phytophthora natural hybrids have also been reported in Iran to date. Consequently, identification, pathogenicity and host range tests of these hybrids as well as preventing the formation of new hybrids before experiencing large economic losses are recommended for management of plant diseases caused by this fungal-like organisms.

Banafsheh Safaiefarahani, Reza Mostowfizadeh-Ghalamfarsa,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (3-2019)

Safaei-Farahani B. and Mostowfizade-Ghalamfarsa R. 2019. Fungal plant disease management by natural essential oils. Plant Pathology Science 8(1):24-37.
DOI: 10.2982/PPS.8.1.24.

 Essential oils are hydrophobic, volatile and aromatic compounds that have been used as fragrances and flavors for a long time. Recent studies have shown that some plant essential oils have fungicidal effects against some important plant pathogens. For instance, the essential oil of thyme inhibits the mycelial growth of Penicillium italicum and the essential oil of lavender shows the fungistatic effect on ‎ Botrytis cinerea, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger. The essential oil of thyme has also been used to control the black rot of orange caused by Alternaria citri and grey mold of strawberry fruits caused by Botrytis cinerea. Antifungal activities of essential oils are mainly related to their effects on fungal cell wall, cell membrane, mitochondria and nitric oxide level. As a result of increased concern about harmful chemical pesticides, essential oils can have a good place in the market as natural fungicides. In this paper, application of essential oils as natural fungicides, their mode of actions and some safety aspects of their application have been discussed.

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