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Showing 7 results for MOHAMMADI

Morteza Golmohammadi , Sayyid Najme Banihashemian ,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (9-2017)

Golmohammadi, M. & Banihashemian S. N. 2017. Management  method of citrus  blast disease. Plant Pathology Science 6(2):1-13.

Citrus bacterial blast is reported from many parts of citrus growing areas of world. It is one of the most important diseases of citrus in north of Iran, but its damage is different because of year-to-year climate variability. The disease is caused by two species of Pseudomonas. In those years that air humidity and temperature are suitable, these bacterial species can cause serious damage to citrus trees. The main symptom of citrus blast disease is wilting and dieback of branches. Some practices for management of this disease are illustrated in this article.

Musa Mohammadi, Ahmad Hosseini, Ebrahim Sedaghati , Samin Hosseini,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (3-2018)

Mohammadi  M., Hosseini A., Sedaghati E. and Hosseini S. 2018. Mycoviruses  application in biocontrol of fugal pathogens. Plant Pathology Science 7(1):51-62.

Mycoviruses or fungal parasitic viruses have dsDNA, dsRNA or ssRNA genome. Some of these viruses have a restricted host range and can infect certain strains of host species. In contrast, some other viruses have wider host range and can infect different species of a fungal family. In most cases these viruses are transmitted by anastomosis of mycelium. In a phenomenon called hypovirulence, most of these viruses decrease the virulence of their host fungus. Discovery of  hypovirulence revealed the biocontrol ability of mycoviruses. In summary, mycoviruses could be implemented as powerful agents for biocontrol of fungal pathogens and induction of resistance in plants.
Saeideh Ahmadifar, Syed Mohsen Hosseini, Ebrahim Mohammadi Goltapeh, - Akbar Jahedi,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2020)

Ahmadifar S , Hosseini SM, MohammadiGoltapeh E, Jahedi A (2020) Optimal method for production of mycelia biomass of Ganoderma lucidum in sugarcane molasses. Plant Pathology Science 9(1):1-14. DOI: 10.2982/PPS.9.1.1.
Introduction: Ganoderma lucidum, medicinal mushroom, is one of the most effective traditional medicine in East Asia. The mycelium, the spore and the basidiocarp contain about 400 different bioactive compounds with polysaccharides, peptidoglycans and triterpenes as active ingredient groups of medical value. Underwater cultivation is one of the most reliable technologies to produce the industrial biomass of this mushroom, which contains anti-tumor and anti-cancer polysaccharides. Regarding the growth of fungal mycelium, it is related to various environmental factors such as pH, temperature and available nutrients. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of pH, temperature and different concentrations of the carbon and nitrogen sources on the growth rate of fungal biomass in sugar cane molasses. Materials and Methods: The first part of the study dealt with the morpHological and molecular identification of an Iranian isolate from G. lucidum.  Then the effects of carbon sources of arabinose, maltose, cellulose and xylose at concentrations of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3%, and nitrogen sources of yeast extract, MgSo4.7H2O, peptone and K2Hpo4 at concentrations of 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4%, pH 4, 4.5, 5 and 5.5, and a temperature of 25° C, 28° C, 32 ° C and the number of 2, 3, and 4 inoculum particles of 5 mm2 for the production of mycelium biomass of G. lucidum, in sugarcane molasses was studied, in completely randomized design experiments with four replicates for each treatment in vitro. Results: A comparison of the mean dry weight mycelium of G. lucidum produced with different treatments showed the significant differences between the treatments with a probability of 5%. The highest yield of G. lucidum was obtained in peptone with concentration of 0.3%, maltose with concentration of 0.2%, pH=5, 3 inoculum particles with 5mm2 diameter, at 28°C. Conclusion: Sugar cane molasses can be used as a cheap and inexpensive medium for the biomass production of G. lucidum. For the first time this study showed that by adding peptone with concentration of 0.3%, maltose with concentration of 0.2%, to sugarcane molasses, with 3 particles of inoculum with 5mm2 diameter, in pH=5, and 28°C, the highest biomass of this medicinal mushroom could be produced.

Marzieh Mehrabioun Mohammadi, Narges Ahmadi, Mahdi Arzanlou,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2020)

Mehrabioun Mohammadi M, Ahmadi N, Arzanlou M (2020) Dutch elm disease. Plant Pathology Science 9(1):91-100.         DOI: 10.2982/PPS.9.1.91.

Elm trees are one of the most important ornamental trees and are widely used in the design of urban green spaces. Dutch elm disease is recognized as one of the most important elm diseases in the world. The disease has become an epidemic worldwide and at least three species of Ophiostoma including O. ulmi, O. novo-ulmi and O. Himal-ulmi that differ in geographical distribution and invasion power, are involved in this disease. In Iran, O. ulmi and O. novo-ulmi are known to involve in this disease, with O. novo-ulmi being more virulent. Management of the disease is mainly achieved through preventive and quarantine methods, health measures, resistant cultivars and the use of chemical compounds. Various aspects of the disease, including disease symptoms and signs, pathogen biology and ecology, disease management methods are reviewed in this paper.

Zahra Mohammadi, Farhad Nazarian-Firouzabadi, Ziba Nazari,
Volume 9, Issue 2 ((Spring and Summer) 2020)

Mohammadi Z, Nazarian-Firouzabadi F, Nazari Z (2020). The expression level of genes encoding LysM-RLKs of potato after stimulation with chitin. Plant Pathology Science 9(2):37-50.         DOI: 10.2982/PPS.9.2.37.
Introduction: Lysine motif receptor-like kinases (LysM-RLKs) play an important role in the defense reaction of plants to diseases and environmental stresses. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of chitin as a stimulus for the expression of genes that encode LysM-RLKs. Materials and Methods: The expression levels of three genes PGSC0003DMP400010799, PGSC0003DMP400010800 and PGSC0003DMP400061331, which encoded LysM-RLKs due to chitin treatment (150 μg / ml) in young seven-week potato leaves of Jely cultivar, were examined in treated and control leaves. Results: Analysis of the gene expression data showed that the expression of all three genes increased significantly due to the use of chitin compared to the control. Conclusion: Increasing the expression of genes encoding LysM-RLKs using chitin can be effective to induce systemic resistance to plant diseases and environmental stresses.

Roghayeh Mohammadi, Mansureh Keshavarzi, Nader Hassanzadeh, Jalil Dejampour, Afagh Farhadnezhad,
Volume 10, Issue 2 ((Spring and Summer) 2021)

Mohammadi R, Keshavarzi M, Hassanzadeh N, Dejampour J, Farhadnejad A (2021) Relative resistance levels to bacterial canker in Iranian apricot hybrids. Plant Pathology Science 10(2):15-29.  Doi: 10.2982/PPS.10.2.15.
Introduction: Bacterial canker caused by Pseudomonas syringae is one of the most damaging diseases in apricots. This experiment was conducted to evaluate relative resistance to the disease in 22 selected local apricot hybrids including AD507, AD405, and HS731 which were recently released as Jalil, Parsi and Shanli. Material and Methods: Evaluation methods included artificial inoculation of two-year-old seedlings in an orchard and of cut shoots in the laboratory. Initially, the pathovar identity of localP. syringae strains were determined using LOPAT and GATTa tests and three isolates were used as inoculum. The inoculation was done in the seedling stem and after one year and 1.5 years, canker length was recorded. Result: The pathovar of all isolates was identified as P. syringae pv. syringae. The longest and shortest cankers were observed in AD1033 and AC113 with averages of 34.76 mm and 8.35 mm, respectively. The cut shoot bioassay was not practical for apricots. The hybrids were classified into four groups including highly resistant, resistant, moderately resistant, and susceptible. Conclusion: AD1033, AD1042, AD940, AD811, HS210, DM101, HS203 have been classified as susceptible and should not be used in breeding programs and orchard establishment/replacement. Jalil, Parsi, and Shanli were rated as resistant, and moderately resistant, respectively.

Fariba Ghaderi, Hojatollah Mohammadi,
Volume 12, Issue 2 ((Spring and Summer) 2023)

Ghaderi F, Mohammadi H (2023) Occurrence of jujube brown spot disease in Iran. Plant Pathology Science 12(2):95-104. 
Jujube tree has a natural distribution in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Asia. Symptoms of brown-to-black spots on leaves, and fruits, and twigs blight were observed in the hills of the suburbs of Nurabad County, Fars Province, Iran, in 2022. This research was conducted to identify the cause of this disease based on morphological and genetic characteristics. The diseased leaves and branches of the neighboring trees in this area were sampled. The pathogen was isolated and purified after surface disinfection of disease tissues on potato/dextrose/agar medium. Its morphological characteristics were studied and the fungus Nothophoma quercina was identified. Phylogenetic analysis base on the comparison of beta-tubulin (tub2), and ITS-rDNA genes sequences, with related fungi in NCBI Gen Bank, confirmed the of N. quercina species. Its pathogenicity was proved on the side cut jujube branches based on Koch's postulates in vitro. This is the first report of brown spot and twigs blight of the jujube trees caused by N. quercina in Iran.

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