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Showing 5 results for Alaei

— mehdi Sadravi, Farzaneh Talaei,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (3-2015)

Sadravi M. and Talaei F. 2015. Methods of mass production of inoculum of endomycorrhizal fungi. Plant Pathology Science 4(1):13-22. 
 Endomycorrhizae or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, play an important role in the life of field crops, flower and fruit gardens and vegetables. They increase nutrient uptake and yield of plants and resistance to soil-borne pathogens of plants as well. As these beneficial fungi, are obligate root symbiotic, mass production of their inoculum is only possible on the living tissue of root. The first method for this purpose was pot culturing, then the hydroponic, aeroponic and root organ culture have been devised. Methods and factors affecting the mass production of these beneficial fungi are described and discussed here.

Laleh Ebrahimi, Zahra Tanhamaafi, Hossein Karbalaei Khiavi , Gorban Didehbaz Moghanlo, Yahya Azarmi, Rauf Zamani,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (9-2019)

Ebrahimi L, TanhaMaafi Z, KarbalaeiKhiavi H, Didehbaz G, Azarmi Y and Zamani R (2019) Distribution and population density of cereal cyst nematode in Ardabil province. Plant Pathology Science 8(2):9-15. DOI: 10.2982/PPS.8.2.9
Introduction: Cereal cyst nematodes (CCN), Heterodera species, are important parasitic nematodes of cereal. Potato cyst nematodes (PCN), Globodera species, are also serious pests of potato world-wide. Continuous monitoring of these nematodes is necessary to prevent their damage to their host plants. This study was conducted to determine the distribution and density of these nematodes in Ardabil province, northwest of Iran, where potatoes are planted in rotation with cereals. Materials and Methods: One hundred and two soil samples were collected from potato fields in the suburbs of Ardebil, Nair and Namin cities in the first year, and 116 soil samples were collected from the wheat fields that were cultivated in the rotation with potato in the second year. The samples were transferred to the laboratory and examined for cyst nematodes. After isolating the cysts, identification of the species was performed based on morphological and morphometrical characteristics of the cysts and the second stage larvae. Results: Examination of the collected samples in both of two years indicated the presence of CCN in some soil samples, but PCN were not observed in none of the soil samples. The morphological and morphometrical data of isolated cereal cysts and comparison with valid identification keys led to the identification of Heterodera filipjevi. Mean numbers of the cysts with eggs and larvae in those samples that were collected in the first and second year were respectively 0.76 and 0.11 in 100 g of the soil. Wheat fields of Ardebil had the highest and fields of Nair had the least number of cyst nematode.  Conclusions: The results of this study showed that some of the wheat fields in the province were infected with H. filipjevi and potato fields were not infected with any cyst nematode.

Hossein Karbalaei Khiavi, Seyed Yaghob Seyed Masoumi, Adel Pirayesh, Hossein Khabbaz Jolfaei,
Volume 10, Issue 1 ((Autumn & Winter) 2021)

Karbalaei Khiavi H, Pirayesh A, Seyed Masoumi SY, Khabbaz Jolfaei H (2021). Reaction of ten peach and ten nectarine cultivars to powdery mildew. Plant Pathology Science 10(1):1-13.      Doi: 10.2982/PPS.10.1.1.
Introduction: Powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera pannosa is one of the most important diseases of peaches and nectarines worldwide, including Iran. The aim of this research was to investigate the response of peaches and nectarines under cultivation in Iran to the disease. Materials and Methods: Reaction of ten peach cultivars vs. Robin, Early Red, Red Top, Shasta, Amesdn, Velvet, Anjiri, Paeizeh, Dixi Red, and Sun Crest, and ten nectarine cultivars vs. Independence, Stargold, Sangold, Sanking, Giuta, Shabrang Karaj, Vega, Orion, Jiova and Veinberger were evaluated for disease in natural and artificial infection conditions in two experiments in a randomized complete block design with three replications over two years at the Meshgin Shahr Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Station. Results: Analysis of variance of experimental data showed that there was a significant difference between cultivars of each plant at a probability level of 1%. Peach cultivars Anjiri and Red top were very resistant, Velvet, Shasta and Early red ‎were resistant; Amesdn, Dixi red and Robin were moderately resistant; Sun ‎crest was susceptible and Paeizeh was in very susceptible. Weinberger nectarine cultivars were resistant and Independence, Stargold, Sanking, Giuta, Shabrang Karaj, Vega, Orion and Jiova cultivars were semi-resistant and Sangold was very susceptible to disease.  Conclusion: Eighty percent of the studied peach cultivars are very resistant to semi-resistant and 20% sensitive and very sensitive, 90% of the studied nectarine cultivars are resistant to semi-resistant and 10% susceptible to powdery mildew. Findings of this research should be considered in the management of peach and nectarine powdery mildew.

Amir Hossein Mohamadi, Masoumeh Haghdel, Mansoyreh Mirabolfathy, Hossein Alaei,
Volume 11, Issue 2 ((Spring and Summer) 2022)

Mohammadi AH, Haghdel M, Mirabolfathy M, Alaei H (2022) Armillaria root and crown rot disease in pistachio orchards. Plant Pathology Science 11(2):92-102. 
Doi: 10.2982/PPS.11.2.92  

Pistachio is one of the most important horticultural products in Iran which its production is always affected by biotic and abiotic limiting factors. Armillaria crown and root rot caused by Armillaria mellea, is an important disease in pistachio orchards, which causes the death of fertile trees. Control of the disease is difficult, costly and rarely successful. Symptoms of the disease in shoots of affected trees includes yellowing, early defoliation, sudden wilting, dieback of branches and reduction shoot growth. These symptoms, together with the decay and browning of woody tissues and the formation of white to creamy mycelial sheets in the roots and crown, as well as the observation of rhizomorphs of the fungus, are sufficient evidence for definitive diagnosis of Armillaria crown and root rot in pistachio trees. The infection process begins with the growth of hyphae or rhizomorphs and their firm attachment to the surface of the roots. The pathogen uses a combination of methods such as mechanical pressure, toxin production, and cell wall-degrading enzymes to penetrate the root tissues. Successful control of the disease is possible only by combining chemical, cultural, biological control methods and use of resistant rootstocks and cultivars due to delay in diagnosis of the disease before the spread of the pathogen in plant and soil and the appearance of symptoms, the presence of an extensive network of rhizomorphs at a distance from the tree and deep in the soil and formation of the mycelium beneath the plant bark or inside dead wood.

Farzaneh Talaei, Mehdi Sadravi, Ebrahim Adhami,
Volume 11, Issue 2 ((Spring and Summer) 2022)

Talaei F, Sadravi M, Adhami E (2022) Correlation between arbuscular mycorrhiza in wheat and physicochemical characteristics of soil. Plant Pathology Science 11(2):32-41.   Doi: 10.2982/PPS.11.2.32
Introduction: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in symbiosis with plant roots help to absorb more phosphorus, and increase the growth and development of plants. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between population and diversity of AMF, and physicochemical characteristics of soil in wheat fields of Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad province in southwestern Iran. Materials and Methods: Thirty wheat fields in this province, were visited near harvest time, and their rhizosphere and aerial organs were sampled. AMF spores were isolated by sieving the rhizosphere suspension in water and centrifuging in Sucrose solution. The spore population of these fungi was count. The percentage of root length colonization by these fungi was calculated in every sample. The morphological characteristics of the isolated spores were studied and the collected information was compared with the descriptions of AMF and the fungi present in each sample were identified. Texture, soil dispersion, soil and plant phosphorus content were determined and the correlation coefficient between AMF population and diversity with physical and chemical characteristics of soil and wheat plant were calculated. Results: Fifteen arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi belonging to nine genera: Acaulospora, Archaeospora, Entrophospora, Gigaspora, Claroideumglomus, Funeliformis, Rhizoglomus, Septoglomus and Scutellospora were identified. The diversity of these fungi in the samples was (2-)2.9(-5) and F. mosseae was dominant species with 90% relative frequency. The population of these fungi had a negative correlation with soil pH, but with soil soluble phosphorus and plant phosphorus content had a positive correlation. The diversity of these fungi had a positive correlation with soil soluble phosphorus. There was a positive correlation between the amount of sand in the soil and the root length colonization. Conclusion: AMF have a greater population and diversity in soils with light texture, less moisture along with low amounts of soluble phosphorus and organic matter. The positive correlation between the population of these fungi and plant phosphorus indicates their usefulness for the plant.


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