Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2020)                   Plant Pathol. Sci. 2020, 9(1): 57-67 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Ebrahimi L. (2020). Scab diseases of apple and pear. Plant Pathol. Sci.. 9(1), 57-67. doi:10.29252/pps.9.1.57
URL: http://yujs.yu.ac.ir/pps/article-1-299-en.html
Aburaihan Campus, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran , le_ebrahimi@ut.ac.ir
Abstract:   (5043 Views)
Ebrahimi L (2020) Scab diseases of apple and pear. Plant Pathology Science 9(1):57-67. DOI: 10.2982/PPS.9.1.57

Apple and pear scab diseases caused by Venturia inaequalis and V. pyrina are the most important economical diseases on these plants. These pathogens overwinter in the form of spherical pseudothecia on the remnants of infected leaves. However, in areas with mild winters, they remain as mycelium or conidia in buds and branches. Symptoms of the disease on the leaves are black spots with a velvety surface. In severe and early infections on fruits, deformity and cracks occur. Humidity and temperature are important and influential factors in the prevalence and severity of this disease. The disease will be severe in areas where the weather is cool and humid in spring and early summer. Symptoms of diseases, morphological characteristics of pathogens, disease cycles and disease management methods including resistant cultivars, horticultural sanitation, biological control, chemical control and their forecasting program are illustrated and discussed.
Full-Text [PDF 1141 kb]   (1895 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Review | Subject: Special
Received: 2020/03/2 | Accepted: 2020/08/10

1. Ahmadi K, Ebadzadeh H, Hatami F, Hossaeinpour R, Abdshah H (2019) Agricultural Statistics of 2018, Volume 3: Horticultural Products. Ministry of Agriculture, Deputy for Planning and Economy, Information and Communication Technology Center. Tehran, Iran. (In Persian).
2. Alaniz S, Leoni C, Bentancur O, Mondino P (2014) Elimination of summer fungicide sprays for apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) management in Uruguay. Scientia Horticulturae 165:331-335. [DOI:10.1016/j.scienta.2013.11.016]
3. Ashkan SM (2011) A Textbook of Fruit Crops Diseases in Iran. Aeeizh, Tehran, Iran, 472p. (In Persian).
4. Belete T, Boyraz N (2017) Critical review on apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) biology, epidemiology, economic importance, management and defense mechanisms to the causal agent. Journal of Plant Physiology and Pathology 5:2.
5. Benaouf G, Parisi L (2000) Genetics of the host-pathogen relationship between Venturia inaequalis races 6 and 7 and Malus species. Phytopathology 90:236-242. [DOI:10.1094/PHYTO.2000.90.3.236]
6. Boehm EWA, Freeman S, Shabi E, Michailides TJ (2003) Microsatellite primers indicate the presence of asexual populations of Venturia inaequalis in coastal Israeli apple orchards. Phytoparasitica 31:236-251. [DOI:10.1007/BF02980833]
7. Bowen JK, Mesarich CH, Bus VGM, Beresford RM, Plummer KM, Templeton MD (2011) Venturia inaequalis: the causal agent of apple scab. Molecular Plant Pathology 12:105-122. [DOI:10.1111/j.1364-3703.2010.00656.x]
8. Carisse O, Rolland D (2004) Effect of timing of application of the biological control agent Microsphaeropsis ochracea on the production and ejection pattern of ascospores by Venturia inaequalis. Phytopathology 94:1305-1314. [DOI:10.1094/PHYTO.2004.94.12.1305]
9. Chatzidimopoulos M, Lioliopoulou F, Sotiropoulos T, Vellios E (2020) Efficient control of apple scab with targeted spray applications. Agronomy 10:217. [DOI:10.3390/agronomy10020217]
10. Daniels B (2013) Response of apple (Malus×domestica) to Venturia inaequalis, the causal agent of apple scab: a real-time PCR and proteomics study. Ph.D. thesis. Catholic University of Leuven. Belgium, 199p.
11. Doolotkeldieva T, Bobusheva S (2017) Scab disease caused by Venturia inaequalis on apple trees in Kyrgyzstan and biological agents to control this disease. Advances in Microbiology 7:450-466. [DOI:10.4236/aim.2017.76035]
12. Ebrahimi L, Fotouhifar KB, Javan Nikkhah M, Naghavi MR (2018) Study on sexual fertility of Venturia inaequalis and Venturia pyrina in vitro. Journal of plant protection, 32:307-314. (In Persian).
13. Ebrahimi L, Fotohifar KB, Javan Nikkhah M, Naghavi MR, Baisakh N (2016) Population genetic structure of apple scab (Venturia inaequalis (Cooke) G. Winter) in Iran. PLoS ONE 11:e0160737. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0160737]
14. Ershad D (2009) Fungi of Iran. Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection. Tehran, Iran. 546p.
15. Gessler C, Patocchi A, Sansavini S, Tartarini S, Gianfranceschi L (2006) Venturia inaequalis Resistance in Apple. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 25:473-503. [DOI:10.1080/07352680601015975]
16. Gessler C, Pertot I (2012) Vf scab resistance of Malus. Trees 26:95-108. [DOI:10.1007/s00468-011-0618-y]
17. Giraud DD, Elkins RB, Gubler WD (2011) Apple and pear scab. Plant Pathology. University of California. Statewide Integrated Pest Management. Program Agriculture and Natural Resources.
18. Holb IJ, Heijne B, Jeder M (2006) Effects of integrated control measures on earthworms, leaf litter and Venturia inaequalis infection in two European apple orchards. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 114:287-295. [DOI:10.1016/j.agee.2005.11.021]
19. Jamar L (2011) Innovative strategies for the control of apple scab (Venturia inaequalis [Cke.] Wint.) in organic apple production. Ph.D. thesis, University of Liege-Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Belgium.
20. Jha G, Thakur K, Thakur P (2009) The Venturia apple pathosystem: pathogenicity mechanisms and plant defense responses. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology. https://doi.org/10.1155/2009/680160 [DOI:10.1155/2009/680160.]
21. Khabaz Jolfaei H, Keshavarz K, Karbalaei Khiavi H, Ravanlou A, Ganji R, Ramezani H, Seyedi A (2018) Investigation on the efficacy of Atis® WP 40% fungicide against Venturia inaequalis the pathogen of apple scab disease. Iranian Research Institude of Plant Protection, Tehran, Iran. 15p.
22. Le Cam B, Parisi L, Arene L (2002) Evidence of two formae speciales in Venturia inaequalis, responsible for apple and pyracantha scab. Phytopathology 92:314-320. [DOI:10.1094/PHYTO.2002.92.3.314]
23. MacHardy W, Gadoury D, Gessler C (2001) Parasitic and Biological Fitness of Venturia inaequalis: Relationship to Disease Management Strategies. Plant Disease 85:1036-1051. [DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2001.85.10.1036]
24. MacHardy WE (1996) Apple Scab: Biology, epidemiology, and management. American Phytopathological Society Press.
25. Muresan LE (2017) Cultivable bacterial and fungal endophytes from apple tissues and their potential for biological control of Venturia inaequalis. M.Sc. thesis. Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Canada.
26. Park P, Ishii H, Adachi Y, Kanematsu S, Ieki H, Umemoto S (2000) Infection behavior of Venturia nashicola, the cause of scab on Asian Pears. Phytopathology 90:1209-1216. [DOI:10.1094/PHYTO.2000.90.11.1209]
27. Rossman AY, Crous PW, Hyde KD, … (2015) Recommended names for pleomorphic genera in Dothideomycetes. IMA Fungus 6:507-523. [DOI:10.5598/imafungus.2015.06.02.14]
28. Ruszkiewicz-Michalska M, Połeć E (2006) The genus Fusicladium (Hyphomycetes) in Poland. Acta Mycologica 41:285-298. [DOI:10.5586/am.2006.029]
29. Sandskar B (2003) Apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) and pests in organic orchards. Ph.D. Thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, 39p.
30. Schubert K, Ritschel A, Braun U (2003) A monograph of Fusicladium s. lat. (Hyphomycetes). Schlechtendalia 9:1-132.
31. Shane B (2016) Apple varieties with significant scab resistance, Michigan State University Extension.
32. Singh KP, Kumar J, Singh A, Prasad RK, Singh RP, Prasad D (2016) Maturation, ascospores discharge pattern and relevance of Mills criteria for predicting apple scab infection period in India. Plant Pathology Journal 15:108-123. [DOI:10.3923/ppj.2016.108.123]
33. Singh KP (2019) Aerobiology, epidemiology and management strategies in apple scab: science and its applications. Indian Phytopathology 72:1-28. [DOI:10.1007/s42360-019-00162-5]
34. Sivanesan A (1984) The bitunicate Ascomycetes and their anamorphs. Strauss and Cramer GmbH, Hirschberg, Germany. 701p.
35. Sutton DK, MacHardy WE, Lord WG (2000) Effects of shredding or treating apple leaf litter with urea on ascospore dose of Venturia inaequalis and disease buildup. Plant Disease 84:1319-1326. [DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2000.84.12.1319]
36. Turechek WW (2004) Apple diseases and their management: Diseases of fruits and vegetables. Diagnosis and management. (1st edtn), Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht. [DOI:10.1007/1-4020-2606-4_1]
37. Xu X, Roberts T, Barbara D, Harvey NG, Gao L, Sargent DJ (2008) A genetic linkage map of Venturia inaequalis, the causal agent of apple scab. BMC Research Notes 2:163. [DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-2-163]
38. Zhang Y, Crous PW, Schoch CL, Bahkali AH, Gao L, Hyde KD (2011) A molecular, morphological and ecological re-appraisal of Venturiales-a new order of Dothideomycetes. Fungal Diversity 51:249-277. [DOI:10.1007/s13225-011-0141-x]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2024 CC BY-NC 4.0 | University of Yasouj Plant Pathology Science

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb