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Showing 24 results for Zagros

Ahmad Hosseini,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2014)
Abstract

Crown dieback is of the phenomena that mainly has affected Persian oak trees. In order to assess the crown dieback of trees in forest stands of oak trees and its relationship with the individual trees, tree origin and size of tree canopy, Shalam forested area in the northern half of the Ilam province was selected. After dividing the study area into topographic homogeneous units, the biggest unit was selected for assessing the research objectives. Within the selected unit, 6 parallel transects were laid and about relatively 60 healthy and dieback trees were recorded. Then crown dieback, position of tree in stand, origination of trees, minimum and maximum crown diameter and crown height were measured. Data analysis was performed by analysis of variance and linear regression. Results showed that individual trees had healthier crown than the rest of the trees. Standard trees showed less crown dieback than the coppice trees. Effect of crown size on crown dieback depended on the location of trees as single or group and tree form. Totally it can be concluded that oak trees would give different responses to drought in terms of their individual or social characteristics and also it was seen a range of crown dieback with different intensity/pattern within stand in individual to group trees.
Payam Fayyaz, Seyedeh Saba Nabavi Goldeh, Masoud Dehdari,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2014)
Abstract

Brant oak(Quercusbrantii) is one of the most abundant tree species in Zagros forests but there have been scantefforts to its propagation via shoot cuttings approach. Any achievement in its asexual reproduction shall accelerate the breeding improvements. For this purpose, under growing twigs of Brant oak with and without apical bud were cultured in different culture mediums of half MS and WPM adopting in vitro conditions. In order to study of the explants' sterilization, four kinds of sterilizing reagent consist of ethanol, mercury chloride, sodium and calcium hypochlorite with and without Tween as a surfactant in different concentrations were tested and the rate of contamination, phenolic leakage and browning of explants were recorded. The effect of different treatments of ascorbic acid, acetic acid, PVP, activated charcoal and darkness on phenolic leakage and browning of explants were evaluated. The ratio of proliferation and callus formation with different NAA and BAP concentrations were investigated. Finally the rooting vigor of explants by four auxin combinations (control, 0.4 mg L-1 NAA, 0.4 mg L-1 IBA and a mixture of NAA and IBA with amount of 0.1 and 0.3 mg L-1) and three cytokinin concentration (0, 0.4 and 1 mg L-1 ) were assessed. The results revealed that the best suitable condition to establish and proliferate of under growing twigs of Brant oak was sterilizing the explants using mercuric chloride 0.1% (w/v) and transferring to WPM medium containing 0.5 mg L-1 PVP or activated charcoal. Increasing BAP and NAA concentrations up to 1 and 0.1 mg L-1 respectively had no significant effect on proliferation rate of explants. None of the rooting treatments were conducted to root formation in explants.
Peyman Ashkavand, Masoud Tabari, Mehrdad Zarafshar,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2014)
Abstract

Undoubtedly, identifying and introducing drought resistant species for reforestation of the Zagros forests should be considered by forest specialists.,the current research identified mechanisms of drought tolerance in Hawthorn (CrataegusaroniaL.) and Mahaleb (Prunusmahaleb L.) seedlings in a greenhouse experiment using a completely randomized design. The experiment contained 3 stress treatments with 5 replications each. The treatments were soil moisture as control (based on field capacity), moderate stress (based on 50% field capacity) and severe stress (water withholding). Our findings showed that relative water content and stem water potential decreased in both species with increasing of drought severity. Although the total chlorophyll content was no affected by drought stress, carotenoid content was declined in response to the stress. Proline and total soluble carbohydrate concentration, as osmotic adjustments, increased in both species. According to electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde results, we concluded that Hawthorn can tolerate moderate and gradual drought stress by the means of some adaptations but accidental water withholding stress leads to oxidative stress in this species. On the other hand, although moderate and gradual drought stress leads to oxidative stress on the Mahaleb, but accidental water withholding stress did not have the same course of negative effect as it had on Hawthorn.
Maryam Sisakht Nejad , Roghayeh Zolfaghari ,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2015)
Abstract

Drought is the major environmental stresses that it can have a negative impact on plant growth. The study of gas exchange under drought stress can help to identify factors affecting stress resistant. Due to this fact that Zagros forests has Mediterranean and dry climate, with the aim of this study was to assess the impact of drought on leaf gas exchange in two oak species (Quercus brantii and Quercus libani). Water stress consisted of four levels of water stress (100%, 70%, 50% and 30% FC) in the greenhouse situations. Those seedlings were intended for water stress weren’t irrigated to reach to the desired field capacity (70%, 50% and 30% of field capacity), but control seedlings were irrigated every day in order to soil water content at field capacity shall be kept 100%. Results showed that water stress treatment has a significant reduction of stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, conduct mesophilic, carbon dioxide emission, and transpiration. Also Quercus libani showed higher level of photosynthesis, water use efficiency and transpiration than Quercus branti. Overall, results in both species, showed stomatal and non-stomatal limitation would cause of photosynthesis reduction. Also, due to higher water efficiency and lower gas parameter variations, Quercus libani would gain better mechanism of waster stress and Quercus brantii would gain the use drought avoidance mechanism.
Babak Pilehvar, Zahra Mirazadi, Vahid Alijani, Hamzeh Jafari Sarabi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2015)
Abstract

Considering the importance of forest structure and interaction among different tree species, this study conducted aimed to determine and compare spatial pattern, heterogeneity, and dimensions of Hawthorn and Maple trees with other neighbor trees. For determining Hawthorn and Maple trees structure, 30 individual of each trees were identified and studied. Based on the results, uniform angle index for Hawthorn and Maple trees were 0/744, and 0/733 respectively, which would propose a clumped pattern for these two species. Computed mingling index values for Hawthorn and Maple were 0/877 and 0/955 respectively that show a high tree species mixture. Also, the average of crown canopy differentiation and crown canopy dimension were 0/582 and 0/322 respectively, for Hawthorn tee and it was 0/42 and 0/656 respectively for Maple tree. Based on mean values, these results show that Hawthorn had high level of differentiation but was inferior in comparing to its neighbors whereas Maple has intermediate differentiation and is dominant to the other neighbors. The average distance to nearest neighbors for Hawthorn and Maple were calculated 7/374 and 6/278 respectively. The results of an absolute discrepancy algorithm (AD) showed a high differentiation of Hawthorn and Maple mixture in comparing to the other indices. It is concluded that maple is superior to hawthorn in dimension and because of low frequency of these two species, they hold high values of mingling indices.
Shaieste Gholami, Ehsan Sayad, Hanie Shahghobadi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2015)
Abstract

One of the main factors affecting sustainable management in the forest ecosystem is the biodiversity conservation. For achieving this purpose, we need to estimate and determine the biodiversity. The efficiency of sampling depends to some extent on plot size in a study. Therefore, a study was conducted in the Zagros forest (Baniloan, Javanrood, Kermanshah) to assess the effect of plot size on the abundance and diversity of tree species. We measured the diversity indices e.g. (Shannon H), richness (Minhinick) and evenness (Sheldon) in our data. These indices were analyzed at 270 sampling points along 3 parallel transects which ran perpendicular to the slope. The distances between transects was 500 m. Each transect comprised 30 sampling points with 3 different sizes of plots (10m×10m-20m×20m and 30m×30m plots). Abundance and diversity of tree species, richness and evenness analyzed by ANOVA and Duncan. The results showed that abundance and diversity increased significantly by increasing the size of the plots. The maximum diversity was seen in 900m2 plot size. At 400 m2 plot, richness was higher than two other plot size. But evenness was not significantly affected by plot size.
Mohammadjavad Taheri Sarteshnizi, Alireza Salehi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2015)
Abstract

In order to study the accuracy of assessment of the canopy cover density of a pure Persian oak stand with mixed coppice and standard forms using terrestrial digital photography, 16 circular sample plots with an area of 4.9 in a grid with sizes of 25 m by 25 m, over as forest stand with an area of 1 ha, with was used. The method of vertical sighting with Same as Cajanus tube was considered as the method of control to record either present or absent of canopy cover in 195 systematic sample points in each of sample plots. 9 vertically terrestrial digital photographs that contained of an image in the centre of the sample plots, 8 images in line with the bout main and sub- main geographic directions were taken. By calculation of the percentage of the canopy component of the forest stand using these methods, the results of the Kruscal–Wallis statistical test showed that there were not statistically significant differences between the different methods of estimation of the canopy cover component. In terms of the superiority of the bias indicator over the other methods, the method of 5 digital images in the main geographical directions, the method of 9 digital photographs and the method of 5 digital images in the four sub-directions were ranked from 1 to 3, respectively. The different methods of terrestrial digital photography would underestimate the canopy cover component in comparing with control method.
Hojat Alah Omidi, Javad Mirzaei,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (9-2015)
Abstract

Natural regeneration is the most important principle to maintain and sustain of vegetation in each region, therefore, doing the research about the relationship between natural regeneration and environmental factors can be useful for conducting a better management in these regions.Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of physiographic factors and soil parameters on natural regeneration of trees and shrubs species in the forest of Baye Mountain in Eyvan city, Ilam province. Using systematic random sampling, 27 plots were implemented in the area with a total area of 900 square meters. Then environmental factors (physiographic and soil) and the number of natural regeneration were studied and measured. Correlation analysis showed that Cerasus microcarpa regeneration had positive correlation with OM and Ca and negative with EC. Regeneration of Acer monspessulanum L. had negative correlation with clay, and Amygdalus lycioides regeneration had positive correlation with silt, while there was no significant correlation between other species and other soil factors. The results showed that elevation had significant effects on natural regeneration of Cratagus pontica and Amygdalus lycioides, while the slope of gradient hadn't any significant effect on regeneration. Only, aspect had significant effects on Cerasus microcarpa regeneration, and regeneration of this species in the eastern and northwestern direction was more than other aspects.


Hassan Pourbabaei, Rasoul Cheraghi, Sepide Sadat Ebrahimi,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (9-2015)
Abstract

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of aspect on woody species structure and diversity in the Persian oak (Quercus brantii Lindl.) site, Dashtak area, Kohkiloye and Boyer Ahamd province in western Iran. Measurements were carried out in 3 elevation classes range from 2200 m to 2400 m a.s.l. Then, three sampling plots with area of 2500- m2 were selected in each elevation class. In total, five tree species, including Quercus brantii, Crataegusdavisii, Pistacia atlantica. Subsp. mutica, Lonicera nummulariifolia and Amygdalus communisand three shrub species such as Cerasus microcarpa, Amygdalus orientalis and Daphne mucronata were identified in the study area. In regeneration and tree layers the sum of basal area and average of regeneration's density was higher in southwestern aspect and belonged to Quercus brantii. The results of diversity indices in the tree layer indicated that the average of H (Shannon-Wiener index), Evar (Smith-Wilson index) and species richness were higher in southwestern aspect than in the northeastern aspects. In addition, the values of all diversity, evenness and richness indices were significantly higher in southwestern aspect the in shrub and regeneration layers. In general, the results indicated that the diversity indices increased under favorable conditions of ecological, environmental and structural factors. Furthermore, livestock access and exploitation of local people should be restricted off, providing favorable conditions in order to increase the diversity of species.


Abouzar Heidari Safari Kouch, Freshteh Moradian Fard, Azita Eskandari, Teimour Rostami Shahraji,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (9-2015)
Abstract

Persian oak (Quercus brantii Lindl.) has a wide distribution in central Zagros forests and it is the prevalent species in this region. Considering the high volume of demolition and the importance of safekeeping of this jungle, investigation and knowing the structure and the situation of this forest from the qunatitative and qualitative aspects is necessary. This study accomplished to investigate the condition of the Iranian oaks (Quercus brantii Lindl.) forests from the qunatitativeand qualitative aspects of Bazoft district of Kouhrang township of Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiaris province. In this respect, 60 numbers of plots with 400 meter distance  in a randomize systematic method established in the area. Then in the studding plots the quantitativecharacteristics of trees like: dbh, trees high, crown diameter measured and some characteristics like canopy percent and firewoods were estimated and registered. Also qunatitative marks from 1 to 4 were given to the trees and they were recorded and data were analyzed. The results shown that the jungle wasa non- coeval and it was sparse forest. Also, 81% of the region had 0-25% coverage. The most density and firewood volume was observedin northeast direction. Also,75% of the trees were inthe proper degrees of Succulence. The results of this study showed the average and a suitable situation of study area stands in comparison to the other regions of central Zagros forests.

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Amir Modaberi, Javad Soosani, Shyda Khosravi,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (9-2015)
Abstract

The main objective of this study was to estimate the effect of decline disturbance on diameter distribution of coppice oak trees in central Zagros region. For this purpose, two similar stands with equal areas (32ha) in central Zagros (Shorab in Lorestan province and Zarabin in Ilam province) were selected. Diameter at the breast height of declined trees was recorded before and after cutting using 100% inventory method. Following probability density functions (PDFs) Beta, Jonson, Weibull, Gamma, Normal and Log-normal were fitted to the data. The results of goodness of fit tests shown that Beta, Weibull and Jonson PDFs were fitted well to diameter of woody stems in Shorab but Jonson, Beta PDFs were much m ore suitable for Zarabin region. The difference of diameter at hight breast was studied in two stages of before and after declining by means of mortality PDF and using different PDFs. There was a big difference in diameter classes between before and after decline disturbance according to mortality distribution. There was no difference between before and after decline disturbance based upon statistical distribution fitting criteria. Outbreak of decline within this region had merely similar influences on all diameter classes, and as a result, it had not a significant effect on overall diameter fit.


Negin Behnia, Sayed Yousef Erfanifard, Sayed Rashid Fallah Shamsi, Sayed Aliakbar Moosavi,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (3-2016)
Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess the efficiency of cokriging method in comparing to kriging to map biophysical properties of wild pistachio trees in Zagros forests. A 45 ha stand, covered with wild pistachio trees was chosen in FiroozAbad wild pistachio research site in Fars province. 87 circular plates with 800 m2 area were selected based on a 72 × 72 m2 grid. Biophysical properties (height, diameter at breast height, trees per ha, and canopy cover percent) of all wild pistachio trees were measured in each plot. Kriging and cokriging methods were then used to map each biophysical property. The results showed that mean error and root mean squared error of height, diameter at breast height, and trees per ha of cokriging method were less than kriging method. The regression coefficients of height, diameter at breast height, and trees per ha of cokriging method were also greater than the kriging method that showed the efficiency of the cokriging method in the improvement of estimation of trees’ biophysical properties. The amount of root mean squared error and regression coefficient were slightly better for canopy cover percent in kriging, though, they were not significant. In general, it was concluded that the maps of biophysical properties can be obtained with suitable accuracy and precision using Cokriging method.


Hossein Mirzaie-Nodoushan, Zahra Abravesh, . Mahdi Pourhashemi, Majid Hassani, Parisa Panahi,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (3-2016)
Abstract

Although Quercus brantii Lindl. has shown suitable genetic variation in Iran, which is required for a sustainable forest ecosystem, but during the last decade, it came across some difficulties which are considered as oak decline. This research investigated seedling characteristics of four plant populations of the Quercus brantii species to assess genetic potentials of the populations to base a cornerstone for complimentary studies. Seeds were collected on ten single trees for each of plant population located in Kurdistan, Lorestan, Ilam, and Fars provinces in Iran. Seeds were sown in pots at greenhouse conditions to produce at least 30 single progeny seedlings from each population with three replications were studied. Vegetative characteristics such as plant height, leaf length, leaf width, and plant vigor were studied on the single plants. Data were analyzed based on a double nested statistical model, and then the data were analyzed on each population separately. Results indicated significant differences between the studied populations based on seedling height and plant vigor. Plant within population, showing possible differences between the single trees within the populations, was also significant for seedling height, leaf length and leaf width. In population based analysis, the populations showed different behaviors, so as there was not significant effects between single plants in Kurdistan population for plant height and leaf traits; whereas, in Lorestan and Ilam populations significant effects for the mentioned traits were observed. Although the populations showed different characteristics at seedling stage, but it is sought that there are still enough genetic variability and the high heritability that might be used in future breeding projects.


Mehdi Heydari, Ali Mahdavi, Elham Jaferyan, Vahid Mirzaeizadeh,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (3-2016)
Abstract

Judas tree belongs to valuable species in Zagros forests. Nowadays, due to the special beauty of this species, it has received substantial attention in afforestation. In this regard, the improvement of seed germination is a suitable way to improve the quantity and quality of producing seedlings in nurseries and the establishment of forest plantation. In this study, the seed germination characteristics and seedling survival of Cercis griffithii in different soil treatments have been surveyed in the nursery of Aivan County in Ilam province. The experiment was set up as a randomized complete design with four treatments each contained 120 pots. Three seeds in plastic pots were sown in nursery soil (Control Control soil- cattle manure (5:1), Control soil- Litter (5:1) and Control soil- Cattle manure- Litter (5:1:1). According to the one-way ANOVA results, significant differences were observed between soil treatments in terms of germination rate, maximum, mean daily germination and germination energy, while there were no significant differences in other germination characteristics between soil treatments. The highest germination rate, maximum, mean daily germination and germination energy were observed in the treatment of Control soil- Cattle manure- Litter. In terms of time, seedling survival decreased from September to March. The results showed that there is a significant correlation between mean daily germination and different soil composition. In general, it can be concluded that germination and survival of Cercis griffithii can be improved using organic compounds in the nursery.


Ismaeil Moradi Emamgheysi, Amir Eslam Bonyad, Mehrdad Mirzaei, Iraj Hasanzad Navroodi,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (3-2016)
Abstract

The aim of this research was study of tree species diversity in the Zagros forests of Iran that known as Ardal’s Chartagh protected forests. The total of the study area was 50 hectares. In this way 50 sample plots (circular shape with 1000m2) were measured based on systematic-random sampling method. In each plot species, DBH, species and number of trees were measured and recorded. To estimate of the tree species diversity, Shannon-Wiener, Simpson, Mc Arthur’s N1 and Hill’s N2 indices and for calculation of evenness and species richness Wilson- Smith’s and Margalef indices were used respectively. Also species importance value (SIV) was calculated. The results showed that there are 7 tree species in the study area including Fraxinus rotundifolia Mill., Juniperus polycarpos C. Koch, Cerasus mahaleb (L.) Mill., Quercus brantii var. persica, Pistacia mutica Fischer, Acer monspessulanum subsp. cinerascens and Salix persica Boiss.. Values of Shannon-Wiener, Simpson, Mc Arthur’s N1 and Hill’s N2 indices are 1.23, 0.58, 2.40 and 2.16. Also Wilson- Smith’s and Margalef indices showed that the values of richness and evenness are about 0.84 and 0.77. The results of SIV showed that the highest value of SIV belonged to the Fraxinus rotundifolia Mill. (188.63%) and the lowest value was due to Salix persica Boiss (17.59%). Therefore, conservation of forest stands might be suggested as a suitable approach for increasing plant diversity.


Sabrieh Moradi , Roghayeh Zolfaghari ,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (3-2016)
Abstract

Morphological characteristics of individuals are due to hereditary and environmental factors. Regarding to the importance of leaf morphology in systematics investigations and bearing up the effects of environmental variations, especially altitudinal variations on these traits, the differentiation feasibility of brant oak in a restricted altitudinal gradient is investigated. A total number of 400 leaves from 40 individual ramets in Armarde, in an altitudinal ranges from 1580 to 1844 meters above sea level were sampled and 29 quantitative and qualitative traits were measured. The results revealed that the number of teeth and the shape of leaf at lower altitudes are lesser than higher altitudes. Also, leaf base angle has a negative and significant correlation with the altitude. In two altitudinal classes, the shape of leaf tip and the angle of midrib and vein, showed the lowest plasticity and coefficient of variation with respect to environmental conditions. Ramets were classified in three different classes based on cluster analysis and the separator traits were the maximum leaf width, leaf area and sinusoidal angle. Considering the fact that the separator traits would not showed any significant association with altitude,  it seems that some variations might be likely due to physiological response of leaves to environmental variations. However, it's more likely that the occurrence of inter and intra specific hybridization between brant´s oak species would culminated in separation of the individuals.


Ahmad Hossieni , Syyed Mohsen Hossieni ,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (9-2016)
Abstract

Oak decline is a complex phenomenon that oak forests are faced with it across the world and Iran. Shalam forested area located in north of Ilam province was selectedto determine the role of topographicand some edaphic factors in tree mortality happened in Persian oak forests. The study region was divided into 20 homogeneous topographic units. Within each homogeneousunit,three 0.1-haplots  were randomly-systematically established for measuring the rate of tree mortality and oneprofile was prepared for characterization ofsome  physical and chemical soil characteristics (texture, moisture content, TNV%, OC% and N for each soil layer, and soil depth). In each plot,diameter at breast height (DBH), maximum and minimum crown diameters, crown dieback percent, origination and form of trees and shrubs for all species and site variables weremeasured. Results showed that 15.7% of forest stock had reduced while 97.65% of it belonged to Persian oak species. The results of multiple linear regression and RDA showed that tree mortality was significantly affected by elevation and aspect, but not by slope. The highestrate of tree mortality was observedin high elevation and south and west aspects. Also the results of multiple linear regression and RDA showed that tree mortality was significantly affected by soil depth and texture. So, the highestrate of tree mortality was observed in soils with less depth, less sand% and more silt%. It was concluded that topography and soil have effective role in tree mortality and its expansion across Zagros forests. Identifying the critical conditions in terms of topography and soil in these forests can help and be useful in the management of tree dieback.


Vahid Mirzaei Zadeh, Maryam Niknejad, Mehdi Haydari,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (9-2016)
Abstract

The importance of vegetation as a dynamic factor affecting the biological conditions requires that a detailed qualitative and quantitative information about its changes be prepared in short intervals. In this study, in order to monitor and predict vegetation density in Venet watershed in Ilam province the Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and Landsat images from 1988 and 2007 was used and vegetation density maps in three classes without canopy cover, thinned and dense canopy covers were prepared. Comparing the extent of vegetation density classes indicated that the extent of bare soil areas have increased as 1158/837 hectares while the extent of thinned and dense canopy covers 360/8277 and 797/9544 hectares respectively has been reduced. Assessing changes in vegetation density showed that from the classes with thinned and dense canopy covers as 1233/4828 and 210/4539 ha respectively have become no vegetation cover class. Also as 246 /2742 and 38 /8255 hectares of the bare soil areas have been converted to thinned and dense canopy cover classes respectively. Using Markov models and automated cells to predict changes in vegetation density showed that the highest and lowest probability of transition to no vegetation cover lands has been seen respectively in thinned (0.5059) and dense canopy cover (0.1023) lands. Finally, assuming a continuation of current trends, watershed vegetation density map of the target for 2020 was forecast. This map shows in the near future the land without vegetation cover will devote itself about 87 percent of this region.


Farhad Ghasemi Aghbash, Geshin Allah Veisi, Vahid Hosseini,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (9-2016)
Abstract

Litter decomposition is the most important way of nutrient entering to soil and soil nutrient availability is highly related to dynamics of nutrients and litter decomposition in the forest ecosystems. This study aimed to evaluate the dynamics of nutrients and litter decomposition in the northern Zagros forests using litterbag technique for 180 days in the Khul Hoare forests located in Baneh city. The litter bags were collected at intervals of 30, 60, 120 and 180 days and the rate of leaf litter decomposition and chemical compounds such as nitrogen, carbon, phosphorus, potassium and calcium were measured. The results showed there was no significant correlation between the rate of decomposition and the initial composition of nutrients and also C: N and C: P ratios. Due to the qualification of leaf litter based on the amount of nitrogen in this study, the average amount of nitrogen in Quercus libani was 1.37%. So Lebanon oak can be classified in the average group and it can be considered as a soil improver species. In the studied litter, phosphorus and nitrogen had a similar performance and their concentration increased over time (7.27 and 30.38 mg/g respectively). While concentration of elements such as calcium, potassium and magnesium was decreased. The nutrient concentration of Quercus libani leaf litter was Ca>N>P>K> Mg.


Asghar Mosleh Arani, Mohamad Hossein Molakhalili, Bahman Kiani,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (9-2016)
Abstract

To investigate some effective causes of beetle attack to Amygdalus scoparia in Bagh Shadi Harat, Yazd 80 sampling plots were randomly selected. In each plot number of infected tree, percent of dryness for each tree, height, diameter at root collar and crown diameter of each tree, elevation, slope and aspect of each plot were measured or recorded. Results showed that beetle infection were positively correlated to dryness of Amygdalus scoparia, Loranthus Grewinkii and negatively to tree sprouting. Beetle infection were also positively correlated to density of Amygdalus scoparia, density and coverage of accompany species, number of dried Amygdalus scoparia and negatively to percentage of slop. It is concluded that beetles prefer habitat with denser and more coverage population of Amygdalus scoparia in flat area and on trees with less sprouting. Since the study area is an important conserved place in Yazd province, research to control the pest can be very important. Elimination of effected and old trees may limit growth of pests in this area.



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