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Showing 36 results for Type of Study: Research

Ahmad Hosseini,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2014)
Abstract

Crown dieback is of the phenomena that mainly has affected Persian oak trees. In order to assess the crown dieback of trees in forest stands of oak trees and its relationship with the individual trees, tree origin and size of tree canopy, Shalam forested area in the northern half of the Ilam province was selected. After dividing the study area into topographic homogeneous units, the biggest unit was selected for assessing the research objectives. Within the selected unit, 6 parallel transects were laid and about relatively 60 healthy and dieback trees were recorded. Then crown dieback, position of tree in stand, origination of trees, minimum and maximum crown diameter and crown height were measured. Data analysis was performed by analysis of variance and linear regression. Results showed that individual trees had healthier crown than the rest of the trees. Standard trees showed less crown dieback than the coppice trees. Effect of crown size on crown dieback depended on the location of trees as single or group and tree form. Totally it can be concluded that oak trees would give different responses to drought in terms of their individual or social characteristics and also it was seen a range of crown dieback with different intensity/pattern within stand in individual to group trees.
Mehdi Heydari, Ali Mahdavi,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2014)
Abstract

Despite the implementation of watershed management projects over a wide area has long history in Iran, but the quantitative assessment of these projects have been neglected. In this study, the effects of watershed management project of Kalan-e-Eyvan in Ilam province from ecological point of view (the relation of vegetation composition with physicochemical soil properties) were investigated. In doing so, four status of watersheds were assessed, namely, status A (implemented area after 5 years in 2010), status B (the witness area without implementation of plan in 2005), status C (the witness area without implementation of plan in 2010) and status D (the area A before implementation of the project in 2005). The results showed that plant species in four statuses were classified into two groups based upon Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) and the species in A, B and C statuses were mostly perennial classified as climax stage species. The results showed a floristic similarity between planed and control areas after 5 yearsturned out. There werea clear differences regarding to vegetation composition, nutrient and saturation percentage (SP) between the area after and before plan implementation. The results of one-way ANOVA indicated significant differences regarding to diversity and richness between four statuses. The results of Duncan-Test showed that the implementation of watershed management project has caused increasing in diversity and richness in planned areas in comparison with non-planned watershed management ones.
Payam Fayyaz, Seyedeh Saba Nabavi Goldeh, Masoud Dehdari,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2014)
Abstract

Brant oak(Quercusbrantii) is one of the most abundant tree species in Zagros forests but there have been scantefforts to its propagation via shoot cuttings approach. Any achievement in its asexual reproduction shall accelerate the breeding improvements. For this purpose, under growing twigs of Brant oak with and without apical bud were cultured in different culture mediums of half MS and WPM adopting in vitro conditions. In order to study of the explants' sterilization, four kinds of sterilizing reagent consist of ethanol, mercury chloride, sodium and calcium hypochlorite with and without Tween as a surfactant in different concentrations were tested and the rate of contamination, phenolic leakage and browning of explants were recorded. The effect of different treatments of ascorbic acid, acetic acid, PVP, activated charcoal and darkness on phenolic leakage and browning of explants were evaluated. The ratio of proliferation and callus formation with different NAA and BAP concentrations were investigated. Finally the rooting vigor of explants by four auxin combinations (control, 0.4 mg L-1 NAA, 0.4 mg L-1 IBA and a mixture of NAA and IBA with amount of 0.1 and 0.3 mg L-1) and three cytokinin concentration (0, 0.4 and 1 mg L-1 ) were assessed. The results revealed that the best suitable condition to establish and proliferate of under growing twigs of Brant oak was sterilizing the explants using mercuric chloride 0.1% (w/v) and transferring to WPM medium containing 0.5 mg L-1 PVP or activated charcoal. Increasing BAP and NAA concentrations up to 1 and 0.1 mg L-1 respectively had no significant effect on proliferation rate of explants. None of the rooting treatments were conducted to root formation in explants.
Kobra Sabzi, Ehsan Sayad, Hamid Taleshi, Reza Basiri,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2014)
Abstract

In forest ecosystems espcially riparian ones, individual trees have important effects on soil macrofauna. This research was conducted to study the effect of Populuseuphratica on soil macrofauna in Karoon River Side Forest near Shooshtar. Soil macrofauna were sampled in November 2012. Soil macrofauna under tree crown (in three crown diameter category) on parallel transects with 100 m distance from the river and eachother was sampled. Soil macrofauna in 50 cm× 50 cm plots upto 10 cm depth were hand sorted and identified to family level. Totally 342 plots were sampled. The results of correlation showed that there were negetive relationship between distance to tree crown center and soil macrofauna and this relationship was higher in the case of trees with lager crown. The results of ANOVA also showed that the crown diameter size did not have significant effect on soil macrofauna except on soil macrofauna evenness with low significant level. The correlation of distance to river with soil macrofauna showed higher abondance, richness and diversity in farther distances to the river while evenness were higher near the river. Totally it should be saied that indvidual P. euphratica wereeffective on soil macrofauna and it also should be considered the distance from riverside had massive influence on crown diamere.
Peyman Ashkavand, Masoud Tabari, Mehrdad Zarafshar,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2014)
Abstract

Undoubtedly, identifying and introducing drought resistant species for reforestation of the Zagros forests should be considered by forest specialists.,the current research identified mechanisms of drought tolerance in Hawthorn (CrataegusaroniaL.) and Mahaleb (Prunusmahaleb L.) seedlings in a greenhouse experiment using a completely randomized design. The experiment contained 3 stress treatments with 5 replications each. The treatments were soil moisture as control (based on field capacity), moderate stress (based on 50% field capacity) and severe stress (water withholding). Our findings showed that relative water content and stem water potential decreased in both species with increasing of drought severity. Although the total chlorophyll content was no affected by drought stress, carotenoid content was declined in response to the stress. Proline and total soluble carbohydrate concentration, as osmotic adjustments, increased in both species. According to electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde results, we concluded that Hawthorn can tolerate moderate and gradual drought stress by the means of some adaptations but accidental water withholding stress leads to oxidative stress in this species. On the other hand, although moderate and gradual drought stress leads to oxidative stress on the Mahaleb, but accidental water withholding stress did not have the same course of negative effect as it had on Hawthorn.
Babk Pilehvar, Sayed Vahid Sayedena, Javad Soosani, Hamzeh Jafari Sarabi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2015)
Abstract

Assessment of the plantation is fundamental for managers to improve plantation quality and successful plantation in the future. This study aimed to assess and compares Makhmalkooh forest park plantation data due to 18 years old period. Sampling was performed in a randomized systematic design using 60 circular plots in a 50*150 m rectangular grid. Diameter at breast height, basal area, tree height and crown canopy were measured for each species in all plots, and then total volume and mean of growth increment based on age were computed. Results showed that Cupressus arizonica and Amygdalus scoparia had the highest value in density, heterogeneity in species composition, and crown canopy and Capressus sempervirens and Olea europea had the least one. The survival rate for all species were 78.5 percent and different plantation types showed significant difference in diameter, basal area, crown canopy and total volume. The most value in mean of diameter and height increment was assigned to Pinus brutia and Cupressus sempervirens and the least value were assigned to Olea europea and Amygdalus scoparia. The results showed that Cupressus arizonica and Pinus brutia are the best species for afforestation in this region.
Maryam Sisakht Nejad , Roghayeh Zolfaghari ,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2015)
Abstract

Drought is the major environmental stresses that it can have a negative impact on plant growth. The study of gas exchange under drought stress can help to identify factors affecting stress resistant. Due to this fact that Zagros forests has Mediterranean and dry climate, with the aim of this study was to assess the impact of drought on leaf gas exchange in two oak species (Quercus brantii and Quercus libani). Water stress consisted of four levels of water stress (100%, 70%, 50% and 30% FC) in the greenhouse situations. Those seedlings were intended for water stress weren’t irrigated to reach to the desired field capacity (70%, 50% and 30% of field capacity), but control seedlings were irrigated every day in order to soil water content at field capacity shall be kept 100%. Results showed that water stress treatment has a significant reduction of stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, conduct mesophilic, carbon dioxide emission, and transpiration. Also Quercus libani showed higher level of photosynthesis, water use efficiency and transpiration than Quercus branti. Overall, results in both species, showed stomatal and non-stomatal limitation would cause of photosynthesis reduction. Also, due to higher water efficiency and lower gas parameter variations, Quercus libani would gain better mechanism of waster stress and Quercus brantii would gain the use drought avoidance mechanism.
Babak Pilehvar, Zahra Mirazadi, Vahid Alijani, Hamzeh Jafari Sarabi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2015)
Abstract

Considering the importance of forest structure and interaction among different tree species, this study conducted aimed to determine and compare spatial pattern, heterogeneity, and dimensions of Hawthorn and Maple trees with other neighbor trees. For determining Hawthorn and Maple trees structure, 30 individual of each trees were identified and studied. Based on the results, uniform angle index for Hawthorn and Maple trees were 0/744, and 0/733 respectively, which would propose a clumped pattern for these two species. Computed mingling index values for Hawthorn and Maple were 0/877 and 0/955 respectively that show a high tree species mixture. Also, the average of crown canopy differentiation and crown canopy dimension were 0/582 and 0/322 respectively, for Hawthorn tee and it was 0/42 and 0/656 respectively for Maple tree. Based on mean values, these results show that Hawthorn had high level of differentiation but was inferior in comparing to its neighbors whereas Maple has intermediate differentiation and is dominant to the other neighbors. The average distance to nearest neighbors for Hawthorn and Maple were calculated 7/374 and 6/278 respectively. The results of an absolute discrepancy algorithm (AD) showed a high differentiation of Hawthorn and Maple mixture in comparing to the other indices. It is concluded that maple is superior to hawthorn in dimension and because of low frequency of these two species, they hold high values of mingling indices.
Shaieste Gholami, Ehsan Sayad, Hanie Shahghobadi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2015)
Abstract

One of the main factors affecting sustainable management in the forest ecosystem is the biodiversity conservation. For achieving this purpose, we need to estimate and determine the biodiversity. The efficiency of sampling depends to some extent on plot size in a study. Therefore, a study was conducted in the Zagros forest (Baniloan, Javanrood, Kermanshah) to assess the effect of plot size on the abundance and diversity of tree species. We measured the diversity indices e.g. (Shannon H), richness (Minhinick) and evenness (Sheldon) in our data. These indices were analyzed at 270 sampling points along 3 parallel transects which ran perpendicular to the slope. The distances between transects was 500 m. Each transect comprised 30 sampling points with 3 different sizes of plots (10m×10m-20m×20m and 30m×30m plots). Abundance and diversity of tree species, richness and evenness analyzed by ANOVA and Duncan. The results showed that abundance and diversity increased significantly by increasing the size of the plots. The maximum diversity was seen in 900m2 plot size. At 400 m2 plot, richness was higher than two other plot size. But evenness was not significantly affected by plot size.
Fatemeh Aliyari, Mehrdad Zarafshar, Ali Soltani,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2015)
Abstract

Accessing to the data that could increase our knowledge associated with the response of seed to moisture content and temperature, is very important on exact time of planting decisions making. In this study Hydro-thermal-time modeling of Platycladus orientalis germination, one of the most planted trees in Iran forests, by applying 5 levels of water stress (0.-0.5, -1, -1.5, -2 MPa) and temperature treatments (10, 15, 20, 25, 30 ° C) was performed. The results showed that the optimum temperature (To) for germination is 23.12° C and basic temperature (Tb) for germination is 8.18 ° C. Meanwhile amount of the hydrotime constant (θH) for this species is 0.45. The outcomes indicated that the reduction in water potential and temperature germination is linearly reduced. Interaction of temperature and water potential factors affected significantly on time and percent germination value. A Hydro-thermal-time model was introduced for Platycladus orientalis L. in which its constant value was 105.1 MPa°C.d.
Mohammadjavad Taheri Sarteshnizi, Alireza Salehi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2015)
Abstract

In order to study the accuracy of assessment of the canopy cover density of a pure Persian oak stand with mixed coppice and standard forms using terrestrial digital photography, 16 circular sample plots with an area of 4.9 in a grid with sizes of 25 m by 25 m, over as forest stand with an area of 1 ha, with was used. The method of vertical sighting with Same as Cajanus tube was considered as the method of control to record either present or absent of canopy cover in 195 systematic sample points in each of sample plots. 9 vertically terrestrial digital photographs that contained of an image in the centre of the sample plots, 8 images in line with the bout main and sub- main geographic directions were taken. By calculation of the percentage of the canopy component of the forest stand using these methods, the results of the Kruscal–Wallis statistical test showed that there were not statistically significant differences between the different methods of estimation of the canopy cover component. In terms of the superiority of the bias indicator over the other methods, the method of 5 digital images in the main geographical directions, the method of 9 digital photographs and the method of 5 digital images in the four sub-directions were ranked from 1 to 3, respectively. The different methods of terrestrial digital photography would underestimate the canopy cover component in comparing with control method.
Mehrdad Mirzaei, Amir Eslam Bonyad, Mahboobeh Mohebi Bijarpas,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2015)
Abstract

The aim of this research, was to model the height frequency distribution of Quercus persica in Dalab forests of Ilam. In order to investigate the height frequency distribution of trees in the natural stands, 37 transect with fixed length (50m) selected and data were measure based on systematic random patterns with 100m×100m dimensions of network inventory. Finally, height of 209 trees of oak were measured and analyzed. Beta, Exponential, Gamma, Normal, Log-normal and Weibull probability distribution functions were fitted to the height distribution of oak trees. Characteristics of distribution function using the maximum likelihood estimation method was estimated. Empirical probability distribution and theoretical probability distribution was compared using Kolmogorov Smirnov and Chi square tests. The results of the Kolmogorov Smirnov test showed that Beta, Normal, Weibull, Gamma and Log-normal distributions were fitted to data better respectively but the Chi square test showed that Beta and Log-normal distributions had a good capability in explaining the trees height distribution. We concluded that Beta and Log-normal probability distributions can be used for those who want to simulate changes of forests.
Mehri Khosravi, Arash Derikvandi, Mojtaba Taseh,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (9-2015)
Abstract

To evaluate the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of forest park of Shourab's trees, consisting of Pinus brutia, Pinus pinea, Cupressus arizonica, Cupressus sempervirens var. sempervirens, Cupressus sempervirens var. Horizontals, Ailantus altissima, Robinia pseudoacasia and Fraxinus rotundifolia, inventory as a systematic random sampling and in statistical grid 100×150 meter and in 30 circular sample plots (2R) was undertaken. In each sample plot, tree's quantitative and qualitative characteristics, such as diameter at breast height,basal area of tree, tree height, crown coverage percent, h/d factor, regeneration, vitality, crown form and branchiness on the trunk were examined and measured. According to the results, about 75 percent of the species was due to conifers, especially Pinus brutia (45 percent), and 25 percent of hardwood species formed forest park trees. Also the average number of species in whole park was 604.05 per ha. The results shown that the average diameter at breast height, tree height and basal area of tree softwood species-particularly Pinus brutia and Cupressus arizonica, amounted to 23.02 cm, 9.5 m, 0.048 m2 and 13.47 cm, 8.02 m and 0.042 m2 higher than other species. With the concern of vitality, in softwoods, Cupressus arizonica specie had the most vitality range (85/75) percent and in hardwoods , Robinia pseudoacasia and species had the lowest vitality range (37.27) percent. Finally, we could say Softwood species afforested in terms of qualitative and quantitative indicators of hardwood species, is preferred. Nevertheless, the species of: Pinus brutia and Cupressus arizonica which have exhibited comparatively better performance are suggested for future afforestation expansion in this park.

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Mehdi Heydari, Ali Mahdavi,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (9-2015)
Abstract

In this study, the impact of land use change of forest areas to forest parks on species diversity indices in Chaghasabz Park (Ilam city) has been investigated. For this purpose, three regions in 30-hectare areas were considered, including the area, without, medium and intensive recreation. The field data were obtained using 20 sample plots with each plot covering an area of 400 m2 in a systematic random design (150 m×100 m) in each region. In order to record the herbaceous species, cover percentage for each herbaceous species was recorded in four micro-plots (1.5 m× 1.5 m) that were defined with Domin criterion. In order to evaluate plant diversity, biodiversity indices e.g. Shannon and Simpson and Maguran richness indices were computed. Also, for studying the comparison between the averages of plant diversity indices, Dunken analysis was used. The results showed that in areas without, average and intensive recreation, there were 29, 45 and 21 species respectively. Therophytes were dominant vegetative forms in all three areas. Asperula odorata, Centaurea irritans Wagentz. Marrabium vulgare L., Phlomis olivieri Benth. and Picnomon acarna (L.) Cass were not observed in intensive recreation region. The least shannon and Simpson diversity and richness indices were observed in intensive recreation region, but on the contrary, evenness index was substantial in intensive recreation. We concluded that  intense increase of recreation in forest region might cause a loss species diversity.


Yaser Mohammadi, Vahid Etemad,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (9-2015)
Abstract

Rural households’ involvement in forest conservation and reforestation depends on their perception towards forest perceived benefit which is attributed to demographic characteristics of the households head. In order to test this hypothesis, a study was run on rural households surrounded by Chahartagh forest reserve (N=600) which its livelihood was based on forest resources. About 196 rural households were determined as the research sample using Cochran’s formula through Simple random sampling procedure. Also, a researcher-designed questionnaire was used to collect data which its content validity confirmed by expert opinions and its reliability confirmed by Cronbach alpha coefficient. Collected data were analyzed by two software of IBMSPSS21 and LISREL8.5. The results showed that rural households’ perceptions towards forest are directly related to benefits they perceived from the forest. Perceptions towards forest benefits was summarized into three categories of perceptions towards forest economic, environmental and social benefits which economic benefit was recognized as the most important benefit perceived by respondents. From rural households’ perspective, the income gained from timber and non-timber products were the most important economic benefits of forests. Structural equation modeling results also revealed that rural household’ perception towards forest benefits differ among rural households according to their demographic characteristics. It observed that the younger, higher literacy level, had the higher income level and also, they had the more positive perception toward forest benefit. Also, each household’s head that was member of rural local institutions, had a corporation with NGOs and had participation into active groups to conserve forests had more positively perceived forest benefits.


Hojat Alah Omidi, Javad Mirzaei,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (9-2015)
Abstract

Natural regeneration is the most important principle to maintain and sustain of vegetation in each region, therefore, doing the research about the relationship between natural regeneration and environmental factors can be useful for conducting a better management in these regions.Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of physiographic factors and soil parameters on natural regeneration of trees and shrubs species in the forest of Baye Mountain in Eyvan city, Ilam province. Using systematic random sampling, 27 plots were implemented in the area with a total area of 900 square meters. Then environmental factors (physiographic and soil) and the number of natural regeneration were studied and measured. Correlation analysis showed that Cerasus microcarpa regeneration had positive correlation with OM and Ca and negative with EC. Regeneration of Acer monspessulanum L. had negative correlation with clay, and Amygdalus lycioides regeneration had positive correlation with silt, while there was no significant correlation between other species and other soil factors. The results showed that elevation had significant effects on natural regeneration of Cratagus pontica and Amygdalus lycioides, while the slope of gradient hadn&#39;t any significant effect on regeneration. Only, aspect had significant effects on Cerasus microcarpa regeneration, and regeneration of this species in the eastern and northwestern direction was more than other aspects.


Hassan Pourbabaei, Rasoul Cheraghi, Sepide Sadat Ebrahimi,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (9-2015)
Abstract

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of aspect on woody species structure and diversity in the Persian oak (Quercus brantii Lindl.) site, Dashtak area, Kohkiloye and Boyer Ahamd province in western Iran. Measurements were carried out in 3 elevation classes range from 2200 m to 2400 m a.s.l. Then, three sampling plots with area of 2500- m2 were selected in each elevation class. In total, five tree species, including Quercus brantii, Crataegusdavisii, Pistacia atlantica. Subsp. mutica, Lonicera nummulariifolia and Amygdalus communisand three shrub species such as Cerasus microcarpa, Amygdalus orientalis and Daphne mucronata were identified in the study area. In regeneration and tree layers the sum of basal area and average of regeneration&#39;s density was higher in southwestern aspect and belonged to Quercus brantii. The results of diversity indices in the tree layer indicated that the average of H (Shannon-Wiener index), Evar (Smith-Wilson index) and species richness were higher in southwestern aspect than in the northeastern aspects. In addition, the values of all diversity, evenness and richness indices were significantly higher in southwestern aspect the in shrub and regeneration layers. In general, the results indicated that the diversity indices increased under favorable conditions of ecological, environmental and structural factors. Furthermore, livestock access and exploitation of local people should be restricted off, providing favorable conditions in order to increase the diversity of species.


Abouzar Heidari Safari Kouch, Freshteh Moradian Fard, Azita Eskandari, Teimour Rostami Shahraji,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (9-2015)
Abstract

Persian oak (Quercus brantii Lindl.) has a wide distribution in central Zagros forests and it is the prevalent species in this region. Considering the high volume of demolition and the importance of safekeeping of this jungle, investigation and knowing the structure and the situation of this forest from the qunatitative and qualitative aspects is necessary. This study accomplished to investigate the condition of the Iranian oaks (Quercus brantii Lindl.) forests from the qunatitativeand qualitative aspects of Bazoft district of Kouhrang township of Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiaris province. In this respect, 60 numbers of plots with 400 meter distance  in a randomize systematic method established in the area. Then in the studding plots the quantitativecharacteristics of trees like: dbh, trees high, crown diameter measured and some characteristics like canopy percent and firewoods were estimated and registered. Also qunatitative marks from 1 to 4 were given to the trees and they were recorded and data were analyzed. The results shown that the jungle wasa non- coeval and it was sparse forest. Also, 81% of the region had 0-25% coverage. The most density and firewood volume was observedin northeast direction. Also,75% of the trees were inthe proper degrees of Succulence. The results of this study showed the average and a suitable situation of study area stands in comparison to the other regions of central Zagros forests.

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Amir Modaberi, Javad Soosani, Shyda Khosravi,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (9-2015)
Abstract

The main objective of this study was to estimate the effect of decline disturbance on diameter distribution of coppice oak trees in central Zagros region. For this purpose, two similar stands with equal areas (32ha) in central Zagros (Shorab in Lorestan province and Zarabin in Ilam province) were selected. Diameter at the breast height of declined trees was recorded before and after cutting using 100% inventory method. Following probability density functions (PDFs) Beta, Jonson, Weibull, Gamma, Normal and Log-normal were fitted to the data. The results of goodness of fit tests shown that Beta, Weibull and Jonson PDFs were fitted well to diameter of woody stems in Shorab but Jonson, Beta PDFs were much m ore suitable for Zarabin region. The difference of diameter at hight breast was studied in two stages of before and after declining by means of mortality PDF and using different PDFs. There was a big difference in diameter classes between before and after decline disturbance according to mortality distribution. There was no difference between before and after decline disturbance based upon statistical distribution fitting criteria. Outbreak of decline within this region had merely similar influences on all diameter classes, and as a result, it had not a significant effect on overall diameter fit.


Negin Behnia, Sayed Yousef Erfanifard, Sayed Rashid Fallah Shamsi, Sayed Aliakbar Moosavi,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (3-2016)
Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess the efficiency of cokriging method in comparing to kriging to map biophysical properties of wild pistachio trees in Zagros forests. A 45 ha stand, covered with wild pistachio trees was chosen in FiroozAbad wild pistachio research site in Fars province. 87 circular plates with 800 m2 area were selected based on a 72 × 72 m2 grid. Biophysical properties (height, diameter at breast height, trees per ha, and canopy cover percent) of all wild pistachio trees were measured in each plot. Kriging and cokriging methods were then used to map each biophysical property. The results showed that mean error and root mean squared error of height, diameter at breast height, and trees per ha of cokriging method were less than kriging method. The regression coefficients of height, diameter at breast height, and trees per ha of cokriging method were also greater than the kriging method that showed the efficiency of the cokriging method in the improvement of estimation of trees’ biophysical properties. The amount of root mean squared error and regression coefficient were slightly better for canopy cover percent in kriging, though, they were not significant. In general, it was concluded that the maps of biophysical properties can be obtained with suitable accuracy and precision using Cokriging method.



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