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Ahmad Hossieni , Syyed Mohsen Hossieni ,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (9-2016)

Oak decline is a complex phenomenon that oak forests are faced with it across the world and Iran. Shalam forested area located in north of Ilam province was selectedto determine the role of topographicand some edaphic factors in tree mortality happened in Persian oak forests. The study region was divided into 20 homogeneous topographic units. Within each homogeneousunit,three 0.1-haplots  were randomly-systematically established for measuring the rate of tree mortality and oneprofile was prepared for characterization ofsome  physical and chemical soil characteristics (texture, moisture content, TNV%, OC% and N for each soil layer, and soil depth). In each plot,diameter at breast height (DBH), maximum and minimum crown diameters, crown dieback percent, origination and form of trees and shrubs for all species and site variables weremeasured. Results showed that 15.7% of forest stock had reduced while 97.65% of it belonged to Persian oak species. The results of multiple linear regression and RDA showed that tree mortality was significantly affected by elevation and aspect, but not by slope. The highestrate of tree mortality was observedin high elevation and south and west aspects. Also the results of multiple linear regression and RDA showed that tree mortality was significantly affected by soil depth and texture. So, the highestrate of tree mortality was observed in soils with less depth, less sand% and more silt%. It was concluded that topography and soil have effective role in tree mortality and its expansion across Zagros forests. Identifying the critical conditions in terms of topography and soil in these forests can help and be useful in the management of tree dieback.

Masoud Nejabat, Mohammadreza Negahdarsaber,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (3-2017)

Background and objectives: Familiarity with the appropriate soil conditions for Pistacia atlantica leads to improve and develop forest vegetation cover in Zagros zone. The main aim of this research was investigate suitable soil characteristics ranges for natural growth of this species in Fars province.
Materials and Methods: Field studies and soil sampling was done based on network sampling (20×20 km grid) in wild pistachio forests of Fars province with crucified pattern. The filed study showed mountain and hilly land are the main land types that pistachio species have placed on them. These land types include the displacement of rock, stone and gravel as high and low soil depth with moderate to severe water erosion.
Results: Main physical and chemical properties measurement of soil samples showed that the only limiting growth factor has been the low soil depth. The low effective soil depth and light soil texture are the most important limiting factor on soil moisture storage ability (from rain). This deficiency, transition from drought or very dry periods (resulting from an undesirable distribution of rain) makes it difficult. Statistical analysis methods based on principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) shows that wide ranges in soil characters, even up to about 40% differentiation in the measured properties do not make restrictions for pistachio Natural growth. Ecologically, Pistacia atlantica is a drought-tolerant plant. Wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica) is one of the high resistance species in wide range of soil condition (soil characteristics) and this feature (desirable survival) make it favorite for Zagros forest rehabilitation.
Conclusion: Land and grazing management (land use planning), along with watershed management practices can conserve and improve soil and environment of wild pistachio habitats of the Zagros forests.

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