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Showing 14 results for Zagros

Payam Fayyaz, Seyedeh Saba Nabavi Goldeh, Masoud Dehdari,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2014)
Abstract

Brant oak(Quercusbrantii) is one of the most abundant tree species in Zagros forests but there have been scantefforts to its propagation via shoot cuttings approach. Any achievement in its asexual reproduction shall accelerate the breeding improvements. For this purpose, under growing twigs of Brant oak with and without apical bud were cultured in different culture mediums of half MS and WPM adopting in vitro conditions. In order to study of the explants' sterilization, four kinds of sterilizing reagent consist of ethanol, mercury chloride, sodium and calcium hypochlorite with and without Tween as a surfactant in different concentrations were tested and the rate of contamination, phenolic leakage and browning of explants were recorded. The effect of different treatments of ascorbic acid, acetic acid, PVP, activated charcoal and darkness on phenolic leakage and browning of explants were evaluated. The ratio of proliferation and callus formation with different NAA and BAP concentrations were investigated. Finally the rooting vigor of explants by four auxin combinations (control, 0.4 mg L-1 NAA, 0.4 mg L-1 IBA and a mixture of NAA and IBA with amount of 0.1 and 0.3 mg L-1) and three cytokinin concentration (0, 0.4 and 1 mg L-1 ) were assessed. The results revealed that the best suitable condition to establish and proliferate of under growing twigs of Brant oak was sterilizing the explants using mercuric chloride 0.1% (w/v) and transferring to WPM medium containing 0.5 mg L-1 PVP or activated charcoal. Increasing BAP and NAA concentrations up to 1 and 0.1 mg L-1 respectively had no significant effect on proliferation rate of explants. None of the rooting treatments were conducted to root formation in explants.
Maryam Sisakht Nejad , Roghayeh Zolfaghari ,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2015)
Abstract

Drought is the major environmental stresses that it can have a negative impact on plant growth. The study of gas exchange under drought stress can help to identify factors affecting stress resistant. Due to this fact that Zagros forests has Mediterranean and dry climate, with the aim of this study was to assess the impact of drought on leaf gas exchange in two oak species (Quercus brantii and Quercus libani). Water stress consisted of four levels of water stress (100%, 70%, 50% and 30% FC) in the greenhouse situations. Those seedlings were intended for water stress weren’t irrigated to reach to the desired field capacity (70%, 50% and 30% of field capacity), but control seedlings were irrigated every day in order to soil water content at field capacity shall be kept 100%. Results showed that water stress treatment has a significant reduction of stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, conduct mesophilic, carbon dioxide emission, and transpiration. Also Quercus libani showed higher level of photosynthesis, water use efficiency and transpiration than Quercus branti. Overall, results in both species, showed stomatal and non-stomatal limitation would cause of photosynthesis reduction. Also, due to higher water efficiency and lower gas parameter variations, Quercus libani would gain better mechanism of waster stress and Quercus brantii would gain the use drought avoidance mechanism.
Babak Pilehvar, Zahra Mirazadi, Vahid Alijani, Hamzeh Jafari Sarabi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2015)
Abstract

Considering the importance of forest structure and interaction among different tree species, this study conducted aimed to determine and compare spatial pattern, heterogeneity, and dimensions of Hawthorn and Maple trees with other neighbor trees. For determining Hawthorn and Maple trees structure, 30 individual of each trees were identified and studied. Based on the results, uniform angle index for Hawthorn and Maple trees were 0/744, and 0/733 respectively, which would propose a clumped pattern for these two species. Computed mingling index values for Hawthorn and Maple were 0/877 and 0/955 respectively that show a high tree species mixture. Also, the average of crown canopy differentiation and crown canopy dimension were 0/582 and 0/322 respectively, for Hawthorn tee and it was 0/42 and 0/656 respectively for Maple tree. Based on mean values, these results show that Hawthorn had high level of differentiation but was inferior in comparing to its neighbors whereas Maple has intermediate differentiation and is dominant to the other neighbors. The average distance to nearest neighbors for Hawthorn and Maple were calculated 7/374 and 6/278 respectively. The results of an absolute discrepancy algorithm (AD) showed a high differentiation of Hawthorn and Maple mixture in comparing to the other indices. It is concluded that maple is superior to hawthorn in dimension and because of low frequency of these two species, they hold high values of mingling indices.
Mohammadjavad Taheri Sarteshnizi, Alireza Salehi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2015)
Abstract

In order to study the accuracy of assessment of the canopy cover density of a pure Persian oak stand with mixed coppice and standard forms using terrestrial digital photography, 16 circular sample plots with an area of 4.9 in a grid with sizes of 25 m by 25 m, over as forest stand with an area of 1 ha, with was used. The method of vertical sighting with Same as Cajanus tube was considered as the method of control to record either present or absent of canopy cover in 195 systematic sample points in each of sample plots. 9 vertically terrestrial digital photographs that contained of an image in the centre of the sample plots, 8 images in line with the bout main and sub- main geographic directions were taken. By calculation of the percentage of the canopy component of the forest stand using these methods, the results of the Kruscal–Wallis statistical test showed that there were not statistically significant differences between the different methods of estimation of the canopy cover component. In terms of the superiority of the bias indicator over the other methods, the method of 5 digital images in the main geographical directions, the method of 9 digital photographs and the method of 5 digital images in the four sub-directions were ranked from 1 to 3, respectively. The different methods of terrestrial digital photography would underestimate the canopy cover component in comparing with control method.
Hassan Pourbabaei, Rasoul Cheraghi, Sepide Sadat Ebrahimi,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (9-2015)
Abstract

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of aspect on woody species structure and diversity in the Persian oak (Quercus brantii Lindl.) site, Dashtak area, Kohkiloye and Boyer Ahamd province in western Iran. Measurements were carried out in 3 elevation classes range from 2200 m to 2400 m a.s.l. Then, three sampling plots with area of 2500- m2 were selected in each elevation class. In total, five tree species, including Quercus brantii, Crataegusdavisii, Pistacia atlantica. Subsp. mutica, Lonicera nummulariifolia and Amygdalus communisand three shrub species such as Cerasus microcarpa, Amygdalus orientalis and Daphne mucronata were identified in the study area. In regeneration and tree layers the sum of basal area and average of regeneration's density was higher in southwestern aspect and belonged to Quercus brantii. The results of diversity indices in the tree layer indicated that the average of H (Shannon-Wiener index), Evar (Smith-Wilson index) and species richness were higher in southwestern aspect than in the northeastern aspects. In addition, the values of all diversity, evenness and richness indices were significantly higher in southwestern aspect the in shrub and regeneration layers. In general, the results indicated that the diversity indices increased under favorable conditions of ecological, environmental and structural factors. Furthermore, livestock access and exploitation of local people should be restricted off, providing favorable conditions in order to increase the diversity of species.


Amir Modaberi, Javad Soosani, Shyda Khosravi,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (9-2015)
Abstract

The main objective of this study was to estimate the effect of decline disturbance on diameter distribution of coppice oak trees in central Zagros region. For this purpose, two similar stands with equal areas (32ha) in central Zagros (Shorab in Lorestan province and Zarabin in Ilam province) were selected. Diameter at the breast height of declined trees was recorded before and after cutting using 100% inventory method. Following probability density functions (PDFs) Beta, Jonson, Weibull, Gamma, Normal and Log-normal were fitted to the data. The results of goodness of fit tests shown that Beta, Weibull and Jonson PDFs were fitted well to diameter of woody stems in Shorab but Jonson, Beta PDFs were much m ore suitable for Zarabin region. The difference of diameter at hight breast was studied in two stages of before and after declining by means of mortality PDF and using different PDFs. There was a big difference in diameter classes between before and after decline disturbance according to mortality distribution. There was no difference between before and after decline disturbance based upon statistical distribution fitting criteria. Outbreak of decline within this region had merely similar influences on all diameter classes, and as a result, it had not a significant effect on overall diameter fit.


Negin Behnia, Sayed Yousef Erfanifard, Sayed Rashid Fallah Shamsi, Sayed Aliakbar Moosavi,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (3-2016)
Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess the efficiency of cokriging method in comparing to kriging to map biophysical properties of wild pistachio trees in Zagros forests. A 45 ha stand, covered with wild pistachio trees was chosen in FiroozAbad wild pistachio research site in Fars province. 87 circular plates with 800 m2 area were selected based on a 72 × 72 m2 grid. Biophysical properties (height, diameter at breast height, trees per ha, and canopy cover percent) of all wild pistachio trees were measured in each plot. Kriging and cokriging methods were then used to map each biophysical property. The results showed that mean error and root mean squared error of height, diameter at breast height, and trees per ha of cokriging method were less than kriging method. The regression coefficients of height, diameter at breast height, and trees per ha of cokriging method were also greater than the kriging method that showed the efficiency of the cokriging method in the improvement of estimation of trees’ biophysical properties. The amount of root mean squared error and regression coefficient were slightly better for canopy cover percent in kriging, though, they were not significant. In general, it was concluded that the maps of biophysical properties can be obtained with suitable accuracy and precision using Cokriging method.


Hossein Mirzaie-Nodoushan, Zahra Abravesh, . Mahdi Pourhashemi, Majid Hassani, Parisa Panahi,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (3-2016)
Abstract

Although Quercus brantii Lindl. has shown suitable genetic variation in Iran, which is required for a sustainable forest ecosystem, but during the last decade, it came across some difficulties which are considered as oak decline. This research investigated seedling characteristics of four plant populations of the Quercus brantii species to assess genetic potentials of the populations to base a cornerstone for complimentary studies. Seeds were collected on ten single trees for each of plant population located in Kurdistan, Lorestan, Ilam, and Fars provinces in Iran. Seeds were sown in pots at greenhouse conditions to produce at least 30 single progeny seedlings from each population with three replications were studied. Vegetative characteristics such as plant height, leaf length, leaf width, and plant vigor were studied on the single plants. Data were analyzed based on a double nested statistical model, and then the data were analyzed on each population separately. Results indicated significant differences between the studied populations based on seedling height and plant vigor. Plant within population, showing possible differences between the single trees within the populations, was also significant for seedling height, leaf length and leaf width. In population based analysis, the populations showed different behaviors, so as there was not significant effects between single plants in Kurdistan population for plant height and leaf traits; whereas, in Lorestan and Ilam populations significant effects for the mentioned traits were observed. Although the populations showed different characteristics at seedling stage, but it is sought that there are still enough genetic variability and the high heritability that might be used in future breeding projects.


Sabrieh Moradi , Roghayeh Zolfaghari ,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (3-2016)
Abstract

Morphological characteristics of individuals are due to hereditary and environmental factors. Regarding to the importance of leaf morphology in systematics investigations and bearing up the effects of environmental variations, especially altitudinal variations on these traits, the differentiation feasibility of brant oak in a restricted altitudinal gradient is investigated. A total number of 400 leaves from 40 individual ramets in Armarde, in an altitudinal ranges from 1580 to 1844 meters above sea level were sampled and 29 quantitative and qualitative traits were measured. The results revealed that the number of teeth and the shape of leaf at lower altitudes are lesser than higher altitudes. Also, leaf base angle has a negative and significant correlation with the altitude. In two altitudinal classes, the shape of leaf tip and the angle of midrib and vein, showed the lowest plasticity and coefficient of variation with respect to environmental conditions. Ramets were classified in three different classes based on cluster analysis and the separator traits were the maximum leaf width, leaf area and sinusoidal angle. Considering the fact that the separator traits would not showed any significant association with altitude,  it seems that some variations might be likely due to physiological response of leaves to environmental variations. However, itchr('39')s more likely that the occurrence of inter and intra specific hybridization between brant´s oak species would culminated in separation of the individuals.


Vahid Mirzaei Zadeh, Maryam Niknejad, Mehdi Haydari,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (9-2016)
Abstract

The importance of vegetation as a dynamic factor affecting the biological conditions requires that a detailed qualitative and quantitative information about its changes be prepared in short intervals. In this study, in order to monitor and predict vegetation density in Venet watershed in Ilam province the Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and Landsat images from 1988 and 2007 was used and vegetation density maps in three classes without canopy cover, thinned and dense canopy covers were prepared. Comparing the extent of vegetation density classes indicated that the extent of bare soil areas have increased as 1158/837 hectares while the extent of thinned and dense canopy covers 360/8277 and 797/9544 hectares respectively has been reduced. Assessing changes in vegetation density showed that from the classes with thinned and dense canopy covers as 1233/4828 and 210/4539 ha respectively have become no vegetation cover class. Also as 246 /2742 and 38 /8255 hectares of the bare soil areas have been converted to thinned and dense canopy cover classes respectively. Using Markov models and automated cells to predict changes in vegetation density showed that the highest and lowest probability of transition to no vegetation cover lands has been seen respectively in thinned (0.5059) and dense canopy cover (0.1023) lands. Finally, assuming a continuation of current trends, watershed vegetation density map of the target for 2020 was forecast. This map shows in the near future the land without vegetation cover will devote itself about 87 percent of this region.


Farhad Ghasemi Aghbash, Geshin Allah Veisi, Vahid Hosseini,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (9-2016)
Abstract

Litter decomposition is the most important way of nutrient entering to soil and soil nutrient availability is highly related to dynamics of nutrients and litter decomposition in the forest ecosystems. This study aimed to evaluate the dynamics of nutrients and litter decomposition in the northern Zagros forests using litterbag technique for 180 days in the Khul Hoare forests located in Baneh city. The litter bags were collected at intervals of 30, 60, 120 and 180 days and the rate of leaf litter decomposition and chemical compounds such as nitrogen, carbon, phosphorus, potassium and calcium were measured. The results showed there was no significant correlation between the rate of decomposition and the initial composition of nutrients and also C: N and C: P ratios. Due to the qualification of leaf litter based on the amount of nitrogen in this study, the average amount of nitrogen in Quercus libani was 1.37%. So Lebanon oak can be classified in the average group and it can be considered as a soil improver species. In the studied litter, phosphorus and nitrogen had a similar performance and their concentration increased over time (7.27 and 30.38 mg/g respectively). While concentration of elements such as calcium, potassium and magnesium was decreased. The nutrient concentration of Quercus libani leaf litter was Ca>N>P>K> Mg.


Masoud Nejabat, Mohammadreza Negahdarsaber,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (3-2017)
Abstract

Background and objectives: Familiarity with the appropriate soil conditions for Pistacia atlantica leads to improve and develop forest vegetation cover in Zagros zone. The main aim of this research was investigate suitable soil characteristics ranges for natural growth of this species in Fars province.
Materials and Methods: Field studies and soil sampling was done based on network sampling (20×20 km grid) in wild pistachio forests of Fars province with crucified pattern. The filed study showed mountain and hilly land are the main land types that pistachio species have placed on them. These land types include the displacement of rock, stone and gravel as high and low soil depth with moderate to severe water erosion.
Results: Main physical and chemical properties measurement of soil samples showed that the only limiting growth factor has been the low soil depth. The low effective soil depth and light soil texture are the most important limiting factor on soil moisture storage ability (from rain). This deficiency, transition from drought or very dry periods (resulting from an undesirable distribution of rain) makes it difficult. Statistical analysis methods based on principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) shows that wide ranges in soil characters, even up to about 40% differentiation in the measured properties do not make restrictions for pistachio Natural growth. Ecologically, Pistacia atlantica is a drought-tolerant plant. Wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica) is one of the high resistance species in wide range of soil condition (soil characteristics) and this feature (desirable survival) make it favorite for Zagros forest rehabilitation.
Conclusion: Land and grazing management (land use planning), along with watershed management practices can conserve and improve soil and environment of wild pistachio habitats of the Zagros forests.

Dr Farhad Ghasemi Aghbash, Sara Falahi,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (3-2017)
Abstract

Background and objectives: The recent movements opposing deforestation are indicative of the fact that in most programs carried out, less attention has been paid to the socio-economic status of the local people. In extensive deforestation, rural communities play a significant role. Therefore, this study examines the role of economic and social factors in the destruction of the forests of the Oulad Ghobad regions.
Materials and methods: This research was carried out as a field study, using a questionnaire. The population comprised 398 families living on the outskirts of the Saman-e Orfi Forest in the Oulad Ghobad region. Out of this population, 150 families were randomly chosen, using Cochran’s sample size formula. Furthermore, 40 questionnaires were distributed among the officers of Lorestan Natural Resources Office. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire established by a pre-test and Cronbachchr('39')s alpha were 0.83 for local people and 0.705 for officers, respectively.
Results: The findings showed that from the viewpoints of both officers and local people, human factors (such as lack of agricultural lands, conversion of forests into agricultural lands by forest dwellers, poverty and and low income, and high unemployment rate) contribute more to deforestation, compared to natural factors (such as drought and forest fire). As for prioritizing human and natural factors contributing to deforestation, the results showed that according to local people, lack of agricultural lands (mean rank of 7.58), and according to officers, conversion of forests to agricultural lands by foresters (mean rank of 11.25) were the main contributing factors. In addition, the results showed that there was a significant negative relationship between income and the factors contributing to deforestation (P <0.001).
Conclusion: In general, the results showed that human factors have a significant effect on the deforestation of the Oulad Ghobad region of Koohdasht and  the role of human factors is more conspicuous compared to natural factors.
 
Ahmad Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen Hosseini,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (3-2017)
Abstract

Background and objectives: Understanding the spatial pattern of tree species in their social life could have many applications from the standpoint of ecology and applied silviculture for their optimal management. For the purpose of studying the spatial pattern of Quercus brantii and Pistacia atlantica in relation to stand form and topographic factors, we selected the Manesht forested area in northern Ilam.
Materials and methods: In this research, 75 sample plots (with 2000 m2 area) were chosen, using systematic random sampling method within the study area. The variables in the plots comprised the number of tree species and topographic factors. The dispersion indices of interest included Morisita, Sstandard Morisita, Green, Lioyd and variance to mean ratio. The calculation of quantitative indices, by running the relevant computational formulas, was performed by Ecological Methodology Software. In addition, in terms of accuracy, the efficiency of quantitative indices was studied and compared. Statistical analysis of data was carried out using SPSS Software.
Results: The results showed that, for Q. brantii, the values of variance to mean ratio, Morisita and Lioyd indices and for P. atlantica, the values of Morisita, Green and Lioyd were higher in standard and coppice stands than the coppice and standard stands. For both species of Q. brantii and P. atlantica, all of the indices in question increased with increasing elevation, and the highest values of indices were obtained in 2100-2300 m a.s.l. For Q. brantii, the values of all of the indices increased with increasing slope, and the highest value was obtained in the slope class more than 60%. Moreover, for P. atlantica, the highest values of all indices were obtained in the slope class of 30-60%. The spatial pattern in classes of 0-30% and 30-60% was clumped and in more than 60%, it was regular. For Q. brantii, the values of all indices and for P. atlantica, the values of Morisita and Lioyd were the highest in the southern direction. The results of the precision study of the indices showed that for Q. brantii, the indices of Morisita and Standard Morisita and for P. atlantica, indices of Standard Morisita and Green had the highest precision.
Conclusion: It was concluded that the value of dispersion indices (especially more accurate indices) varies by environmental factors and thus changes in values could be used in forest dynamic studies and the interpretation of changes in forests.


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