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Showing 12 results for Irrigation

Esmaeil Gholinezhad,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2014)
Abstract

In order to investigate the effects of water deficit stress effects, different rates of nitrogen and plant density on remobilization, current photosynthesis and grain yield in oily sunflower var. Iroflor, an experiment was carried out in field Agriculture and Research center of West-Azerbaijan during 2011 and 2012 cropping seasons. The experimental was conducted as split-split-plot base on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCB) with 3 replications. The main factor was consisted irrigation treatment including optimum irrigation, moderate stress and sever stress which irrigation was done after depletion of 50%, 70% and 90% of available water, respectively. Three nitrogen levels of 100, 160 and 220 kg N haG1 were considered as sub plots and sub-sub plots consisted of three plant populations of 5.55, 6.66 and 8.33 plants m2. The results of combined analyzes showed that severe drought stress reduced the grain yield by 60% compared to the optimum irrigation condition. Comparison of two-year-mean revealed that severe drought stress in compared with optimum irrigation dry matter remobilization rate decreased about 30 percent. Also, severe drought stress led to 35% reduction of current photosynthesis efficiency in compared with optimum irrigation. In each level of nitrogen fertilizer, increasing plant population led to increase contribution of remobilization but current photosynthesis contribution decreased. Therefore, due to reduction of current photosynthesis rate in severe drought stress condition, contribution of current photosynthesis decreased so that increasing of (contribution of, deleted) remobilization contribution prevented reduction of seed yield.
Hadi Estiri, Mohammad Armin, Ismaeal Filehkesh,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2014)
Abstract

A field experiments was conducted at Sabzevar Agriculture & Natural Resources A field experiments was conducted to study the effect of zinc sulfate foliar application on yield and yield components of sunflower, Haysun-25 cultivar (Helianthus annuus L.) under drought stress at Sabzevar Agriculture & Natural Resources research center. This experiment was carried out (conducted, deleted) as split plot based on randomized complete block (RCB) design that main and subplot factors were drought stress levels [Non-stress, Moderate and High drought stress (6, 12 and 18 day’s irrigation interval, respectively] and foliar zinc applications (0, 5, 10 and 15‰), respectively. Foliar application of zinc was performed in 6 to 8 leaf stage of sunflower. Plant height, seeds per head, hollowness percentage seeds, 1000 seed weight, grain yield and biological yield were significantly affected by drought stress. Severe drought stress decreased plant height, seeds per head, 1000 seed weight and economic yield and increased percentage of empty seeds. The highest yield and yield components were related to foliar application with 15‰ concentration of zinc sulfate and the lowest one was related to the control. However, yield response to zinc sulfate foliar application was more in non-stress condition, but zinc sulfate with 15‰ led to decrease of negative effects of drought stress. Overall, the highest yield was obtained by spraying with concentration of 15‰ zinc sulfate and non-stress condition.
Mehdi Ghaffari,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2014)
Abstract

Impact of three water deficit treatments in vegetative, flowering and grain filling stages along with optimum irrigation as control were evaluated on grain yield and agronomic characteristics of 8 sunflower cultivars (Hysun 33, Hysun 25, Farrokh, Record, Aravirski, Lakumka, Master and SHF 81-90) as a strip plot design with three replications in Khoy Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Station. Different water regimes had significant effect on growth period, plant height, stem and head diameter, seed yield and its component. Stem diameter, plant height and seed number per head were affected considerably by drought stress in vegetative stage, while head diameter by drought stress in flowering stage and growth period and seed weight by water deficit in seed filling stage. Water deficit in flowering and vegetative stages had the highest (38%) and lowest (25%) negative effect on grain yield, respectively, so flowering stage and vegetative stage established as the most sensitive and tolerant stages to water deficit, respectively. Farrokh hybrid with highest seed yield in different irrigation treatments (3686, 2856, 2256 and 2506 Kg/ha in control and water deficit in vegetative, flowering and grain filling stages, respectively) revealed as the most drought tolerant cultivator while Hysun33 lowest seed yield showed maximum drought sensitive.
Hamid Jabbari, Gh. Abbas Akbari, Nayer Azam Khosh Kholgh Sima, Iraj Alahdadi, Amir Hossein Shirani Rad, Seyed Ali Tabatabaee, Ali Hamed,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2014)
Abstract

In order to comparison of antioxidant enzymes and proline roles in drought tolerance of rapeseed, an experiment was conducted at the research field of Yazd Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center in 2011-2012. In this study, three commercial rapeseed genotypes (GKH2005, Opera and Okapi) were examined for response to irrigation treatments such as non-stress conditions (control) and withholding irrigation from stem elongation, flowering and silique formation stages in four separate experiments based on randomized complete block (RCB) design. The results indicated that proline accumulation, activity of catalase and proxidase enzyme and lipid peroxidation index (content of malondealdehyde) were higher in drought stress treatments, but these amounts were different in three rapeseed genotypes. Maximum activity of antioxidant enzymes and low content of malondealdehyde was observed in GKH2005 compared with others, in drought stress conditions. Between these genotypes, GKH2005 produced the highest seed yield under non-stress conditions and withholding irrigation from stem elongation, flowering and silique formation stages as 3110, 1450, 1773 and 2510 kg.ha-1, respectively. These results showed that role of antioxidant enzymes on reduction of lipid peroxidation and increasing the drought tolerance is more than proline. Also, an effective antioxidant system along with lower malondealdehyde and high silique number per secondary branch had the greatest role to productivity maintenance of Rapeseed under drought stress conditions
Abolfazl Faraji,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2015)
Abstract

Optimum leaf area index (LAI) is necessary to decrease in soil surface evaporation, to intercept maximum radiation and to increase in dry matter production and seed yield. In order to study the development of leaf area in canola (B. napus) and its relationship with seed yield, this experiment was conducted at agricultural research station of Gonbad during 2005-7. The experiment was a RCBD arranged in a split-plot in two conditions, i.e. supplemental irrigation and rain-fed. Five sowing dates (SD) (Nov. 6, Dec. 6, Jan. 4, Feb. 5 and Mar. 5) assigned as main plots and two cultivars (Hyola 401 and RGS003) as subplots. In all treatments, the number of leaves on main stem and LAI increased till the beginning of seed filling, and then decreased considerably due to sever shedding of leaves. LAI at the beginning of seed filling stage, varied from 6.1 in Nov. 6 to 3.1 at Mar. 5 SDs in supplemental irrigation conditions, and from 5.2 on Nov. 6 to 2.4 at Mar. 5 SDs in rain-fed conditions. The better early growth of Hyola401 compared to RGS003 cultivar caused that, in each year and conditions, LAI of Hyola401 was significantly more than RGS003 at the beginning of stem elongation and budding. The strong relationships between the number of leaves on main stem and LAI at different growth stages and seed yield, showed the positive effects of these traits on seed yield.
Parviz Yadollahi, Mohammad R. Asgharipour, Nooralah Kheiri, Asghar Ghaderi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2015)
Abstract

Management of organic fertilizers in terms of environmental impact and crop yield is important, especially in arid and semiarid regions. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the effect of drought stress and organic fertilizer on some morphological and yield components of safflower. The experiment was conducted as a split-plot based on a randumaized complet block design with three drought stresses: irrigation at 35, 55 and 75% of ready available water (RAW) depletion comprising the main-plot, and four fertilization systems: non-application (control), application of 40 tons of compost ha-1, humic acid spraying (1.5 g per litr) and combining compost and humic acid as sub-plot that were applied with three replications. The experiment was conducted in 2013 at the Zabol University research farm in Zabol, south Iran. Drought stress reduced oil yield, chlorophyll fluorescence and membrane stability. Delays in irrigation by 75% RAW depletion reduced oil yield by 68.6% compared with the control. Organic fertilizer application increased oil content and oil yield, membrane stability, carbohydrates, peroxidase, catalase and guaiacol peroxidase activiteis. Integrated application of compost and humic acid increased oil yield by 99.7% over the control. Application of humic acid and compost can be combined to develop safflower cultivation in Sistan, especially in mild stress conditions.
Seyed Ahmad Kalantar Ahmadi, Amir Husein Shirani Rad, Seyed Ataollah Siadat,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2015)
Abstract

In order to study the effect of limited-irrigation stress on canola cultivars, an experiment was conducted in 2007-2008 at the Safiabad agricultural research center. The design was a split plot in a completely randomized block basis with three replications. Main plots were consisted of 4 levels of limited-irrigation, irrigation based on 60 mm cumulative evaporation (Control), withholding irrigation in flowering stage, withholding irrigation in pod initiation and irrigation withholding in grain filling period, and subplots were 5 canola cultivars (Hyola308, Hyola330, Hyola401, Hyola420 and RGS003). The mean comparison of interaction showed that the highest (3155.55 kg.ha-1) grain yield appointed to Hyola420 cultivar in optimum irrigation (control treatment), and the lowest (1491.66 kg.ha-1) belonged to RGS003 cultivar at withholding irrigation in pod initiation period. The maximum (161.42) number of pods observed on Hyola330 cultivar at optimum irrigation (irrigation after 60 mm cumulative evaporation), and the minimum (78.1) ones appointed to RGS003 cultivar at withholding irrigation in pod initiation period. Results showed that there was no significant difference among withholding irrigation, cultivars and the interaction effect of them for oil content. By considering the results of this experiment, withholding irrigation at flowering, pod initiation and grain filling periods leads to decrease grain yield by 24.72%, 14.33% and 11%, respectively. Reduction of grain yield due to the withholding irrigation during flowering, podding and grain filling stages was along with a decrease in the number of pods per plant and thousand seed weight. By considering the results of experiment, withholding irrigation in flowering stage has to be avoided.
Hossein Mokhtari Karchegani, Seyedh Zahra Hosseini Cc, Seyed Abdolreza Kazemeini ,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2015)
Abstract

To evaluate the effects of nitrogen and water stress on allelopathic potential of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) on the seed germination traits of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), a factorial experiment was carried out in randomized complete design (CRD) with three replications in the greenhouse and laboratory, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran in 2012-13. Treatments included irrigation [Normal (I1) and water stress (I2)] and nitrogen [control (no nitrogen), Urea (200 kg N ha-1), Nitroxin (Azotobacter) and Nitrokara (Azospirillum and Azotobacter) inoculation per kg seeds]. Extracts were prepared from sorghum shoot resiude in 5, 10, 15 and 20 (W/V) and were applied to individual Petri dishes distilled water was used as control treatment. Also, foliar applications of extracts were applied in treatments under the greenhouse conditions and sorghum dried residues were also mixed with the soil in amounts of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 g after the first irrigation. Analysis of variance showed that interaction effects of sorghum extract type and its concentration had significant effects on all traits except relative water content. Safflower germination percentage reduced with increase in concentration. 5, 10 and 15% concentrations of Nitrokara under normal irrigation had 34, 22 and 12%, effects on allelopathy index of safflower respectively. Whereas concentration of 20% extract, decreased allelopathy index by 71%. The effects antagonist on length and dry weights of roots and shoots was observed when biofertilizer treatments (Nitroxin and Nitrokara) applied. In addition, more synergist effects were obtained when urea extract was appliedt under water stress. The results of foliar application revealed a decrease in CAT and POD activities in leaves of safflower when urea was usedunder water stress conditions. However, the lowest germination rate and primary growth of safflower was abserved when urea applied under water stress conditions.
Ayub Amiri, Parviz Yadolahi, Alireza Siroosmehr, Sedigheh Esmaeilzadeh,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (9-2015)
Abstract

To study the effects of drought stress and salicylic acid and Chitosan spraying on safflower, an experiment was conducted as a split plot design as base of a randomized complete block design with three replications. The drought stress had 4 levels ascontrol and irrigation after 25, 50 and 75% of soil available water as main plots and sprayin of salicylic acid (0.424 grams per liter), chitosan solution (5 g per liter) and both of them that were considered as sub-plots. drought stress reduced the number of heads per plant, head diameter, stem diameter, number of leaves, seed weight, seed weight and increased the percentage of hollowness of the seed. Application of chitosan and salicylic acid increased the distance of the first branch from the ground, head diameter, stem diameter, number of leaves, flowers, root length and weight and yield components as number of seeds per head, seed weight per head, seed weight and unfilled seed percentage. It seems salicylic acid and chitosan spray can be sugested to develop boost crop cultivation and increase safflower yield in the province of Sistan.


Seyed Ahmad Kalantar Ahmadi, Jahanfar Daneshian, Seyed Hossein Mahmoodinezhad Dezfully,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (9-2015)
Abstract

Studyign of soybean cultivars under abiotic stress conditions to improve their yield is important. This experiment was carried out as a strip plot based on a randomized complete block design with three replications in the Safiabad Argicultural Research Center. Vertical factor consisted of foure levels of irrigation (Irrigation after 50, 90, 130 and 170 mm evaporation from class A pan) and horizontal factor was 6 soybean genotypes (504, Katoul, Safiabadi, BP×Safiabadi, Migmat and Salend). Results showed that the effect of drought stress, genotypes and their interactions were significant on grain yield. The mean comparison of drought stress × genotype interaction showed that the highest grain yield (4522 Kg ha-1) achieved in irrigation after 50 mm evaporation from class A pan in Migmat and the lowest grain yield (1017 Kg ha-1) belonged to Katoul genotype with irrigation after 170 mm evaporation from class A pan. Pod number per plant decreased by 16%, 28% and 51% with increasing irrigation intervals to 90, 130 and 170 mm compared to irrigation after 50 mm evaporation. The treatments did not have any significant effect on the number of grain per pod. It is concluded that, irrigation after 50 mm evaporation from class A pan would be suitable for Migmat and BP×Safiabadi genotypes. Irrigation after 90 mm evaporation from class A pan appropriate for 504, Salend, Katoul and Safiabadi genotypes.


Nilofar Vahdi, Esmaeil Gholinezhad, Sirous Mansourifar, Leyla Gheyrati Arani , Mehdi Rahimi,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (9-2015)
Abstract

This research in order to evaluate the effect of different levels of irrigation regime on yield and yield components of soybean in Urmia region at the Urmia agricultural high school Research during 2012 using split plot based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Drought treatments (optimum irrigation 60 mm, moderate drought stress 110 mm and severe drought stress 160 mm evaporation by evaporation pan Class A) were included in main plots and the Cultivars (Clark, Williams and Onion) were allocated in subplots. The results of variance analysis showed that the effect of drought stress on seed yield, oil and protein content was significant (P<0.01), so that the maximum and minimum oil and protein value obtained by optimum irrigation and severe drought stress conditions, respectively. However, for relative water content and leaf chlorophyll, there was no significant difference. Severe drought stress reduced the grain yield by 63 and 45% compared to the optimum irrigation and moderate stress conditions, respectively. In optimum irrigation and severe drought stress conditions, the highest seed yield, oil yield and protein yield, obtained by Onion genotype. A Clark genotype in comparison with other cultivars had the minimum seed yield, in severe drought stress conditions.


Esmaeil Gholinezhad,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (9-2016)
Abstract

In order to investigate the effects of mycorrhizal fungi on yield and water use efficiency of eight sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) genotypes in different levels of drought stress, an experiment was conducted using a factorial split plot with three replications in the research field of the Urmia agricultural high school in 2014. The main factor was consisted of different levels of irrigation as: normal irrigation (irrigation after 70 mm evaporation of the crop (ETc), moderate drought stress (irrigation after 90 mm ETc) and severe drought stress (irrigation after 110 mm ETc), and two species of mycorrhiza fungi (Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices) and non-inoculated (control). Sub plots consisted of eight landraces of sesame names Jiroft13, Zanjan Tarom Landrace, Moghan Landrace, several branches Naz, TC-25, TS-3, Darab 14 and Dashtestan 5. Results showed that the effect of irrigation, mycorrhiza fungi and genotypes on studying traits was significant. Mean comparisons showed that with increasing severity of drought stress, grain yield, biological yield, water use economic and biotic efficiencies decreased significantly. Severe drought stress reduced water use economic and biotic efficiencies about 62 and 49 percent, respectively. Using two species of mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices) in comparison with non-inoculated (control) had significant effect on all studied traits. Inoculation with G. mosseae improved seed yield, biological yield and water use economic efficiency compared to control with 33, 42 and 33 percent, respectively. Moghan landrace and Zanjan Tarom landrace based on yield and water use efficiency, had superiority on other landraces. Mycorrhiza led to improve yield of landraces and in severe drought stress conditions, sesame plants showed a higher mycorrhizal dependency.



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