Volume 7, Issue 1 ((Spring and Summer) 2020)                   Iranian J. Seed Res. 2020, 7(1): 121-134 | Back to browse issues page


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Sharafi S. (2020). Effective Methods for Improving Seed Germination of Medicago scutellata Affected by Salinity and Drought Stresses. Iranian J. Seed Res.. 7(1), : 8 doi:10.29252/yujs.7.1.121
URL: http://yujs.yu.ac.ir/jisr/article-1-392-en.html
Arak University , s-sharafi@araku.ac.ir
Abstract:   (5045 Views)


Extended Abstract
Introduction: Germination and seedling establishment are the primary stages of crop growth that are highly sensitive to salinity and drought stresses. On the other hand, seed hardness affects the quality of plant germination. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the effect of seed pre-treatment on germination characteristics of Medicago scutellata var Rabinson.
Material and methods: In the present study, the effects of pre-treatment methods of scarification (sand paper, knife and sand), stratification (0, -5, -10, and -15 °C), ultrasonic waves (3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 min), and magnetic field (two intensities of 125 and 250 mT in 4 times exposure by 6, 12, 18, and 24 h) on seed germination of annual medic germination affected by salinity and drought stresses (0, -3, -6, -9, and -12 bar) were investigated with three replications. Twenty seeds per Petri dish were used for each treatment. Seedlings were incubated in the dark at 20/18±0.3°C in a growth chamber. After ten days, the dry weight of the seedling was obtained after oven drying at 70°C. Root length, shoot length, seed germination percentage, seedling growth rate (SLGR), the weight of mobilized seed reserve (WMSR), seed reserve depletion (SRDP), and seed reserve utilization efficiency (SRUE) were measured.
Results: Based on the preliminary results using Taguchi method, the -15 °C stratification treatments under salinity and drought, 6 and 9 min of exposure to ultrasonic waves under salinity and drought, and magnetic field intensity of 250 mT for 6 and 9 h were chosen for the experiment of salinity and drought, respectively. In salinity experiment, the maximum root length (23.47 mm), shoot length (15.76 mm), weight of mobilized seed reserve (0.119 mg per seed), and seed reserve depletion percentage (58.9 %) was in scarification treatment; the maximum seed germination (47.2 %) was observed in control treatment; the maximum seedling dry weight (0.195 mg) was identified in magnetic field treatment; and the maximum seed reserves utilization efficiency (0.665 mg.mg.seed-1) was obtained in ultrasonic waves treatments. In drought experiment, the maximum root length (22.84 mm), shoot length (8.09 mm), seed germination (49.93 %), the weight of mobilized seed reserve (0.096 mg per seed), and seed reserve depletion percentage (43.1 %) was measured in ultrasonic treatment; the maximum seedling dry weight (0.09 mg) was found in magnetic field treatment; and the maximum SRUE (0.516 mg.mg.seed-1) was observed in control treatment.
Conclusions: According to the results, there is a direct relationship between the decline in seedling dry weight and the decline in the weight of mobilized seed reserve. However, the scarification and ultrasonic waves' treatments had significant effects on seedlings resistance to salinity and drought, respectively. Furthermore, the use of ultrasonic waves and scarification produced higher germination percentage and more vigorous seedlings under drought and saline conditions. In terms of germination and seedling growth, the differences among the treatments increased by the increase in stress intensity. This advantage led to greater seed reserve utilization. Moreover, pre-treatment methods resulted in longer cotyledon length and improvement in vigorous seedlings. Future studies should focus on the study of enzymes activity and/or hormones affecting seed reserve utilization rate in response to drought and salinity stress.

 
Highlights:
1- The most sensitive growth stage of annual medic (seedling production stage) to salinity and drought stress was evaluated.
2- Various pre-treatments to improve the germination of annual medic to enter crop rotation in arid and semi-arid regions due to self-seeding and short growing period were investigated.
Article number: 8
Full-Text [PDF 380 kb]   (1277 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Seed Ecology
Received: 2019/01/15 | Revised: 2021/03/13 | Accepted: 2019/07/31 | ePublished: 2020/11/29

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