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Showing 14 results for Seed Vigor Index

Hassan Habibi, Mehdi Agihghi Shahverdi, Zahra Nasiri, Mohammadreza Chaichi, Mohammad Hossein Fotokian,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (2-2015)
Abstract

The effect of seed rate of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and efficiency of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPR) that facilitates phosphorus uptake with different doses of phosphate fertilizer was evaluated on seed quality. For this purpose, the germination and seed vigor tests before and after accelerated aging were performed in a split split plot experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications in 2010 in the field of education and research in the College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Tehran University, Karaj. Phosphorus factor at 4 levels (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg Phosphorus.ha-1) in main plots, PGPR (Pseudomonas) in three levels (no bacteria, bacterial strains, No. 9 and bacterial strains No. 41) in subplots and rate of seed factors on three levels (2, 6, and 10 kg of seed per hectare) were the sub-subplots. The results showed the highest rate of germination and seed vigor obtained by use of 6 kg seeds per hectare, PGPR No.41 strains with 30 kg Phosphorus per hectare and after accelerated aging. The highest rate of germination and seed vigor at 10 kg of seed per hectare were found for PGPR No.41 strains, with 60 kg Phosphorus ha-1 treatments. After accelerated aging practices to achieve maximum germination index and vigor, seed rates and phosphorus requirement were more than standard conditions. Based on obtained results for the storage conditions, bacterial strains No. 41 had a better effect on increasing seed vigor than bacterial strains No. 9. To produce alfalfa seed with high vigor and obtain better results, use of optimum seed rates and phosphorus (6 and 30 kg.ha-1, respectively) along with PGPR (strain No. 41) could be considered in crop plants.


Khadijeh Badpa, Mohsen Movahhedi Dehnavi, Alireza Yadavi,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (3-2016)
Abstract

To evaluate the interaction of Cd and SA on seed germination of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. cv. Soffe), this experiment was carried out as a factorial based on CRD with four replications in 2012, in Yasouj University seed lab. Factors included of four levels of seed priming with SA (0, 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 mM) and eight levels of cadmium nitrate (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 mM). In all Cd treatments, SA 0.9 mM had maximum germination percentage (84% in 0 mM Cd) and rate (6.58 seed day-1 in 5 mM Cd), radical length (4.21 cm in 0 mM Cd) and stem (3.29 cm in 0 mM Cd), radical dry mater (2.25 mg in 0 mM Cd), shoot dry matter (0.94 mg in 0 mM Cd) and seed vigor index (6.30 in 0 mM Cd). Generally, seed priming with SA decreased the impact of Cd on seed germination and SA 0.9 mM was the best treatment.


Mohsen Azarnia, Abbas Biabani, Hamid Reza Eisvand, Ebrahim Gholamalipour Alamdari, Saeed Safikhani,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (9-2016)
Abstract

One of the important strategies for increasing germination speed and germination percentage, to produce high-quality seedling and plant optimal establishment is seed priming. In order to evaluate reactions of a lentil seed to priming duration and concentrations of the applied material as priming, a factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design with three replications was done in the agronomy laboratory of agriculture and Natural Resources College of Gonbad Kavous University in 2013. Factors included priming duration (4, 8 and 12 h) and various concentrations of the priming (hydro priming, hormonal priming by gibberellic acid and salicylic acid with the concentrations of 50, 100 and 150 ppm and non primed seeds). Results showed that the interaction effect of the concentrations and duration of the priming was significant on whole measured traits except the seed vigor index, germination percentage and seedling dry weight at 1% probability level. The lowest duration of germination (5, 10, 90 and 95%) obtained in the hydropriming treatment (2.72, 5.43 and 18.17 hour). The highest radicle fresh weight was observed in hydropriming treatment in three studied durations priming. In this study; the highest rate of germination obtained from GA50ppm during 12 hours. GA50ppm increased Germination percentage (98%). The greatest radicle length, shoot length and relative growth rate was obtained in the treatment of the gibberellic acid 100 ppm during 8 hours. All the average, gibberellic acid 100 ppm in 8h had an additive effect on the most of the measured traits of the lentil seed. Therefore, it can be introduced as the best mixture treatment.


Sayyed Ali Tabatabaei, Omid Ansari,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (9-2016)
Abstract

The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of salicylic acid and gibberellic acid on germination characteristics and changes of proline, protein and catalase activity of Brassica napus seedlings under Cu(SO4) stress. The experimental design was factorial with complete randomized design as a base design with 3 replications. The first factor was 4 levels of Cu(SO4) stress (0, 10, 20 and 30 mg/l), and the second factor was 4 levels of priming with salicylic acid and gibberellic acid 50 mg/l, hydro prime and control (non-priming). Results showed that with increasing levels of Cu(SO4) stress, germination characteristics (germination percentage, germination rate, normal seedling percentage, seedling length and seed vigor index) reduced and using of salicylic acid, gibberellic acid and hydro prime increased germination characteristics. The highest germination percentage (94%), germination rate (30.75 seed per day), normal seedling percentage (86.17%) seedling length (10.53 cm) and seed vigor index (9.08) were attained from priming by salicylic acid 50 ppm under non-stress conditions. Cu(SO4) stress increased proline (35%) and catalase (37%) activity but reduced protein (65%) and priming increased proline, protein and catalase activity as compared to unprimed under stress and control conditions. In this study, using priming treatment salicylic acid had usually higher germination characteristics and catalase activity, total proteins and proline content in comparison with untreated or control seeds.


Almas Nemati, Hamid Sharifi, Mohammad Gerdakaneh, Zeynab Sharifi,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (9-2016)
Abstract

The seeds of two species (Citrulus colocynthis) and (Silybum mrianum) gathered from natural habitat located in the Koohdasht city (Lorestan province) and transferred to Kermanshah Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center in the summer of 2014. For each species, separate experiments in a completely randomized design with 14 treatments and 4 replications were done. Treatments included moist-chilling time (control, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 70 and 90 days at 4 °C), gibberellic acid concentration (200, 400, 600 and 800 PPM) and integrated treatment of gibberellic acid 400 ppm with moist-chilling for 30 days and 70 days. The results showed that for both species increasing of moist-chilling duration and concentration of gibberellic acid significantly increased germination percentage, germination rate and seed vigor index. The best breaking seed dormancy treatment was moist-chilling of 90 days for seeds of (Citruluus colocynthis) and gibberellic acid 800 ppm for (Silybum mrianum). The result showed that seeds of two species had the combination of physiological (related to seed inside inhibitors) and physical dormancy (related to hard coat).


Shahram Nazari, Reza Deihimfard, Javad Faraji,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (3-2017)
Abstract

Gaining insights into the germination and emergence patterns of weeds as well as the factors which have an impact on these patterns is beneficial for weeds management programs. In order to investigate the effect of temperature, waterlogging and salinity on germination and emergence of common lambsquarters, three separate experiments were conducted, adopting a completely randomized design with four replications. The results of the temperature experiment showed that the highest germination percentages, which were 87, 93 and 88%, were obtained in the temperature range of 15, 20 and 25°C, respectively. Maximum values of germination rate, radicle length, plumule length, and seedling dry weight were obtained at 20°C. In addition, optimum seed vigor index of 796.29 was observed at 20°C. The results of the Regression Model showed that germination percentage decreased with an increase in waterlogging duration and halted after 8 and 10 days of consecutive waterlogging. Mean comparisons revealed that radicle and plumule length, seedling dry weight and vigor index decreased significantly by increasing the period of waterlogging. Salinity adversely affected germination percentage, germination rate and seedling dry weight of common lambsquarters. These factors were at their highest amounts in the control and 50 mM NaCl treatments. A downward trend was observed in these factors as NaCl concentrations increased and finally the germination process stopped in concentrations ranging from 300 to 400 mM NaCl. Radicle and plumule length also decreased from 10.51 and 9.23 cm in the control treatment to 3.57 and 2.47 cm at 250 mM NaCl. Overall, the results revealed that the maximum seed vigor index of 851.84 was obtained in the control treatment and seed vigor halted when the salinity level increased to more than 250 mM NaCl. Finally, the results showed that optimum temperature for germination of common lamsquarters was 20 °C and the existence of salinity and waterlogging stress can decrease growth indices of this weed at germination and seedling stages.


Mehdi Shaban, Farshid Ghaderifar, Hamidreza Sadeghipour, Ahad Yamchi,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (3-2017)
Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of accelerated aging and natural storage on seed germination and seedling heterotrophic growth of chickpea in Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources in 2014. The experiment was carried out, adopting a completely randomized design with four replications. Treatments were 8 aging levels (i.e., 2 years, and 4 years natural storage; 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 days of accelerated aging and a control). The results showed that the effect of aging treatment on all the traits was significant. Reduction of germination percentage, germination rate, root and shoot length seed vigor index and seedling dry weight of 4 and 5 accelerated aging days was higher than 2 and 4 natural storage years. The electrical conductivity of seed lots increased by an increase in accelerated aging to 4 and 5 days, which was higher than 2 and 4 natural storage years. This is due to incapability of a membrane to keep its permeability, which is the result of the higher sensitivity of seeds to accelerated aging. Reduction of the rate and efficiency of reserves used and also dynamic reserves in natural storage was lower than 4 and 5 accelerated aging days. However, maximum rate and efficiency of reserves used and also dynamic reserves were obtained at 2 accelerated aging days. This could be due to increase in repair reaction rates under these conditions and activation of hydrolytic enzymes in seeds. Finally, the results of the present study revealed that damages to chickpea seed at 4 and 5 accelerated aging days are more than 2 and 4 natural storage years, which leads to the reduction of germination percentage and rate.
 


Nafise Taghizadeh, Gholamali Ranjbar, Ghorbanali Nematzadeh, Mohammadreza Ramzanimoghdam,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (3-2018)
Abstract

Salinity is one of the most important factors limiting agricultural production. Cotton, as an oil-fiber plant, is one of the most important industrial plants and is sensitive to salinity, especially at germination and seedling stages. Therefore, in this study, 14 allotetraploid varieties of commercial and local cotton were selected. The study was carried out as factorial with a completely randomized design and three three replications, using the sandwich method. Germination tests were performed at three salinity levels of 0, 8 and 16 ds.m-1. Afterwards, root and shoot length, fresh and dry weight of root and shoot, germination percentage, allometric coefficient, seedling water percentage and seed vigor index were measured and stress tolerance indices were calculated based on yield (seedling dry weight) in stress and non-stress conditions. Given these indices, all cultivars were aalyzed at two levels of 8 and 16ds.m-1, using principal component analysis and biplot diagrams were drawn. Finally, the dendrogram classification of genotypes was plotted based on STI indices (stress tolerance index), SSI (stress susceptibility index), and the performance (dry weight plantlet) in stress and non-stress conditions. The result of variance analysis for genotype, salinity and salinity×genotype demonstrated that dry weight root, dry weight shoot, fresh weight root, stem length, vigor index seedling, allometric coefficient, dry weight seedling, and length seedling were significant in p-value 0.01, and fresh weight shoot, length root were significant in p-value 0.05. Clustering and the biplot of the genotypes based on STI and SSI indices at salinity levels of 8 and 16 ds.m-1 indicated that the Sepid and Giza genotypes were tolerant and that the Kashmar genotype was sensitive to salt levels at germination stage.
  
Highlights:
  1. The reaction of the cotton cultivars studied was different to levels of salinity stress.
  2. An increase in salt stress caused a significant reduction in the germination characteristics of cultivars of cotton studied.
  3. Bi-plot analysis and clustering based on STI and SSI indices turned out to be a suitable method for clustering cotton cultivars.

Farzad Mondani, Ashkan Jalilian, Atusa Olfati,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (9-2018)
Abstract

DOR: 98.1000/2383-1251.1397.5.55.9.1.1603.41

Extended abstract
Introduction: Malva (Malva neglecta) is one of perennial plants of the Malvaceae family. One of the most important mechanisms for survival of the plants is dormancy, rest or distance in germination and growth; in this case, despite favorable conditions for germination, the seed remains at rest for an indefinite period of time. Seed dormancy is a consistent feature in some seeds, especially weed seeds to optimize distribution of germination over time. Seed dormancy has a very important role in ecological management. The cause of the physical dormancy lies in skin cells outside tier structure that is impermeable to water. In physical dormancy, the seed coat is so hard that it does not allow the embryo to grow during germination. The chemical dormancy of the plants seeds is caused by the presence of inhibitor substances in the outer shell of many fruits and seeds and may also be due to an Enamel layer that blocks the exchange of oxygen. It goes without saying that understanding the ecology of weed germination and dormancy can contribute to long-term management. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effects of breaking seed dormancy and the impact of chemical and mechanical treatments on the germination of the Mallow seeds.
Materials and Methods: In order to recognize the effects of chemical and mechanical treatments on breaking seed dormancy and some of the most important features of seed germination of Malva, the experiment was conducted based on a completely randomized design with 4 replications at Crop Physiology Lab, Razi University, during 2016. Treatments were distilled water (control), sulfuric acid 98% (for 2, 3 and 4 minutes), potassium nitrate 3% (for 3, 4 and 7 days), hydrogen peroxide 30% (for 2, 3 and 4 minutes) and scarification with sandpaper and prechilling (for 1, 2 and 3 weeks). Germination percentage, germination rate, length and dry weight of hypocotyl, length and dry weight of radicle, seedling total dry weight and vigor index were evaluated. Group comparisons, analysis of variance and comparison of means were run based on LSD at 5% level, using SAS software (version 9.4).
Results: The results showed that the highest and the lowest germination percentage were 82% and 5% in scarification with a chilling for 3 weeks and control treatments, respectively. The results of treatment group comparisons also showed that using scarification with a chilling had the greatest impact on seed dormancy breaking. The most hypocotyl length (34.92 mm), hypocotyl dry weight (2.60 g), seedling dry weight (3.29 g) and seed vigor index (58.13) were observed in scarification with a chilling for 3 weeks. The highest germination rate (5.21 in day), radicle length (34.92 mm) and radicle dry weight (0.85 g) also belonged to sulfuric acid 98% for 2 minutes. It seems that seed dormancy of Malva was a combination of physiological and physical dormancy, because the effectiveness of the treatments evaluated in both metabolic and physical processes brought about the increase in the seed germination percentage.
Conclusion: Out of the treatments examined and given the results of group comparisons, scarification with sandpaper and prechilling had the most effect on breaking Malva’s seed dormancy. As scarification with chilling had the main role in breaking seed dormancy, it could be said that the dormancy is physiological and factors contributing to this dormancy are the embryo, the existence of inhibiting factors or both. The results indicated that the germination of Malva (Malva neglcta) seeds mechanically scratched with scarification increased. Therefore, seed dormancy is due to hard coated seeds. The seed coat is as one physical barrier against growth of embryo or radicle that inhibits absorption of water and gas exchanges.
 
 
Highlights:
1- Investigating dormancy breaking and germination traits of neglcta species of Malva.
2- Evaluation of efficiency of different chemical and mechanical treatments in the germination traits of Malva.

Elnaz Mohamadian, Hormozdyar Kianmehr, Hojjat Ataei Somagh, Neda Azad Nafas Mahjor, Fatemeh Safari, Arezo Safarzadeh,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (9-2018)
Abstract

DOR: 98.1000/2383-1251.1397.5.101.9.1.1578.1610

Extended abstract
 Introduction: Stevia is a perennial short day plant, belonging to the Asteraceae family. It is also called sugar leaf. Poor germination of this plant serves as a barrier for its planation on a large scale, which contributes to its scarcity and expensivenss as a medicinal herb. In many plants, seed germination is sensitive to salinity, which determines the survival of the plants in saline soils. High levels of soil salinity can significantly reduce germination and seedling growth due to the effects of high osmotic potential and ion toxicity. Jasmonates represent new plant growth regulators that play an important role in increasing the resistance of plants to environmental stresses, including salinity stress. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to study the effect of pre-treatment of seed with methyl jasmonate on germination indices and biochemical traits of stevia, as a medicinal herb, under salinity stress.
Materials and Methods: They study was conducted, adopting a completely randomized design with three replications in the year 2016 in the Professor Hassabi’s Laboratory of Plant Biology, Islamic Azad University, Islamshahr Branch. The factors were pre-treatment of methyl jasmonate in 5 levels (0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 μM) and salinity stress at 4 levels (0, 3, 6 and 9 dS m-1). At the end of the experiment, germination traits percentage and germination rate, mean germination time, germination value, seedling length, seedling index, total chlorophyll, proline, activity of the enzyme catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were measured.
Results: The results of the study showed that effects of salinity stress, methyl jasmonate and interaction between salinity and methyl jasmonate were significant on the germination percentage and germination rate, mean germination time, germination value, seedling index, total chlorophyll, proline and catalase enzyme activity. Seed priming with 5 μM methyl jasmonate at salinity level with electrical conductivity of zero ds/m, had the highest germination percentage and rate, germination value, seed vigor index, and total chlorophyll content. Increases in salt stress and methyl jasmonate increased the activity of catalase enzyme. Salinity reduced germination index and seedling stoichiation and increased activity of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase enzymes. However, seed priming with methyl jasmonate improved seed germination through germination percentage, germination rate and seed vigor index and moderated the effects of salt stress.
Conclusions: Given the results of this study, it could be said that methyl jasmonate, as a potent inhibitor, can reduce the negative effects of salinity and by increasing germination indices such as germination percentage and germination rate, it can be effective in improving the growth of Stevia. Of course, further research can produce more definitive results.
 
 
Highlights:
  1. Salinity had a negative effect whereas methyl jasmonate had a positive effect on germination indices and activity of antioxidant enzymes of Stevia seeds.
  2. Application of 5 μM of methyl jasmonate, as a pre-treatment, can be effective in improving the growth of the stevia plant and reducing the negative effects of salinity.

Seyed Ali Tabatabaei, Omid Ansari,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (3-2019)
Abstract

DOR: 98.1000/2383-1251.1397.5. 15.10.2.1575.1576

Extended abstract
Introduction: Heavy metal pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems. These metals which accumulate in food chain bring about a lot of hazards to both humans and animals. Among heavy metals, lead is considered to be the most dangerous heavy metal in the environment. It contaminates the environment through the lead-acid battery industry, paint and gasoline additives, insecticides, chemical fertilizers, car exhaust pipes and soldering. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Pb(NO3)2 on germination characteristics and biochemical changes of two wheat cultivars (Chamran and Kohdasht cultivars).
Materials and Methods: The objective of this research was to evaluate germination and biochemical changes of two wheat cultivars under Pb(NO3)2 stress, using three-parameter sigmoid model. The experimental design adopted was factorial with a completely randomized design, as the base design, with 3 replications. The first factor was 2 wheat cultivars (Kohdasht and Chamran), and the second factor was 6 levels of Pb(NO3)2 (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1 and 1.5 mg.L).
Results: The results showed that with increases in levels of Pb(NO3)2 stress, germination percentage, germination rate, normal seedling percentage, seedling length, seedling weight and seed vigor index reduced for both wheat cultivars. The results of fitting three-parameter sigmoidal to characteristics indicated that the highest characteristics and X50 were obtained from the Chamran cultivar. The highest germination percentage (96%), germination rate (23 seeds per day), normal seedling percentage (93.33%), seedling length (13.07 cm), seedling weight (0.07) and seedling vigor index (12.18) were obtained from the Chamran cultivar under non-stress conditions. Pb(NO3)2 stress increased proline and catalase activity but reduced protein, proline and protein for the Chamran cultivar, as compared with the Kohdasht cultivar.
Conclusion: Generally speaking, the results showed that Pb(NO3)2 had a significant effect on germination characteristics and catalase, proline and protein of wheat. Finally, it could be said that in copper-accumulated areas, choosing proper cultivars can slightly mitigate the damages caused by copper. The Chamran cultivar seems to be a better candidate for these conditions.
 
Highlights:

  1. Evaluation of the effect of Pb(NO3)2 stress on germination characteristics of wheat.
  2. Using three-parameter sigmoid model for the evaluation of biochemical changes and germination of wheat under Pb(NO3)2 stress.

Hassan Nouriyani,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (3-2019)
Abstract

DOR: 98.1000/2383-1251.1397.5. 43.10.2.1575.32

Extended abstract
Introduction: Today, various technologies have been developed to improve seed quality with the aim of increasing the percentage, speed and uniformity of germination and improved seedling establishment under different environmental conditions. One of these technologies is seed pre-treatment or seed priming. In this regard, some studies confirmed that pre-treatment of seeds with hormones and plant growth regulators improve germination behavior and its related indices, including average germination time, seed vigor, radicle length, plumule length, germination rate and seedling establishment in primed seeds of sesame. Cognizant of the sensitivity of the germination process as the first plant developmental stage and the importance of improving germination indices and sesame seedling establishment, the aim of this study was to evaluate the seed priming efficiency, using salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate and humic acid in the germination performance, biochemical changes and early seedling growth of two sesame cultivars including Yellow white and local cultivar of Dezful.
Materials and Methods: This experiment was conducted as a factorial based on a completely randomized design with four replications in the seed technology Laboratory of Safi Abad Dezful Agricultural Research Center in the summer of 2015. The first factor was seed pre-treatment with distilled water (control), salicylic acid 0.1mM, methyl jasmonate 1µM, and humic acid 1.5% and the second factor was two varieties of sesame including Yellow white and the local cultivar of Dezful. Germination percentage, germination rate, seed vigor index, radicle length, plumule length, allometric coefficient, proline content, soluble proteins and catalase enzyme activity were determined to compare the treatments.
Results: The results of the experiment showed that seeds priming had a significant effect on germination percentage, germination rate, seed vigor index, radicle length, plumule length, allometric coefficient and seedling biochemical changes, and improved them. The effect of cultivar on all the traits studied, except mean daily germination and plumule length, was not significant. In this research, the Dezful cultivar had an average of 13.52 seeds per day with higher germination rates, compared with the other cultivar (Yellow white). In addition, the interaction of priming × cultivar was significant only in seed vigor index and allometric coefficient, where the comparison of the mean values indicated that the highest seed vigor was obtained by using humic acid 1.5% in the Dezful cultivar (10.09), while the highest allometric coefficient in seed pre-treatment with methyl jasmonate was found in the Yellow white cultivar (1.57).
Conclusions: In this study, the most effective seed priming treatments for improving germination, biochemical changes and seedling growth of sesame was humic acid 1.5%, recorded for the local cultivar of Dezful. Seed priming with humic acid 1.5% was significantly better than the control and Dezful cultivar’s germination performance was better than that of Yellow white cultivar; therefore it can be said that pre-treatment of seed with humic acid with significant effects on germination characteristics of sesame can be more effective in establishment of seedlings. It is advisable to use this organic acid for better root system development and sesame seedlings establishment, which is a major problem at the beginning of the growing season.
 
Highlights:
  1. Humic acid was the most effective seed priming treatment on germination characteristics, biochemical changes and seedlings growth of sesame.
  2. The effect of seed priming treatments on the germination characteristics of the Dezful cultivar was more pronounced than that of Yellow white.

Hossein Nastari Nasrabadi, Mehdi Moradi, Mohammad Naser Modoodi,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (3-2019)
Abstract

DOR: 98.1000/2383-1251.1397.5. 139.10.2.1606.1610

Extended abstract
Introduction: Using of plant growth regulators is one of the methods can improve plant growth against environmental stresses such as salinity. Salicylic acid plays an important role in physiological processes regulation, including germination. Today, using of growth promoting bacteria has been increased and it causes to raise the seed vigor, uniformity, germination percentage and better seedling establishment. Growth promoting bacteria can be effect on increasing plant resistance to adverse environmental conditions by interposition in plant hormones production such as auxin, GA, cytokinins, and as well as the stabilization of nitrogen or phosphorus availability and other nutrients
Materials and Methods: This experiment was conducted as factorial in a completely randomized design with three replications. Salicylic acid factor (SA) was selected at two levels (0 and 1 mM). The bacterial treatments included Azotobacter (AZ), Azospirilum (AZP), complex of Azotobacter and Azospirillum (AZ + AZP), and without inoculation (C) and salinity treatment (S) was at five levels (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM).
Results: Results showed that all treatments had no significant effect on germination percentage. Radicle and plumule length, seed vigor index and seedling fresh weight was significantly increased at 50 mM NaCl. Generally speaking, the elongation of plant organs when treated with low concentrations of salts may induce osmotic adjustment activity in the plants which may improve growth. Germination rate, Radicle and plumule length and seed vigor index were significantly increased by salicylic acid treatment. AZ and AZ+AZP increased germination parameters significantly than control. Generally germination factors were better improved by combination salicylic acid with AZ than AZP and AZ+AZP. These results could indicate the synergistic relationship between growth promoting bacteria and salicylic acid.
 Conclusion: According to the results pre-treatment of melon seeds by 1 mM salicylic acid and Azotobacter can be proposed to improve seed germination and seedling establishment under salinity stress.

 
Highlights:
  1. Effect of salinity on seed germination characteristics of melon.
  2. Effect of biofertilizer and salicylic acid on germination and seedling growth of melon under salt stress.

Ali Asharf Mehrabi, Somayeh Hajinia,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (9-2019)
Abstract

DOR: 98.1000/2383-1251.1398.6.95.11.1.1578.41

Extended Abstract
Introduction: White Astragalus (Astragalus gossypinus Fisherr.) is one of the valuable plants for producing gum, which is of critical importance in soil conservation and the economy of the country. This plant is propagated by seed; its seeds are in the natural state of dormancy. Therefore, recognizing the factors affecting dormancy and creating optimal conditions for seed germination of this plant is necessary for the cultivation and reclamation of rangelands. This study was conducted with the aim of finding the best treatment for breaking the dormancy and improving seed germination under various chemical and physical treatments.
Materials and Methods: The experiment was carried out as a factorial based on a completely randomized design with four replications at the gene bank of cereal and legume Lab of Ilam University, 2017. The factors included two levels of scarification chemical (with and without sulfuric acid (H2SO4) for 10 minutes), three levels of stratification (control, moist chilling at +4 °C and dry chilling -20 °C), potassium nitrate in two levels (zero and 1% KNO3) and gibberellic acid in two levels (zero and 5 ppm GA3). Germination indices including germination percentage, germination rate, seedling and radicle length, seedling fresh weight and vigor index were measured.
Results: Initial assessment of vital indices in seed such as germination and primary growth showed that the simultaneous application of scarification by sulfuric acid and moist chilling at +4 °C has the most impact on removing dormancy and increasing germination percentage. The highest germination rate was observed in moist chilling at +4 °C, which was 32.19 percent more than that of the control treatment. Scarification by sulfuric acid reduced the mean germination time in moist chilling at +4 °C. Scarification by sulfuric acid increased the fresh weight of the seedling by 55.25 percent, compared with the control. Pre-treatments with potassium nitrate undre control conditions, moist chilling at +4 °C and dry chilling at -20 °C increased the fresh weight of seedlings, at 52.66, 30.94 and 17.18 percent, respectively. Application of potassium nitrate increased root length by about 60.7 percent, compared with control. The highest radicle length (78.71 mm) was obtained when the seed was treated with sulphuric acid with wet chilling at 4 ° C for two weeks, which was 30 percent higher than control. The highest seedling length (84.88 mm) was obtained in scarification with sulfuric acid, wet chilling, and potassium nitrate and gibberellic acid. The highest seed vigor index (61.85 %) was observed in the treatment of scarification with sulfuric acid under moist chilling, and pre-treatments of gibberellic acid and potassium nitrate.
Conclusions: In general, it can be concluded that seed dormancy of Astraglus gossypinus involves both physical and physiological dormancy. The best treatment for removing the dormancy of this species seems to be scarification with sulfuric acid for 10 minutes puls concentrated stratification in moist chilling at +4 °C for two weeks.
 
 
Highlights:
  1. Determination of the optimal seed dormancy techniques of white Astragalus for the purpose of increasing seed germination percentage.
  2. Comparison of the efficiency of different dormancy breaking techniques.
  3. The combined effect of sulfuric acid, chilling and priming with gibberellic acid and potassium nitrate on germination indices.


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