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Showing 6 results for Heterotrophic Growth

Seyyed Mohammad Seyyedi, Mohammad Khajeh-Hossieni, Parviz Rezvani Moghaddam, Hamid Shahandeh,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (9-2015)

In order to investigate the effects of priming with a KH2Po4 solution on emergence and heterotrophic growth of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) seedling, a series of experiments were conducted at the Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2013 and 2014. A field experiment was conducted as factorial layout based on a randomized complete block design with four replications. The fertilizer resources (vermicompost (V)+Tiobacilus (T), micronized Sulfur (S)+T, V+S+T and control) and three levels of phosphorus (0, 30 and 60 kg.ha-1) were the first and second experimental factors, respectively. In the second experiment, selected treatments (in which showed emergence below 60% in the previous experiment) and seed priming (no priming, hydro priming and three levels of phosphorus (P)-priming as 100, 300 and 500 mM KH2Po4) were the first and second experimental treatments, respectively. Based on the results, the resources of soil amendment (V+T and V+S+T) significantly increased the emergence percentage of black seed (by 50 and 54%, respectively). In addition, seed reserve depletion percentage, seed reserve utilization efficiency and emergence percentage significantly increased by 300 mM KH2PO4 (by 9, 143 and 29%, respectively). There was a significant positive relationship between the weight of mobilized seed P and the emergence percentage of black seeds (R2= 0.90 **).

Amin Abbasi, Fariborz Shekari, Seyed Bahman Mousavi, Naser Sabaghnia, Abdollah Javanmard,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (3-2017)

The percentage and rate of germination and proper establishment of seedlings are important factors contributing to higher yield per unit area. As an essential element for plant growth and development, Zinc plays a critical role in many metabolic processes, and also has a positive effect on seed germination. The effects of seed priming with concentrations of 0.5, 1 and 2 percent zinc sulfate on the partitioning of reserved materials in seed, the start of autotrophic seedling growth and the activity of alpha-amylase enzyme were investigated in wheat seeds, using a factorial experiment in the Research Farm of the University of Maragheh, Iran in 2014 on the basis of a completely randomized design with four replications. The results showed that zinc priming had a significant effect on all the parameters under investigation. Mean comparisons showed that an increase in zinc concentration- up to one percent- had a positive effect on the parameters investigated and increasing its concentration more than one percent caused a negative effect on the parameters touched upon above. The results of this study showed that the dry seed weight of the control and zinc sulfate (0.5%) treatment reached a stable level on day 21 and 20, respectively. In addition, in the control and 0.5% zinc sulfate, the total dry weight reached its initial weight (seed weight) on day 15 and 13, respectively. In addition, the growth of autotrophic plant began 10-12 days after soaking. The seeds treated with 5.0 and 1 percent zinc sulfate had more leaf area than the other treatments; this could be due to the earlier entrance of the seedlings produced by 5.0 and 1% zinc sulfate treatments into the autotrophic stage, as compared with other treatments. The results of variance analysis of the finishing seeds' reserved materials, initial kernel, root dry weight and shoot dry weight confirmed that 0.5 and 1% zinc sulfate treatments were better than other concentrations. The treatments of 0.5 and 1%  of zinc sulfate reached the autotrophic stage sooner than the control and 2% zinc sulfate treatment. Given the results of this study, 5.0 and 1% zinc sulfate treatments were selected for field cultivation.

Mehdi Shaban, Farshid Ghaderifar, Hamidreza Sadeghipour, Ahad Yamchi,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (3-2017)

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of accelerated aging and natural storage on seed germination and seedling heterotrophic growth of chickpea in Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources in 2014. The experiment was carried out, adopting a completely randomized design with four replications. Treatments were 8 aging levels (i.e., 2 years, and 4 years natural storage; 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 days of accelerated aging and a control). The results showed that the effect of aging treatment on all the traits was significant. Reduction of germination percentage, germination rate, root and shoot length seed vigor index and seedling dry weight of 4 and 5 accelerated aging days was higher than 2 and 4 natural storage years. The electrical conductivity of seed lots increased by an increase in accelerated aging to 4 and 5 days, which was higher than 2 and 4 natural storage years. This is due to incapability of a membrane to keep its permeability, which is the result of the higher sensitivity of seeds to accelerated aging. Reduction of the rate and efficiency of reserves used and also dynamic reserves in natural storage was lower than 4 and 5 accelerated aging days. However, maximum rate and efficiency of reserves used and also dynamic reserves were obtained at 2 accelerated aging days. This could be due to increase in repair reaction rates under these conditions and activation of hydrolytic enzymes in seeds. Finally, the results of the present study revealed that damages to chickpea seed at 4 and 5 accelerated aging days are more than 2 and 4 natural storage years, which leads to the reduction of germination percentage and rate.

Seyyed Ali Noorhosseini, Mohammad Naghi Safarzadeh, Seyyed Mustafa Sadeghi,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (3-2018)

To study the effect of production region and seed size on germination indices and heterotrophic growth components of peanut seedling, a study was performed in three peanut fields in Astaneh Ashrafieh and Agronomy Laboratory of Rasht Islamic Azad University from 2010 to 2012. This research was carried out using the standard germination, cold and accelerated aging tests. Tests were performed using factorial experiment with a completely randomized block design in 3 replications. The first factor was seed production region in 3 levels (Noghredeh, Amshal and Bandar-Kiyashahr) and the second factor was seed weight in 3 levels [large, medium and small]. The results indicated that the effect of production region on the germination speed (p<0.01) and coefficient of uniformity of germination (p<0.05) was significant so that the maximum means (6.17 and 18.11 day-1, respectively) were achieved in seeds produced in Amshal. The effect of the interaction of the region and seed size on the mean germination speed was significant so that the maximum mean (282.22) was achieved in large seeds produced in Amshal. The effect of production region on the seed reserve use rate was significant in standard germination (p<0.01) and cold tests (p<0.05). The effect of seed size on the seed reserve use rate and seed use reserve fraction were significant (P<0.01) in all the three germination tests. The maximum amount of seed reserve use rate was achieved in seeds produced in the Amshal region (in standard and cold tests with averages of 0.562 and 0.440, respectively). In addition, the maximum amount of seed reserve use rate was achieved in large seeds (with averages of 0.541, 0.470 and 0.277 mg per seed in standard, cold and aging tests, respectively). The maximum seed use reserve fraction was achieved in small seeds (with averages of 1.371, 1.310 and 1.664 in standard, cold and aging tests, respectively).



  1. Peanut seed germination tests were performed based on seed production regions and seed sizes.
  2. Three different vigour tests (standard, aging, cold) were used to identify higher quality seeds.
  3. Germination indices indicated high quality in large seeds produced in different environmental conditions.
  4. Large seeds had the maximum seed reserve use rate and minimum seed use reserve fraction at the germination stage of peanuts.

Narjes Hojati Fahim, Mohamad Sedghi, Mehrdad Chaeichi, Rraouf Seyed Sharifi,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (9-2019)

DOR: 98.1000/2383-1251.1398. 1575.1605

Extended Abstract
Introduction: Iran is located in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world with an average rainfall of 240 mm per year, which requires rethinking of the adoption of methods. One of the alternative ways is to use organic and biological fertilizers. Biological fertilizers are considered as the main and the most important factor in the integrated management of plant foods for sustainable agriculture as they play an important role in product improvement and efficiency. Therefore, this research was carried out with the aim of investigating the effect of seed pre-treatment with some organic and biological fertilizers in rainfed wheat.
Materials and Methods: A factorial experiment with three replications was conducted at the Laboratory of Seed and Plant Certification and Registration of the Center of Agriculture and Natural Resources Research located in Hamedan. Seed inoculation was considered in 5 levels (Seafull, Disper Root Gs., Bio-Health, Trichodermin and control) on 8 different rainfed wheat cultivars (Azar-2, Hashtrood, Baran, Rasad, Owhadi, Sardari, Takab and Homa). First, the seeds were disinfected with sodium hypochlorite, and were then cultured in special containers and were placed in the germinator at 20 ° C. After 4 and 8 days, the number of germinated seeds was counted. Germination seeds were counted in each treatment and germination indices such as germination rate, average daily germination, coefficient germination rate, longitudinal vigor index, weight vigor index, seedling fresh weight, root length/shoot ratio, shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, seed reserve utilization rate, seed reserve utilization efficiency, fraction utilization seed reserve, seed dry weight were calculated.
Results: With application of different levels of fertilizer, the rate of germination treatment Homa×Bio-Health (155%), average daily germination treatment Hashtrood×Bio-Health (69%), coefficient germination rate treatment Owhadi×Disper Root Gs (60%), longitudinal vigor index treatment Owhadi×Bio-Health (108%), weight vigor index treatment Homa×Bio-Health (64%), root fresh weight treatment Hashtrood×Disper Root Gs (106%), shoot fresh weight treatment Hashtrood×Seafull (23%), seedling fresh weight treatment Homa×Bio-Health (42%), root length/shoot ratio treatment Owhadi×Trichodermin (75%), seed reserve utilization rate treatment Homa×Bio-Health (118%), and fraction utilization seed reserve treatment Homa×Bio-Health (119%) increased, compared with the control. In addition, the application of Bio-Health fertilizer and Hashtrood cultivar had the highest amount in almost all the mentioned attributes
Conclusion: Investigation of the different levels of fertilization showed that in most of the indices related to germination and heterotrophic growth of seedling, pretreatment with Bio-Health biofertilizer had a significant difference with other fertilizer levels.
  1. Evaluation of germination indices for recent cultivars of rainfed wheat, released by rainfed Research Institute of Iran.
  2. Investigating and comparing fertilizers with various multifactorial compounds (fungi and bacteria) and with each other.
  3. Conducting research on commercial compounds and comparison of live biochemical and non-organic matters in a single experiment.

Maryam Akbari, Mehdi Baradaran, Mohammadreza Amerian, Naser Farrokhi,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (3-2020)

DOR: 98.1000/2383-1251.1398.

Extended abstract
Introduction: A wide range of deteriorative conditions (especially moisture content and temperature) may affect seed quality during storage which may lead to seed aging. As the most important component of the phenylpropanoids pathway, trans-cinnamic acid, found abundantly in plants and its endogenous levels is influenced by stress conditions. The present study was conducted to investigate germination features, seed reserve mobilization, electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde content in aged cowpea seeds affected by different concentrations of cinnamic acid.
Materials and Methods: The research has been performed in the laboratory of Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrood University of Technology, Iran. The experiment was designed as a factorial (two factors of the experiment included two levels of seed quality including non-aged and aged seeds and five levels of cinnamic acid concentrations including 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 µM) based on a completely randomized design. Accelerated aging was applied as an efficient method to mimic storage conditions in the presence of accelerating factors. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds (Bastam local variety) were incubated in a relative humidity of 95% and a temperature of 43 °C for 72 h to accelerate aging. Both seed lots were treated with 5 different concentrations of cinnamic acid for 6 h followed by standard germination and vigor tests. Data of germination and vigor tests were processed using the GERMINATOR software. Heterotrophic growth, seed reserves mobilization, electrical conductivity and membrane lipid peroxidation were assessed using the available methods.
Results: In this study, cowpea seeds responded to cinnamic acid differently based on their primary quality. In deteriorated seeds, concentrations of 45 µM and 60 µM could successfully enhance seed germination percentage, as compared with the aged seeds (i.e., control). A concentration of 45 µM also improved the vigor of deteriorated seeds. Seed pretreatment of 15, 30 and 45 µM enhanced seed reserves utilization in non-aged seeds. Aging negatively affected area under curve, germination uniformity and seedling dry weight of the deteriorated seeds. Application of 30 µM cinnamic acid improved germination uniformity. The area under the curve was positively affected by 15µM and 30µM. Concentrations of 45 µM and 60 µM enhanced seedling dry weight. Applying 45 µM cinnamic acid decreased electrolyte leakage by 38% and improved efficiency of seed reserves mobilization. Moreover, seed malondialdehyde content, as an indication of membrane lipid peroxidation, showed a sharp decline by applying increased concentrations of cinnamic acid.  
Conclusions: Based on our results, cowpea seeds respond to cinnamic acid differently based on their primary quality. These results imply that seed pretreatment with 45 µM cinnamic acid may successfully invigorate aged cowpea seeds. We also conclude that cinnamic acid application cannot improve physiological traits and can be regarded as a potent antioxidant in the invigoration of the aged seeds.
  1. This is the first study focusing on the role of cinnamic acid in alleviating deterioration in aged seeds.
  2. Cinnamic acid has been introduced as a robust antioxidant, which is effective in reducing the deleterious effects of seed deterioration.

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