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Showing 61 results for Germination Rate

Azam Roumani, Seyed Mohammadreza Ehteshami,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (6-2014)
Abstract

In order to study the effect of different levels of salinity stress on germination indices and early growth of Trigonella foenum-greacum L., an experiment was conducted in agronomy laboratory of Faculty of Agricultural at the University of Guilan in 2012. The experiment was arranged base on completely randomized design with four replications. The used treatments were different levels of salinity stress due to NaCl (0, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, -0.8, -1, -1.2, -1.4, -1.6 and -1.8 MPa). Results showed, by increasing of salinity levels, decreased germination percentage, germination speed, germination energy, germination rate index, water percentage of seedling tissue, seedling length, the dry and fresh weight of seedling and vigor index significantly. However, the levels of salinity (-0.2 and -0.4 MPa) increased the dry and fresh weight of seedling in comparing with control by growth stimulation. Moreover, germination rate reduction had increased trend in comparing with control. Results indicated that there was a positive significant correlation between percent of germination and other germination indices except for germination rate. Generally, the results showed fenugreek seed can tolerate salinity amount until -1.2 MPa (38.9 ds/m) in germination time.

Asad Masoumi Asl, Rreza Amiri Fahliani, Hamidreza Balouchi,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (6-2014)
Abstract

Salinity is one of the most extensive environmental stresses and is a limiting factor for the growth and development of crops, such as rice. Then, an experiment based upon completely randomized design with four low levels (0, 7.5, 15, 22.5) and four high of salinity (75, 150, 225 and 300 mM) with control as the first factor and nine cultivars of rice (dollars, Hasan Saraii, Mousa Tarom, Kamfiruz, Lenjan Askari, Gharib, Domsiah Mamassani, 304, Champa Yasouj) as the second factor with three replications was conducted in 2012 in the Yasouj University. Results showed that Hasan Saraii had salinity tolerance with the most germination percentage, germination rate and shoot length at high salinity levels (more than 75 mM), and Domsiah Mamassani with the minimum of that traits had not any salinity tolerance. But in the low salinity (less than 22.5 mM), Hasan Saraii, Lenjan and Mousa Tarom had the highest percentage of germination. The maximum germination rate was due to Mousa Tarom and the maximum shoot length observed in Gharib variety. So it seems, if we would only consider the germination percentage, Hasan Saraii is the best variety and if the maximum germination percentage and rate are considered, the variety that would be considered is Mousa Tarom. Therefore, high salinity we should not just rely on the germination but the germination rate should also be noted and in lower salinity due to different cultivars germination percentage, germination rate and dry weight of root should be paid much more attention.

Kazem Badeleh, Mehdi Aghighi Shahverdi, Haeshmat Omidi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (2-2015)
Abstract

To evaluate the effect of priming on seed germination of Cucurbita pepo in drought stress conditions, a factorial experiment was conducted as completely randomized design with three replications. Treatments included drought stress at five levels of osmotic potential (zero, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 MP), priming at levels of GA3 (250 ppm to 24 hours), KNO3 (0.2% for 24 hours) Hydro prime (H2O) (to 24 hours) and control. The results showed that priming effect was significant on germination percentage, germination rate, mean daily germination, the average time required for germination and germination rate index. A significant difference was found between drought stress on seed germination rate. In addition, the interaction of seed priming and drought stress was significant on all traits (germination percentage, germination rate, average daily germination, the average time required for germination, germination rate daily, the coefficient of germination rate and the seed vigor). Seed priming, particularly in severe drought stress levels, led to significant increase in mean germination percentage, germination rate and seed vigor. Furthermore, the results of our study indicated that Cucurbita pepo seed priming had partial resistance to drought. Gibberellin acid in the first grade and the hydro priming in second grade can improve the germination and growth of the seedlings under drought stress.

Sayyed Jalil Mirmahmood, Mohammad Javad Ahmadi-Lahijani, Yahya Emam,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (2-2015)
Abstract

Osmotic stress is the most important of the abiotic stresses that lead to limitation of growth and yield in rapeseed. This study was conducted to examine the effect of cycocel seed priming on osmotic stress tolerance in germination and early growth stages of rapeseed, as a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design at Agriculture College of Shiraz University in 2012. The treatments included seed priming in three cycocel concentrations: 0 (without priming as control), 2.5 and 3.5 g L-1 and osmotic stress in five levels: 0 (as control), -0.3, -0.6, -0.9 and -1.2 MPa using polyethylene glycol. The results showed that osmotic stress was significantly reduced germination percentage (15.1%), germination rate (15.3%), radicle length (29.5%), plumule length (31.6%), radicle fresh weight (22.4%), plumule fresh weight (37.6%) and vigor index (39.9%). Furthermore, osmotic stress leads to increase radicle to plumule fresh weight and radicle to plumule length ratio as 6.8 and 24.3 percent, respectively. Seed priming with cycocel reduced the adverse effects of osmotic stress on measured parameters. Although, there was no positive effect on germination percentage and rate under osmotic and nonosmotic conditions for cycocel in both concentrations, but cycocel at 3.5 g L-1 appeared to have a greater positive effect than 2.5 g L-1. Considering positive impact of cycocel seed priming on the reduction adverse effects of osmotic stress further research on cycocel seed priming and osmotic stress tolerance is recommended under field conditions.


Somayeh Malekzade, Seyfollah Fallah2,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (2-2015)
Abstract

In order to investigate the effect of priming techniques on germination parameters of ajowan (Carum copticum L.) seed, an experiment was conducted in completely randomized design with four replications. The experiment treatments included a control (no priming), three hydropriming levels with distilled water (24, 36, and 48 h), three osmopriming levels with PEG (solutions with osmotic potential of -4, -8 and -12 bar), three hormone priming levels with GA3 (50, 100 and 150 ppm), three halopriming levels with KNO3 solution (2, 3, and 4%) and three zinc sulfate levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 %). The results showed that priming treatments had a significant effect on all traits. The rate and percentage of germination were declined in some priming treatments compared to control. Radicle length and root dry weight were decreased in polyethylene glycol -8 bar. Polyethylene glycol -4 bar and 24h hydropriming treatments significantly decreased shoot length and allometry coefficient. However, the treatment of 100 ppm hormone priming significantly increased these traits. Hydropriming 24 h treatment significantly increased germination rate, percentage and seed vigor, but hydropriming 48 h significantly increased radicle and shoot length compared to control. In conclusion, according to the priority of germination or radicle, shoot growth and seed priming cost as well, the hydropriming 24 or 48 h can be recommended as most appropriate priming type for ajowan seeds.

Ali Moradi, Farzad Sharif Zadeh, Reza Tavakkol Afshari, Reza Maali Amiri,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (2-2015)
Abstract

Seed priming is one of the most important techniques used to improve seed germination under biotic and abiotic stresses. For this purpose, germination and seedling growth characteristics of primed seeds of Tall wheatgrass (Agropyron elongatum (Host.) P. Beauv) were evaluated under drought and low-temperature condition. A factorial experiment was conducted on the basis of randomized completely block design with three factors with four replications. The experimental factors were priming with two levels including urea primed (using urea -4 bar at 10 °C for 36 h) and non-primed seeds germination temperatures, including 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 20 and 25 °C and osmotic potential including zero (distilled water), -3, -6, -9, and -12 bars (applied by polyethylene glycol 6000). Increasing trend has been observed for all germination indices, except mean germination time, with increasing temperature from 3 to 25 °C and seeds revealed the greatest sensitivity to temperatures below 9 °C. However, this trend was reversed with increasing drought stress, the seeds sensitivity to drought stress started from the potential of -6 bar and reached the maximum in -12 bar. However, primed seeds compared to non-primed seeds have demonstrated better germination under both drought and low-temperature stresses. The results of this study showed that the highest seedling vigor index and germination rates achieved in the temperature range of 20-25 °C and water potential of zero to -3 bar.


Amin Salehi, Asad Masumiasl, Ali Moradi,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (9-2015)
Abstract

Bilhar or Mountain Kandall (Dorema aucheri) belongs to Apiacea family that contains flavonoid and coumarine compounds. Since propagation of this plant in natural habitats occurs through seed and due to deep dormancy, the identification of different seed dormancy breaking methods is necessary for the preservation of this species. In this respect, different methods, including chilling, washing and gibberellic acid was studied, on the seeds gathered from Kohgiloyeh and Boyerahmad province. For this reason, a factorial experiment with three factors was done based on a completely randomized design in three replications, in the faculty of agriculture, Yasouj University, in 2012. Experimental factors were included, chilling period (stratification periods of 3 and 4 weeks), gibberellic acid (zero and 1500 ppm) and washing (washing with distilled water and non-washable). Results showed that 4 weeks chilling treatment had maximum germination percentage and germination rate and seedling vigor. Also, maximum root and shoot dry weight were obtained from the seeds of this treatment. Whereas, double and triple interaction effects for germination percentage, epicotyl and hypocotyl length were not significant. Germination percentage was better in 4 weeks prechilled seed than 3 weeks. Obtained results from this research showed that Bilhar seeds have the physiological dormancy.


Jalal Jalilian, Nabi Khaliliaqdam,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (9-2015)
Abstract

Rocket (Eruca sativa) is an important medicinal plant which not be done any experiment about its germination quantification response to temperature. Thus, an experiment base on CRD performed in seed research laboratory of Urmia University with four replications with ten levels of temperatures includes 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 0C. Results revealed that the temperature had significant effects on the rate and germination percent and Dent-like model estimated greatly cardinal temperature (base, upper and bottom optimum and ceiling temperatures). Germination rate stopped at equal and less than 0.79 and equal and higher than 47.6 0C and Rmax were 0.066 in 16.9-32.6 0C. Also, results emphasized that Rocket seed needs low temperature for germination but, germination rate and percent of Rocket increased by temperature increment. Therefore, the Rocket can germinate and emerge in dispersal spans of an environmental thermal from 0.79 to 47.6 0C and thus recognized as a crop with allowable production for various seasons and climate.


Maral Etesami, Ali Rahemi Karizaki, Benyamin Torabi,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (9-2015)
Abstract

Germination rate and percentage are maximal at optimum temperatures and then reach to zero at the base and ceiling temperatures. An experiment was conducted at the Gonbad Kavous University laboratory as a completely randomized design with 4 replications, to study germination response to temperature and evaluation of cardinal temperature on germination rate and percentage of hibiscus tea. Seeds germinated at 0 to 45 0C by 5 0C intervals. Results indicated that the response of germination percentage and rate adequately fitted with dent like and segmented functions, continually. Base and ceiling temperatures were 1.66 and 43.33 0C for germination percentage and 4.53 and 42.95 0C for germination rate. Optimum temperatures were 30 0C for germination rate and 11.56 and 33.63 0C for germination percentage. In conclusion, base and favorable temperatures for hibiscus tea seeds were 11 and 35 0C. Therefore it is recommended to cultivate at Gonbad kavous weather condition.


Zeinab Alipoor, Sohrab Mahmodi,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (9-2015)
Abstract

Due to the importance of medicinal plants, understanding the seed germination response to temperature is agronomically important. A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effect of different temperatures on seed germination of fennel, cannabis and sesame in a completely randomized design with four replications. Various constant temperatures (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40°C) were considered. According to the results, the effect of temperature on germination rate and percentage in all species was significant. The seeds of fennel were not germinated in 5, 35 and 40 0C and seeds of sesame germinated only in 5 0C. The maximum rate of germination obtained in 30 °C for fennel and 25 °C for sesame and cannabis. The highest germination percentage of fennel and cannabis and sesame were in 20, 25 and 30 0C respectively. The lowest of germination uniformity (GU) were observed in 20 0C for fennel and in 15 0C for cannabis and sesame. Amount of seedling vigor maximized for fennel and cannabis in 250C and for sesame in the 300C. The values of length and weight of radical and plumule were enhanced with the increase of temperature and record on maximum in special temperature and then reduced slowly. The quantitative information provided by this study can be used in prediction of emergence under diverse temperature conditions. Germination of cannabis seeds occurred in a wide range of temperatures and this seed are less sensitive to temperature compared to the other two plants. Germination of fennel seeds was less, except at 200C. The sesame seeds had good germination at 15-35 0C.


Mozhgan Maleki Narg Mousa, Hamidreza Balouchi, Mahmood Attarzadeh,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (9-2015)
Abstract

In order to evaluate the effect of priming on some germination and seedling growth characteristics of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) under drought stress, an experiment was conducted base on completely randomized design with four replications at the Seed Technology Laboratory of Yasouj University, in 2011. Treatments were included of five priming levels (control or no prime, hydro priming, potassium nitrate 3% (KNO3), PEG and Urea -4 bar) as the first factor and three levels of drought stress (0, -4 and -8 bar) as the second factor. The results showed that the interactions of drought stress and seed priming on germination percentage and the germination rate was not significant. But the main impact of priming and drought stress on them was so significant at 1% probability. The highest germination percentage and germination rate (75.66% and 3.62 seed.day-1, respectively) were shown in urea priming and the lowest (52% and 2.31 seed.day-1 respectively) in the control treatment (no prime). Drought stress was caused a significant decrease in germination traits. In general, the results obtained in this study showed that treatment with urea and potassium nitrate compared with PEG improved germination and seedling growth of safflower.


Khadijeh Badpa, Mohsen Movahhedi Dehnavi, Alireza Yadavi,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (3-2016)
Abstract

To evaluate the interaction of Cd and SA on seed germination of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. cv. Soffe), this experiment was carried out as a factorial based on CRD with four replications in 2012, in Yasouj University seed lab. Factors included of four levels of seed priming with SA (0, 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 mM) and eight levels of cadmium nitrate (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 mM). In all Cd treatments, SA 0.9 mM had maximum germination percentage (84% in 0 mM Cd) and rate (6.58 seed day-1 in 5 mM Cd), radical length (4.21 cm in 0 mM Cd) and stem (3.29 cm in 0 mM Cd), radical dry mater (2.25 mg in 0 mM Cd), shoot dry matter (0.94 mg in 0 mM Cd) and seed vigor index (6.30 in 0 mM Cd). Generally, seed priming with SA decreased the impact of Cd on seed germination and SA 0.9 mM was the best treatment.


Rrahele Aahmadpour, Nezam Armand, Saeed Reza Hossinzadeh,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (3-2016)
Abstract

This study was performed to investigate interactions of different levels of vermicompost extract and salinity stress on germination characteristics of chickpea seedlings. The factorial experiment was conducted in completely randomized design with three replications. Concentrations of vermicompost extract (0, 5, 10 and 20 volumetric percentage) and salinity levels (0, 30, 60 and 90 mM NaCl). Results showed that there were significant differences (P‌ 0.01) between vermicompost extract and salinity levels regarding germination percentage, radicle length, and shoot dry weight. Salinity stress with 90 (Mm NaCl) level significantly decreased all of the traits compared to the non-stress condition. Effects of vermicompost extract and salinity stress were significant differences (P‌ 0.05) on the germination rate index, radicle length, radicle dry weight and consumed endosperm. vermicompost extract at concentrations of 5 volumetric percentage in moderate salinity stress (30 mM NaCl) and non-salinity stress caused a significant increase (P‌ 0.01) in radicle length, radicle dry weigh and consumed endosperm compared to control.


Zeinab Alipoor, Sohrab Mahmodi,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (3-2016)
Abstract

In order to determinate the cardinal temperatures and investigate the effect of temperature on seed germination and seedling growth of Securigera securidaca, a study was conducted in a completely randomized design with 8 temperature treatments (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40oC) and four replications in research laboratory of faculty of agriculture at the Birjand University in 2013. A two-segmented linear regression model was fitted between germination rate and temperatures to determine cardinal temperatures for germination. Cardinal (minimum, optimum and maximum) temperatures of germination were determined as -1, 22.5 and 40.2oC respectively. Maximum rate and percentage of germination obtained in the range of 20-25oC. Maximum of radicle length and dry weight, maximum of caulicle length and dry weight and maximum of vigor seedling were obtained in 20oC,10-20oC and 5-30oC respectively. Maximum and minimum germination uniformity (GU) was obtained in 25 and 5oC. 


Somayeh Rastegar, Mostafa Ahmadzadeh, Hojat Piroozy,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (3-2016)
Abstract

Allelopathic compounds display an important role in biodiversity, stability and ability of ecosystem production. An experiment was conducted to investigate the allelopathic effect of six species, Cordia myxa, Melia indica, Delonix regai, Terminalia catappa, Eucalyptus camadulensis, Ficus religiosa on germination and seedling growth of Calendula officinalis. An experiment was performed in a completely randomized design with three replications in the lab of the horticultural Hormozgan university during 2014. A completely randomized design with three replications was carried out in the laboratory. Results indicated that the percentage of germination, seed germination rate, plumule and radicle length, and seed vigor of Calendula officinalis significantly reduced under aqueous extract of all species. But, there was no significant difference between dry weights. Delonix regia extract ceased the seed germinates in both concentrations. After that Melia indica extract had a highly significant inhibitory effect on seed germination, plumule and radicle length when compared to control. The results of this experiment also showed that the inhibitory effects of Cordia myxa and Terminalia catappa were lower in compared to other species. Between two concentrations, 100% concentration has a more inhibitory effect. The results of the present study revealed that inhibition of germination and growth parameters of Calendula officinalis showed variation according to the different plants. Cultivation of Calendula officinalis with Melia indica, Delonix regia species don’t suggest in the landscape.


Hamid Sharifi, Morteza Goldani,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (3-2016)
Abstract

Seed coat color as a perfect and simple index is effective in water absorption, seed dormancy and germination. The mustard plant produces seeds with different coat color. So, in order to investigate the effect of seed coat color on germination rate, the percentage of germination and dormancy of Mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) seeds an experiment was carried out based on a completely randomized design with four replications. Treatments were included two types of seed coat color (brown and black) and dormancy breaking treatments (Control, Potassium nitrate 0.2%, GA3 250, GA3 500 ppm and one, two and three weeks prechilling). The results showed that the differences between germination indices traits in brown and black seeds were significant. So that, the germination rate and germination percent in black seed were greater than brown seeds, but the duration of dormancy in brown seeds was greater than black seed. One week prechilling treatment had the most effect on breaking dormancy. So that germination percentage and germination rate for black seed was 75% and 0.54 respectively and these amounts for brown seeds were 58% and 0/43 respectively. Potassium nitrate and GA3 (250 and 500 ppm) reduced germination rate and germination percent in both types of seeds. In addition, water absorption percent in brown seeds was more than black seeds. The final results showed that heteromorphic seeds of Mustard have variation in duration of dormancy, germination and water absorption percent.


En Mehrazar Ashraf, Kamal Sadat Asilan, Farid Golzardi, Shahram Nazari, Ramin Salehi,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (3-2016)
Abstract

Three separate experiments conducted to survey the response of two populations of common purslane weed collected from Karaj and Ahvaz on germination and early growth. The first experiment was based on 4 levels of flooding, including 1, 2, 4, 8 days plus non-flooding treatment as a control. Second experiment addressed the impact of various acidity levels, such as 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and finally third experiment considered the influence of high temperatures of 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220 centigrade on germination rate, germination percentage, radicle length and plumule length as well as fresh weight of the aforementioned population of common purslane (Karaj and Ahvaz). Analysis of variance revealed that in both weed populations, all germination indices were impressed by flooding periods, acidity levels and high temperatures. Extending the flooding periods resulted in reducing all measured parameters in both weed populations, so the growth of common people was completely inhibited less than 8 consecutive days of flooding. Germination rate and percentage improved gradually by increasing the acidity value from 4 up to 7. An adverse relation was observed between the measured parameters and temperature variations in both Karaj and Ahvaz weed population. Germination rate and percentage, radicle and plumule length, as well as the fresh weight of seedling, decreased significantly in response to increasing the oven temperature. Overall, it can be concluded that boosting our knowledge about both ecology and biology aspects of the common person can pave the way for introducing new ways in line with expanding long-term strategies, improving management systems and predicting the mode of germination and growth of this important weed.


Saman Sheidaei, Hossein Heidari Sharif Abad, Aidin Hamidi, Ghorban Nour Mohammadi, Ali Moghaddam,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (3-2016)
Abstract

In order to assess seed deterioration of soybean at Ardebil province, this study was conducted as a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design in 2014. The treatments consisted of germination ability, seed moisture content and seed storing conditions. Germination ability treatment was concluded of three germination levels: 80%, 85% and 90%. Also, three rates of seed moisture content including 10%, 12% and 14%; and two seed storing conditions including seed storage of Moghan and controlled storage were considered as second and third treatments. The results indicated that seed quality significantly reduced by increasing the seed moisture content up to 14% and this moisture content was determined as inappropriate moisture for soybean seed storage. Seeds with high moisture content showed significantly lower normal seedlings percent, germination rate and seedling vigor indices. However, there was no significant difference between 12% and 10% seed moisture contents, so it can be concluded that 12% seed moisture content is proper moisture for soybean seed storage. According to the results, enhancement of seed moisture content more than 12% will result in more accelerated deterioration of soybean seed, in a way that seeds with higher moisture content, especially at inappropriate seed storage conditions will lose their quality and will cause yield reduction at field due to low plant density aroused from inadequate seedling emergence.


Maryam Janalizadeh, Ahmad Nezami, Hamidreza Khazaie, Hassan Feizi, Morteza Goldani,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (9-2016)
Abstract

Priming of seeds by magnetic fields (magneto priming) is proposed as an ecological, useful and low-priced method for improvement of seed germination and plant emergence. In order to evaluate the germination behavior of sesame seeds affected by magnetic fields, an experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design with 22 treatments (non-exposure to magnetic fields (control) and 21 magneto priming treatments) with three replications at the college of agriculture, the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2014. the seed of sesame put into a plastic bag bulky and was treated with different intensity of magnetic fields (25, 50, 75 and 100 mT) for several times (10, 20, 30, 60 and 120 minutes). For assessment of germination traits of sesame under constant magnetic field conditions, magnetic tapes with three mT strength were used in each Petri dish throughout the experiment. Results showed that magnetic fields had no significant effects on final germination percentage and mean germination time and all magnetic treatments except for 75 mT at 60 minutes indicated reducing effects on germination percentage in comparison to control. Priming of seeds with magnetic fields in 50 mT strength for 20 minutes led to the increment of germination rate compared to control treatment but all levels of 100mT treatment caused a reduction in germination rate than control. The most radicle length, seedling length and seedling vigor length index belong to 75 mT at 60 minutes treatment and the most seedling dry weight and seedling vigor weight index related to 100 mT for 20 minutes treatment. Ranking of treatments showed that exposure of seeds for one hour in 75 mT and 10 minutes in 25 mT magnetic fields strength had the best outcomes.


Zaynab Taghinezad, Massoud Dehdari, Amin Mirshekari, Hossain Zainali,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (9-2016)
Abstract

Medicinal barberry plants, belong to Berberidaceae family. Seeds of barberry have long period dormancy. Therefore, overcome to seed dormancy and increasing germination rate of seeds due to different methods will be useful. In this regard, two separate experiments were designed. In the first experiment, effect of different levels of Gibberellic acid (0, 600 and 900 mg.l-1 at 8˚C) and temperatures (25 (control), 10 and 5 °C at 50 days) in a factorial experiment based on the completely randomized design with three replications and in the second experiment, effect of different nutrition concentrations of MS medium (full strength MS, 1/2MS and 1/4 MS) in a completely randomized design with three replications on embryo culture of four native species of barberry (Berberis integrima, B. vulgaris, B. crataegina and B. orthootrys) were investigated. Based on the results obtained from the first experiment, chilling treated seeds showed the greatest effect (88%) on seed germination in comparison with gibberellic acid treatment. The results of the second experiment showed that the best MS concentration for embryo culture was full strength MS medium with%100 seed germination in four above mentioned barberry species after 2-3 days. In general, the best method to overcome barberry seed dormancy was an embryo culture in full-strength MS nutrition.



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