Search published articles


Showing 78 results for Germination Percentage

Gholam Reza Sharifi-Sirchi,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (6-2014)
Abstract

In order to extend the cultivation season and increase in growth ability in tropical regions, the effect of priming media, SA, NaCl, PEG, water and vitamin B1 with chemical elimination of pericarp by sulphuric acid, evaluated on growth characters of spinach under high temperature stress (25, 30, 35 °C). Results showed that PEG and vitamin B1 pretreatment after scarification with sulphuric acid 9 M increased germination percentage under 25 and 30°C. Also, for the propose of considering the effect of different priming media on spinach see at the optimum temperature of winter, seeds were sown in greenhouse and farm in Minab city. Results of greenhouse cultivation showed that hydro-primed seed and seed which primed with vitamin B1 and PEG had the highest emergence. In the field, the primed plant treated with vitamin B1, NaCl and distilled water had the highest yield. Therefore, this study suggests proofing laboratory results some experiments should be performed in farm filed with hotter temperatures by using vitamin B1 and PEG pretreatments.

Azam Roumani, Seyed Mohammadreza Ehteshami,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (6-2014)
Abstract

In order to study the effect of different levels of salinity stress on germination indices and early growth of Trigonella foenum-greacum L., an experiment was conducted in agronomy laboratory of Faculty of Agricultural at the University of Guilan in 2012. The experiment was arranged base on completely randomized design with four replications. The used treatments were different levels of salinity stress due to NaCl (0, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, -0.8, -1, -1.2, -1.4, -1.6 and -1.8 MPa). Results showed, by increasing of salinity levels, decreased germination percentage, germination speed, germination energy, germination rate index, water percentage of seedling tissue, seedling length, the dry and fresh weight of seedling and vigor index significantly. However, the levels of salinity (-0.2 and -0.4 MPa) increased the dry and fresh weight of seedling in comparing with control by growth stimulation. Moreover, germination rate reduction had increased trend in comparing with control. Results indicated that there was a positive significant correlation between percent of germination and other germination indices except for germination rate. Generally, the results showed fenugreek seed can tolerate salinity amount until -1.2 MPa (38.9 ds/m) in germination time.

Asad Masoumi Asl, Rreza Amiri Fahliani, Hamidreza Balouchi,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (6-2014)
Abstract

Salinity is one of the most extensive environmental stresses and is a limiting factor for the growth and development of crops, such as rice. Then, an experiment based upon completely randomized design with four low levels (0, 7.5, 15, 22.5) and four high of salinity (75, 150, 225 and 300 mM) with control as the first factor and nine cultivars of rice (dollars, Hasan Saraii, Mousa Tarom, Kamfiruz, Lenjan Askari, Gharib, Domsiah Mamassani, 304, Champa Yasouj) as the second factor with three replications was conducted in 2012 in the Yasouj University. Results showed that Hasan Saraii had salinity tolerance with the most germination percentage, germination rate and shoot length at high salinity levels (more than 75 mM), and Domsiah Mamassani with the minimum of that traits had not any salinity tolerance. But in the low salinity (less than 22.5 mM), Hasan Saraii, Lenjan and Mousa Tarom had the highest percentage of germination. The maximum germination rate was due to Mousa Tarom and the maximum shoot length observed in Gharib variety. So it seems, if we would only consider the germination percentage, Hasan Saraii is the best variety and if the maximum germination percentage and rate are considered, the variety that would be considered is Mousa Tarom. Therefore, high salinity we should not just rely on the germination but the germination rate should also be noted and in lower salinity due to different cultivars germination percentage, germination rate and dry weight of root should be paid much more attention.

Kazem Badeleh, Mehdi Aghighi Shahverdi, Haeshmat Omidi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (2-2015)
Abstract

To evaluate the effect of priming on seed germination of Cucurbita pepo in drought stress conditions, a factorial experiment was conducted as completely randomized design with three replications. Treatments included drought stress at five levels of osmotic potential (zero, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 MP), priming at levels of GA3 (250 ppm to 24 hours), KNO3 (0.2% for 24 hours) Hydro prime (H2O) (to 24 hours) and control. The results showed that priming effect was significant on germination percentage, germination rate, mean daily germination, the average time required for germination and germination rate index. A significant difference was found between drought stress on seed germination rate. In addition, the interaction of seed priming and drought stress was significant on all traits (germination percentage, germination rate, average daily germination, the average time required for germination, germination rate daily, the coefficient of germination rate and the seed vigor). Seed priming, particularly in severe drought stress levels, led to significant increase in mean germination percentage, germination rate and seed vigor. Furthermore, the results of our study indicated that Cucurbita pepo seed priming had partial resistance to drought. Gibberellin acid in the first grade and the hydro priming in second grade can improve the germination and growth of the seedlings under drought stress.

Hassan Habibi, Mehdi Agihghi Shahverdi, Zahra Nasiri, Mohammadreza Chaichi, Mohammad Hossein Fotokian,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (2-2015)
Abstract

The effect of seed rate of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and efficiency of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPR) that facilitates phosphorus uptake with different doses of phosphate fertilizer was evaluated on seed quality. For this purpose, the germination and seed vigor tests before and after accelerated aging were performed in a split split plot experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications in 2010 in the field of education and research in the College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Tehran University, Karaj. Phosphorus factor at 4 levels (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg Phosphorus.ha-1) in main plots, PGPR (Pseudomonas) in three levels (no bacteria, bacterial strains, No. 9 and bacterial strains No. 41) in subplots and rate of seed factors on three levels (2, 6, and 10 kg of seed per hectare) were the sub-subplots. The results showed the highest rate of germination and seed vigor obtained by use of 6 kg seeds per hectare, PGPR No.41 strains with 30 kg Phosphorus per hectare and after accelerated aging. The highest rate of germination and seed vigor at 10 kg of seed per hectare were found for PGPR No.41 strains, with 60 kg Phosphorus ha-1 treatments. After accelerated aging practices to achieve maximum germination index and vigor, seed rates and phosphorus requirement were more than standard conditions. Based on obtained results for the storage conditions, bacterial strains No. 41 had a better effect on increasing seed vigor than bacterial strains No. 9. To produce alfalfa seed with high vigor and obtain better results, use of optimum seed rates and phosphorus (6 and 30 kg.ha-1, respectively) along with PGPR (strain No. 41) could be considered in crop plants.


Ghorbanali Rassam, Samaneh Rahban, Mahnaz Mojtabaii, Atefeh Badri,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (2-2015)
Abstract

Seed quality is one of the most important factors affecting seed germination and seedling growth. In order to investigate the effects of seed aging on germination and seedling growth of sunflower cultivars, a factorial experiment was conducted based on a completely randomized design with three replications in seed research laboratory of Shirvan Higher Education Complex. To create 7 different treatments of seed aging, seeds of three cultivars Ghasem, Farrokh and Barzgar (as the first factor) were kept at a high temperature (43◦ C) and high relative humidity (100%) for 0 (control), 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 hours (as a second factor). The results of mean comparison showed that germination percentage, rate and seedling growth of Farrokh cultivar was more than other cultivars in each aging level. Germination percentage, rate and uniformity, seedling dry weight, radicle and stem length reduced linearly with increase in the duration aging in all cultivars. Under the aging conditions, the time to beginning and ending of germination was significantly increased. Overall, it was concluded that seed quality of sunflower cultivars was seriously decreased under the aging conditions.

Sayyed Jalil Mirmahmood, Mohammad Javad Ahmadi-Lahijani, Yahya Emam,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (2-2015)
Abstract

Osmotic stress is the most important of the abiotic stresses that lead to limitation of growth and yield in rapeseed. This study was conducted to examine the effect of cycocel seed priming on osmotic stress tolerance in germination and early growth stages of rapeseed, as a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design at Agriculture College of Shiraz University in 2012. The treatments included seed priming in three cycocel concentrations: 0 (without priming as control), 2.5 and 3.5 g L-1 and osmotic stress in five levels: 0 (as control), -0.3, -0.6, -0.9 and -1.2 MPa using polyethylene glycol. The results showed that osmotic stress was significantly reduced germination percentage (15.1%), germination rate (15.3%), radicle length (29.5%), plumule length (31.6%), radicle fresh weight (22.4%), plumule fresh weight (37.6%) and vigor index (39.9%). Furthermore, osmotic stress leads to increase radicle to plumule fresh weight and radicle to plumule length ratio as 6.8 and 24.3 percent, respectively. Seed priming with cycocel reduced the adverse effects of osmotic stress on measured parameters. Although, there was no positive effect on germination percentage and rate under osmotic and nonosmotic conditions for cycocel in both concentrations, but cycocel at 3.5 g L-1 appeared to have a greater positive effect than 2.5 g L-1. Considering positive impact of cycocel seed priming on the reduction adverse effects of osmotic stress further research on cycocel seed priming and osmotic stress tolerance is recommended under field conditions.


Amin Salehi, Asad Masumiasl, Ali Moradi,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (9-2015)
Abstract

Bilhar or Mountain Kandall (Dorema aucheri) belongs to Apiacea family that contains flavonoid and coumarine compounds. Since propagation of this plant in natural habitats occurs through seed and due to deep dormancy, the identification of different seed dormancy breaking methods is necessary for the preservation of this species. In this respect, different methods, including chilling, washing and gibberellic acid was studied, on the seeds gathered from Kohgiloyeh and Boyerahmad province. For this reason, a factorial experiment with three factors was done based on a completely randomized design in three replications, in the faculty of agriculture, Yasouj University, in 2012. Experimental factors were included, chilling period (stratification periods of 3 and 4 weeks), gibberellic acid (zero and 1500 ppm) and washing (washing with distilled water and non-washable). Results showed that 4 weeks chilling treatment had maximum germination percentage and germination rate and seedling vigor. Also, maximum root and shoot dry weight were obtained from the seeds of this treatment. Whereas, double and triple interaction effects for germination percentage, epicotyl and hypocotyl length were not significant. Germination percentage was better in 4 weeks prechilled seed than 3 weeks. Obtained results from this research showed that Bilhar seeds have the physiological dormancy.


Somayeh Talebi, Sayed Mohsen Nabavi Kalat,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (9-2015)
Abstract

In order to study, the effects of hydropriming and osmopriming on germination characteristics of Nigella sativa L. under salt stress an experiment was conducted in factorial laid out in completely randomized design with four replications at Research Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University-Mashhad Iran, in 2014. Factors were included of priming treatment in six levels [control (Non-priming), hydropriming with distilled water, osmopriming with KNO3, KCl, CaCl2 and NaCl] and salinity treatment in four levels [0, 50, 100 and 150 Mmol]. Analysis of variance showed that the effects of salinity and seed priming on all measured indices and interaction between two factors on germination percentage and rate, radicle and plumule length and seed vigor were significant at the probability level of 1%. The results showed that with increasing salt concentration all measured traits were decreased. This decreasing started from the 50 Mmol concentration. Under salt stress condition, osmopriming with KNO3 and then hydropriming and osmopriming with KCl improved all germination indices compared with control.


Maral Etesami, Ali Rahemi Karizaki, Benyamin Torabi,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (9-2015)
Abstract

Germination rate and percentage are maximal at optimum temperatures and then reach to zero at the base and ceiling temperatures. An experiment was conducted at the Gonbad Kavous University laboratory as a completely randomized design with 4 replications, to study germination response to temperature and evaluation of cardinal temperature on germination rate and percentage of hibiscus tea. Seeds germinated at 0 to 45 0C by 5 0C intervals. Results indicated that the response of germination percentage and rate adequately fitted with dent like and segmented functions, continually. Base and ceiling temperatures were 1.66 and 43.33 0C for germination percentage and 4.53 and 42.95 0C for germination rate. Optimum temperatures were 30 0C for germination rate and 11.56 and 33.63 0C for germination percentage. In conclusion, base and favorable temperatures for hibiscus tea seeds were 11 and 35 0C. Therefore it is recommended to cultivate at Gonbad kavous weather condition.


Zeinab Alipoor, Sohrab Mahmodi,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (9-2015)
Abstract

Due to the importance of medicinal plants, understanding the seed germination response to temperature is agronomically important. A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effect of different temperatures on seed germination of fennel, cannabis and sesame in a completely randomized design with four replications. Various constant temperatures (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40°C) were considered. According to the results, the effect of temperature on germination rate and percentage in all species was significant. The seeds of fennel were not germinated in 5, 35 and 40 0C and seeds of sesame germinated only in 5 0C. The maximum rate of germination obtained in 30 °C for fennel and 25 °C for sesame and cannabis. The highest germination percentage of fennel and cannabis and sesame were in 20, 25 and 30 0C respectively. The lowest of germination uniformity (GU) were observed in 20 0C for fennel and in 15 0C for cannabis and sesame. Amount of seedling vigor maximized for fennel and cannabis in 250C and for sesame in the 300C. The values of length and weight of radical and plumule were enhanced with the increase of temperature and record on maximum in special temperature and then reduced slowly. The quantitative information provided by this study can be used in prediction of emergence under diverse temperature conditions. Germination of cannabis seeds occurred in a wide range of temperatures and this seed are less sensitive to temperature compared to the other two plants. Germination of fennel seeds was less, except at 200C. The sesame seeds had good germination at 15-35 0C.


Rahele Ahmadpour, Saeedreza Hosseinzadeh, Nezam Armand, Ebrahim Fani, Fariba Noedoust,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (9-2015)
Abstract

Rapid germination is an important factor determining the final yield. This study was performed to investigate the effects of different levels of methanol and drought stress on germination characteristics of lentil seedlings. The experiment was conducted in completely randomized design with three replications in summer 2014 at the Khatam Alanbia University of Behbahan. The first factor was different levels of methanol equal to 0 (control), 5, 10 and 15 volumetric percentage (v/v), and the second factor we negative water potential in four levels 0, -3, -6 and -9 bar by PEG. Results showed that there was a significant difference between different methanol concentrations regarding germination percentage, germination speed index, plumule and radical length, plumule and radical dry weight, radical area, radical diameter and consumed endosperm (P 0.01). Different levels of methanol caused a significant decrease in germination characteristics compared with to control. Drought stress with -9 bar level significantly decreased germination percentage, germination speed index, plumule and radical length, plumule and radical dry weight, radical area, radical diameter and consumed endosperm compared to other levels. Effects of drought and methanol were significant differences regarding the germination speed index, plumule length, plumule dry weight and consumed endosperm (P 0.05).


Saeideh Maleki Farahani, Alireza Rezazadeh, Mahdi Aghighi Shahverdi,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (9-2015)
Abstract

In order to investigate the effect of an electromagnetic field and ultrasonic waves on the seed germination of Cuminum cyminum that two separate experiments using a completely randomized design with four replications was conducted at Seed Science and Technology Laboratory of Faculty Agricultural Sciences, the Shahed University of Tehran in 2012. In the first experiment, for the seeds of zero, 10 and 30 min exposure to electromagnetic field intensity was 88 microTesla. In the second test (ultrasonic waves), seeds for zero, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 min exposure ultrasonic waves’ intensity were 40 and 59 kHz. The interaction between the electromagnetic field and the length had a significant effect on the traits of length, fresh weight and dry weight of root and shoot, length and weight of root to shoot ratio, percent and rate germination and mean germination time. In most of the studied traits showed that electromagnetic field causes a significant decrease in the number of traits so that the control (zero M.T) had the highest value. The interaction of Ultrasonic waves at the time had a significant effect of on the most traits. Maximum germination percentage (100%) for the treatment of 40 kHz with duration of 4 and 6 minutes and mean germination time was highest in control (10.76 days) and 59 kHz treatment duration of 2 and 4 min (respectively 11.01 and 10.75 days). Generally, Cuminum cyminum seeds responded positively to the use of ultrasonic waves (In contrast field) and germination index was significantly increased in this case.


Mozhgan Maleki Narg Mousa, Hamidreza Balouchi, Mahmood Attarzadeh,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (9-2015)
Abstract

In order to evaluate the effect of priming on some germination and seedling growth characteristics of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) under drought stress, an experiment was conducted base on completely randomized design with four replications at the Seed Technology Laboratory of Yasouj University, in 2011. Treatments were included of five priming levels (control or no prime, hydro priming, potassium nitrate 3% (KNO3), PEG and Urea -4 bar) as the first factor and three levels of drought stress (0, -4 and -8 bar) as the second factor. The results showed that the interactions of drought stress and seed priming on germination percentage and the germination rate was not significant. But the main impact of priming and drought stress on them was so significant at 1% probability. The highest germination percentage and germination rate (75.66% and 3.62 seed.day-1, respectively) were shown in urea priming and the lowest (52% and 2.31 seed.day-1 respectively) in the control treatment (no prime). Drought stress was caused a significant decrease in germination traits. In general, the results obtained in this study showed that treatment with urea and potassium nitrate compared with PEG improved germination and seedling growth of safflower.


Khadijeh Badpa, Mohsen Movahhedi Dehnavi, Alireza Yadavi,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (3-2016)
Abstract

To evaluate the interaction of Cd and SA on seed germination of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. cv. Soffe), this experiment was carried out as a factorial based on CRD with four replications in 2012, in Yasouj University seed lab. Factors included of four levels of seed priming with SA (0, 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 mM) and eight levels of cadmium nitrate (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 mM). In all Cd treatments, SA 0.9 mM had maximum germination percentage (84% in 0 mM Cd) and rate (6.58 seed day-1 in 5 mM Cd), radical length (4.21 cm in 0 mM Cd) and stem (3.29 cm in 0 mM Cd), radical dry mater (2.25 mg in 0 mM Cd), shoot dry matter (0.94 mg in 0 mM Cd) and seed vigor index (6.30 in 0 mM Cd). Generally, seed priming with SA decreased the impact of Cd on seed germination and SA 0.9 mM was the best treatment.


Rrahele Aahmadpour, Nezam Armand, Saeed Reza Hossinzadeh,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (3-2016)
Abstract

This study was performed to investigate interactions of different levels of vermicompost extract and salinity stress on germination characteristics of chickpea seedlings. The factorial experiment was conducted in completely randomized design with three replications. Concentrations of vermicompost extract (0, 5, 10 and 20 volumetric percentage) and salinity levels (0, 30, 60 and 90 mM NaCl). Results showed that there were significant differences (P‌ 0.01) between vermicompost extract and salinity levels regarding germination percentage, radicle length, and shoot dry weight. Salinity stress with 90 (Mm NaCl) level significantly decreased all of the traits compared to the non-stress condition. Effects of vermicompost extract and salinity stress were significant differences (P‌ 0.05) on the germination rate index, radicle length, radicle dry weight and consumed endosperm. vermicompost extract at concentrations of 5 volumetric percentage in moderate salinity stress (30 mM NaCl) and non-salinity stress caused a significant increase (P‌ 0.01) in radicle length, radicle dry weigh and consumed endosperm compared to control.


Zeinab Alipoor, Sohrab Mahmodi,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (3-2016)
Abstract

In order to determinate the cardinal temperatures and investigate the effect of temperature on seed germination and seedling growth of Securigera securidaca, a study was conducted in a completely randomized design with 8 temperature treatments (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40oC) and four replications in research laboratory of faculty of agriculture at the Birjand University in 2013. A two-segmented linear regression model was fitted between germination rate and temperatures to determine cardinal temperatures for germination. Cardinal (minimum, optimum and maximum) temperatures of germination were determined as -1, 22.5 and 40.2oC respectively. Maximum rate and percentage of germination obtained in the range of 20-25oC. Maximum of radicle length and dry weight, maximum of caulicle length and dry weight and maximum of vigor seedling were obtained in 20oC,10-20oC and 5-30oC respectively. Maximum and minimum germination uniformity (GU) was obtained in 25 and 5oC. 


Hamid Sharifi, Morteza Goldani,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (3-2016)
Abstract

Seed coat color as a perfect and simple index is effective in water absorption, seed dormancy and germination. The mustard plant produces seeds with different coat color. So, in order to investigate the effect of seed coat color on germination rate, the percentage of germination and dormancy of Mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) seeds an experiment was carried out based on a completely randomized design with four replications. Treatments were included two types of seed coat color (brown and black) and dormancy breaking treatments (Control, Potassium nitrate 0.2%, GA3 250, GA3 500 ppm and one, two and three weeks prechilling). The results showed that the differences between germination indices traits in brown and black seeds were significant. So that, the germination rate and germination percent in black seed were greater than brown seeds, but the duration of dormancy in brown seeds was greater than black seed. One week prechilling treatment had the most effect on breaking dormancy. So that germination percentage and germination rate for black seed was 75% and 0.54 respectively and these amounts for brown seeds were 58% and 0/43 respectively. Potassium nitrate and GA3 (250 and 500 ppm) reduced germination rate and germination percent in both types of seeds. In addition, water absorption percent in brown seeds was more than black seeds. The final results showed that heteromorphic seeds of Mustard have variation in duration of dormancy, germination and water absorption percent.


Hossein Sadeghi, Hossein Heidari Sharifabad, Aidin Hamidi, Ghorban Nourmohammadi, Hamid Madani,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (3-2016)
Abstract

In order to evaluate the effect of seed moisture content at harvesting time and drying temperature on soybean seed germination characteristics, an experiment was conducted as factorial (2×3×2) based on Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications in Karaj and Moghan areas. The first factor was cultivar with two levels (Williams and L17), the second factor was seed moisture content with three levels (15, 20 and 25%) and the third factor was drying temperature with two levels (30 and 45 °C). Results show that the germination percentage of producing seeds in Karaj (81.3%) were higher than Moghan area (77.4%). The difference between the germination percentage of dried seeds at 30 and 45◦C with initial seed moisture content of 15% was about 5.5%, while this difference for seeds with 25% initial moisture content was about 18.5%. There was no significant difference between seedling vigor index of seeds with 15% moisture content of two cultivars that have been produced in Karaj, but at 20% moisture content, the seedling vigor index in Williams cultivar (139.7) was higher than L17 cultivar (107.3). The highest (51.42 µsm cm-1 g-1) electrical conductivity of seed leakage soluble was obtained from the L17 cultivar with 25% moisture content and 45◦C and the lowest (28.46 42 µsm cm-1 g-1) rate of it was observed in Williams cultivar with 20% moisture content and 30◦C. According to these results, we must harvest and dry soybean seeds at 30◦C when its moisture content reached under 20%.


En Mehrazar Ashraf, Kamal Sadat Asilan, Farid Golzardi, Shahram Nazari, Ramin Salehi,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (3-2016)
Abstract

Three separate experiments conducted to survey the response of two populations of common purslane weed collected from Karaj and Ahvaz on germination and early growth. The first experiment was based on 4 levels of flooding, including 1, 2, 4, 8 days plus non-flooding treatment as a control. Second experiment addressed the impact of various acidity levels, such as 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and finally third experiment considered the influence of high temperatures of 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220 centigrade on germination rate, germination percentage, radicle length and plumule length as well as fresh weight of the aforementioned population of common purslane (Karaj and Ahvaz). Analysis of variance revealed that in both weed populations, all germination indices were impressed by flooding periods, acidity levels and high temperatures. Extending the flooding periods resulted in reducing all measured parameters in both weed populations, so the growth of common people was completely inhibited less than 8 consecutive days of flooding. Germination rate and percentage improved gradually by increasing the acidity value from 4 up to 7. An adverse relation was observed between the measured parameters and temperature variations in both Karaj and Ahvaz weed population. Germination rate and percentage, radicle and plumule length, as well as the fresh weight of seedling, decreased significantly in response to increasing the oven temperature. Overall, it can be concluded that boosting our knowledge about both ecology and biology aspects of the common person can pave the way for introducing new ways in line with expanding long-term strategies, improving management systems and predicting the mode of germination and growth of this important weed.



Page 1 from 4    
First
Previous
1
 

© 2019 All Rights Reserved | Iranian Journal of Seed Research

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.