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Kazem Badeleh, Mehdi Aghighi Shahverdi, Haeshmat Omidi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 ((Autumn & Winter) 2015)

To evaluate the effect of priming on seed germination of Cucurbita pepo in drought stress conditions, a factorial experiment was conducted as completely randomized design with three replications. Treatments included drought stress at five levels of osmotic potential (zero, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 MP), priming at levels of GA3 (250 ppm to 24 hours), KNO3 (0.2% for 24 hours) Hydro prime (H2O) (to 24 hours) and control. The results showed that priming effect was significant on germination percentage, germination rate, mean daily germination, the average time required for germination and germination rate index. A significant difference was found between drought stress on seed germination rate. In addition, the interaction of seed priming and drought stress was significant on all traits (germination percentage, germination rate, average daily germination, the average time required for germination, germination rate daily, the coefficient of germination rate and the seed vigor). Seed priming, particularly in severe drought stress levels, led to significant increase in mean germination percentage, germination rate and seed vigor. Furthermore, the results of our study indicated that Cucurbita pepo seed priming had partial resistance to drought. Gibberellin acid in the first grade and the hydro priming in second grade can improve the germination and growth of the seedlings under drought stress.

Razieh Sarami, Heshmat Omidi, Abdol Amir Bostani,
Volume 3, Issue 2 ((Autumn & Winter) 2017)

The present study was conducted to investigate the efficiency of hormonal pretreatment on increasing germination and early growth of seedling in the Seed Technology Laboratory of Shahed University in 2015 as a factorial experiment, adopting a completely randomized design with 4 replications. The treatments were: 5 levels of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) namely, zero, 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mg/L and 5 levels of PBA (Tetrahydro pyranyl ­benzyl­ adenine), which were zero, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 mg/L. Analysis of variance showed that the use of the two hormones and their interactions had a significant effect on all traits such as seed germination, biomass, leaf relative water content and photosynthetic pigments. The highest percentage of germination (66.66%) was obtained in 1.5 mg/L IAA with 1 mg/L PBA. 0.5 mg/L PBA and in 0.1 mg/L IAA the longest shoot (1.28 and 1.17 cm, respectively) was obtained. Germination coefficient decreased by about 12.5% by increasing IAA from 0.1 to 1.5 mg/L. The greatest relative water content (42.73% and 37.38%) was obtained with 0.5 mg/L PBA and 1.5 mg/L IAA, respectively. Combination of IAA+PBA (0.1+0 mg/L) had a positive effect on both the length of the root and seedling. The high concentration of PBA and the lowest amount of IAA had similar results in terms of plant biomass. The highest plant biomass (4.33 mg) was obtained in seeds treated with 2 mg/L of cytokinin and 0.1 mg/L of auxin. Photosynthetic pigments were also affected by these two hormones through the IAA was more effective than PBA. The finding was that auxin and cytokinin increase germination and improve the morpho-physiological indicators and thus increase the yield of Stevia.

Mehdi Aghighi Shahverdi, Heshmat Omidi, Sayed Esmail Mousavi,
Volume 3, Issue 2 ((Autumn & Winter) 2017)

For the purpose of evaluating the effect of chitosan on seed germination and some biochemical characteristics of the milk thistle herb in the conditions of salinity, an experiment was conducted as factorial in a completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications in the Laboratory of Seed Science and Technology of Shahed University, Tehran in 2015. Experimental factors comprised salinity levels (0, 4, 8 and 12 dS.m-1) and different levels of Chitosan (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 percent). The results showed that salt stress reduced germination percentage, germination coefficient, germination speed, weight and length vigor index, radical, plumule and seedling length and total biomass and increased mean germination time. Seed priming with chitosan up to 0.5% concentration increased germination coefficient, weighted index vigor and plumule length. The highest amounts of total chlorophyll and total protein were obtained in seed priming with 0.5% chitosan levels in zero salinity level (control). By increasing salinity levels, the activity level of catalase and peroxidase increased, so that the highest level of the activity of these two enzymes was obtained in the salinity level of 12 dS.m-1 in pre-treatment with 0.5% Chitosan. The results showed that seed priming with chitosan of 0.5% could reduce harmful effects of salt stress on some traits of milk thistle seedlings and could even improve their growth.

Vahid Mansouri Gandomany, Heshmat Omidi, Mohammad Rezaei Charmahin,
Volume 3, Issue 2 ((Autumn & Winter) 2017)

In order to investigate the effect of pretreatment of chitosan biological compounds on seeds of soybean (Glycine max L. cv. Williams) under salt stress conditions, a factorial experiment was conducted, adopting a completely randomized design with three replications at Shahed University in 2015. Factors examined included the combination of chitosan at three levels (0, 0.25 and 0.5 the weight-volume) and salinity at 4 levels (0, 5, 5.7 and 10 dS/m). The results showed that the interaction of chitosan and salinity had a significant impact on seed germination characteristics such as germination percentage, germination rate, mean germination time, normal seedling and physiological characteristics such as proline and soluble sugars of shoots. In contrast to salt stress increase of 30%, and an increase of 24 and 35% of proline and soluble sugars of the shoot, pretreatment of chitosan (0.25%) improves seedling germination characteristics of soybeans. Given the impact of the treatments of chitosan on seed germination and seedling growth of soybean, it is possible to introduce 0.25% W/V chitosan as a treatment to deal with conditions of salinity.

Ali Mansouri, Heshmat Omidi,
Volume 5, Issue 1 ((Spring and Summer) 2018)

DOR: 98.1000/2383-1251.1397.

Extended abstract
Introduction: Quinoa, with the scientific name (Chenopodium quinoa Willd), belongs to the Spencer family. Seeds vigor can be improved with a variety of seed priming methods. In this method, the seeds are soaked in water or various osmotic solutions and then dried to the original moisture. After priming treatment, seeds are stored and cultivated as untreated seeds. Potassium nitrate is the most frequently used chemical for the purpose of increasing seed germination and is recommended by the Society of Official Seed Specialists and the International Association of Seed Testing for germination experiments of many species. In recent years, the use of nanoscale materials has been of great interest to researchers. Chitin, one of the most abundant polysaccharides in nature, is a polymer chain of N-acetyl glucosamine and is associated with other proteins and other organic compounds, and numerous industrial, pharmaceutical and agricultural applications have been reported for it. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of chitosan nanoparticles and potassium nitrate on some morphological characteristics, germination characteristics, chlorophyll content and relative humidity of quinoa plant.
Materials and Methods: In order to investigate the effect of pretreatment of quinoa seeds with chitosan nanoparticles and potassium nitrate solution on the early stages of germination, a factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications in Seed Processing Laboratory, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran. Experimental treatments consisted of priming with chitosan nanoparticles in 4 levels (no primers, 0.01, 0.20 and 0.04% w / v) and potassium nitrate in 3 levels (no primers, 0.2 and 0.5% Weight percent) and hydroperime for 2 hours at 25° C. For each replicate of every treatment 100 seeds, using standard priming methods, were treated with the materials mentioned above and were dried in a petri dish on Watman paper No. 1 at 20 ± 1 ° C and relative humidity of 70% and 16 hours of daylight and 8 hours of darkness to make germination work. After that, germination percentage, root length, shoot length, germination coefficient, Allometric coefficient, relative water content, chlorophyll content a and b were measured, using standard methods.
Results: Seed treatment with 0.2% potassium nitrate solution increased germination by 9% and treatment with chitosan 0.01% increased germination by 14%, compared with the non-primer treatment. The priming treatment with a 0.5% solution of potassium nitrate and 0.01% chitosan increased germination by 36%, compared to the non-primer treatment. Potassium nitrate increased root length by 25% and shoot length by 10%. In addition, chitosan 0.01% increased the root length by 6%, and seeds with chitosan 0.02% and potassium nitrate 0.2% increased the root length by 32%. The effects of potassium nitrate, chitosan and their interaction on chlorophyll a and b were significant at 1% probability level. The highest levels of chlorophyll a were obtained in 0.02% chitosan and 0.2% potassium nitrate. This formulation increased the chlorophyll a content by 33%. The highest amount of chlorophyll b was obtained by applying 0.01% chitosan and 0.5% potassium nitrate.
Conclusion: The results of this study showed that treatment with 0.01% w/v chitosan and 0.5% w/v potassium nitrate resulted in the highest germination percentage, chlorophyll content a and b, relative water content, and stem length. Treatment with 0.02% chitosan and 0.2% potassium nitrate resulted in the highest allometric coefficient and root length.
  1. Chitosan nano particle and potassium nitrate increase quinoa germination.
  2. Chitosan nano particle and potassium nitrate increase the content of chlorophyll a and b.

Alireza Gorzi, Heshmat Omidi, Abdolamir Bostani,
Volume 6, Issue 2 ((Autumn & Winter) 2020)

DOR: 98.1000/2383-1251.1398.

Extended abstract
Introduction: Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bert.) is a herbaceous perennial plant that belongs to the family of Asteraceae. Stevia is a self-incompatible herb and the seeds resulting from this plant have low germination ability. Steviol glycosides found in this plant are 250-300 times sweeter than sucrose and despite their sweet flavor; they are not absorbed by the body. In general, the poor germination capacity of Stevia seeds is a major impediment for its large-scale cultivation. Priming is one of the seed enhancement techniques that could lead to an increase of germination percentage and germination rate under stress conditions. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the impact of priming with salicylic acid (SA), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) on some germination indices, seedling growth as well as the content of photosynthetic pigments in Stevia under normal and drought stress conditions.
Materials and methods: A factorial experiment using a completely randomized design was carried out in the Seed Science and Technology Laboratory of Agricultural College, Shahed University, in 2017. The factors studied comprised four levels of drought stress (0, –0.3, –0.6 and –0.9 MPa) and seven priming combinations with SA, Fe and Zn. Non-primed seeds (dry seeds) were also considered as control. In this experiment, Fe and Zn were supplied by sources of iron (II) sulfate heptahydrate (FeSO4.7H2O, 0.5%) and Zinc sulfate heptahydrate (ZnSO4.7H2O, 0.5%), respectively. The traits examined in this study included germination percentage, radicle length, plumule length, seedling weight vigor index and the content of photosynthetic pigments and carotenoid.
Results: The results of this experiment indicated that the plumule length was more sensitive to drought stress, as compared with the root length. With increased intensity of drought stress from 0 to – 0.9 MPa, the content of photosynthetic pigments in Stevia significantly decreased in all the priming treatments, so that the lowest amounts of chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid were observed at the potential of – 0.9 MPa. Priming with SA + Fe + Zn was found to be more effective than other treatments in improving the germination characteristics and the chlorophyll content of Stevia under normal and drought stress conditions. At the highest level of drought stress, germination percentage, radicle length, plumule length, seedling vigor index and total chlorophyll content increased by 55.7, 50.5, 74.3, 90.3 and 85.5%, compared with the control in the concurrent application of Fe, Zn, and SA.
Conclusion: In general, seed priming by micronutrient elements (Fe and Zn) and salicylic acid, and particularly their integrated application, could be recommended to increase the resistance of Stevia to drought stress in the germination phase.
  1. Drought stress at the germination stage has a significant effect on the seedling growth and the content of photosynthetic pigments in Stevia.
  2. Seed priming increases drought tolerance of Stevia at the germination stage.
  3. The integrated application of SA, Fe, and Zn is more effective than their separate application to alleviate the drought-induced damaging effects.

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