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Amin Abbasi, Fariborz Shekari, Seyed Bahman Mousavi, Naser Sabaghnia, Abdollah Javanmard,
Volume 3, Issue 2 ((Autumn & Winter) 2017)

The percentage and rate of germination and proper establishment of seedlings are important factors contributing to higher yield per unit area. As an essential element for plant growth and development, Zinc plays a critical role in many metabolic processes, and also has a positive effect on seed germination. The effects of seed priming with concentrations of 0.5, 1 and 2 percent zinc sulfate on the partitioning of reserved materials in seed, the start of autotrophic seedling growth and the activity of alpha-amylase enzyme were investigated in wheat seeds, using a factorial experiment in the Research Farm of the University of Maragheh, Iran in 2014 on the basis of a completely randomized design with four replications. The results showed that zinc priming had a significant effect on all the parameters under investigation. Mean comparisons showed that an increase in zinc concentration- up to one percent- had a positive effect on the parameters investigated and increasing its concentration more than one percent caused a negative effect on the parameters touched upon above. The results of this study showed that the dry seed weight of the control and zinc sulfate (0.5%) treatment reached a stable level on day 21 and 20, respectively. In addition, in the control and 0.5% zinc sulfate, the total dry weight reached its initial weight (seed weight) on day 15 and 13, respectively. In addition, the growth of autotrophic plant began 10-12 days after soaking. The seeds treated with 5.0 and 1 percent zinc sulfate had more leaf area than the other treatments; this could be due to the earlier entrance of the seedlings produced by 5.0 and 1% zinc sulfate treatments into the autotrophic stage, as compared with other treatments. The results of variance analysis of the finishing seeds' reserved materials, initial kernel, root dry weight and shoot dry weight confirmed that 0.5 and 1% zinc sulfate treatments were better than other concentrations. The treatments of 0.5 and 1%  of zinc sulfate reached the autotrophic stage sooner than the control and 2% zinc sulfate treatment. Given the results of this study, 5.0 and 1% zinc sulfate treatments were selected for field cultivation.

Jamal Kiani, Ali Abbasi Surki, Abdulrazagh Danesh Shahraki,
Volume 5, Issue 1 ((Spring and Summer) 2018)

DOR: 98.1000/2383-1251.1397.

Extended abstract
Introduction: Drought stress is one of the major problems in sugar beet production in Iran, and is the most important limiting factor for germination and establishment of sugar beet in the early stages of growth. Seed priming with chemical, nutrient elements or pre-chilling techniques are the most effective methods to improve germination percentage and speed, leading to uniform and tolerant seedlings in adverse environmental conditions.
Material and Methods:  In order to assess the effect of cold stratification and HCl treatments on the germination of sugar beet seed, cv. Ekbatan, under drought stress conditions, a RCBD factorial experiment with three replications was conducted in Seed Science and Technology Lab of Shahrekord University.  The first factor was stratification in two levels; the second factor was  seven levels of pretreatments including 2, 4 and 6 hours’ soaking in water and 0.03 HCL accompanied with control, and the third factor was four drought levels (control, -2, -4, -6 bar).
Result: Compared with the control, seed germination percentage and germination rate increased by at least 5-fold, relative germination by 50% and root and shoot length by 10%, due to stratification and duration of exposure to HCl treatments. With no stratification, germination traits increased with increases in exposure time in acid, and the highest values were obtained for the seeds exposed to HCl 0.03 normal for 6 hours. Although under optimal conditions, the effect of HCl was compensated for by stratification, in drought conditions, the highest values ​​were observed in stratified seeds and those placed in acid.
Conclusions: Since successful establishment of sugar beet seedlings at drought stress conditions is critical to achieving optimum density and yield, application of stratification treatments for one week and seed exposure to HCl increased the seed performance under stress conditions. This trend continued to increase with drought stress intensity, and placement of seeds in acid doubled seed germination in -2 bar drought conditions, which continued by 4 times in -6 bar, compared with stratified control seeds. Compared to separate application of the treatments, application of stratification and HCl treatments had synergistic effects on sugar beet seed performance, especially under drought stress conditions.
  1. Cold stratification and hydrochloric acid treatments increase the efficiency of sugar beet seeds under drought stress conditions.
  2. Cold stratification and Hydrochloric acid treatment have a synergistic effect on sugar beet seeds.

Ali Abbasi Sourki, Zahra Hosseni, Sina Fallah,
Volume 5, Issue 2 ((Autumn & Winter) 2019)

DOR: 98.1000/2383-1251.1397.5.

Extended Abstract
Introduction: Seeds are a good option for propagation and protection of medicinal plants. Although Seed dormancy is an adaptive strategy for wild medicinal plants, but it is considered as an undesirable trait in domestication and cultivation of them, need to be solved. Echinophora platyloba seed has dormancy despite its remarkable medicinal properties.
Materials and Methods: In order to break seed dormancy, three separate experiment including stratification, hormonal treatment and combination of both were performed. For stratification 10 samples of were placed in a wet bed at 5 ° C for 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 Week and were compared using a completely randomized design with three replications. For hormonal treatment, the seeds were placed in GA concentrations of 0, 500 and 1000 ppm for 24 hours and then transferred to germination conditions. However, since the breaking of dormancy did not occur, this experiment was not discussed any more. For combined application of hormone and stratification, seeds were placed at mentioned concentrations of gibberellin for 24 hours at 20 ° C and then gibberellin solutions were removed and the seed transmitted to 5 ° C and compared for 2, 4, 6, 8 weeks with a CRD factorial experiment with three replications. The first factor was concentration of gibberellin in three levels and the second factor was the duration of stratification in 4 levels.
Results: Stratification had a positive effect on seed dormancy breaking and 16 week chilling lead to highest germination percentage and rate and vigor indices. The combined application of hormonal treatments accelerated dormancy release and improved seed germination characteristics, which peaked at 8 weeks. 8-week stratification treatment at 5 ° C with 1000 ppm gibberellic acid was the best treatment to overcoming of dormancy in Echinophora-platyloba seeds.
Conclusion: It seems that seed dormancy of Echinophora seeds is physiological, which broke down by moist chilling and simultaneous application of stratification and gibberellin successfully. Although Gibberellin had no effect on dormancy break, it reduced the need for stratification. Combined application of them showed synergistic effects on dormancy release.

  1. Echinophora seed’s dormancy was broken under stratification conditions, but GA had no effect on it lonely.
  2. The application of gibberellin reduced the chilling demands of Echinophora seeds and the combined application of them had a synergistic effect on dormancy break

Elahe Hoseinpur Askarian, . Ali Abbasi Surki, Abdolrazagh Danesh Shahraki,
Volume 6, Issue 1 ((Spring and Summer) 2019)

DOR: 98.1000/2383-1251.1398.

Extended Abstract
Introduction: In addition to dormancy, seeds of Allium hirtifolium have a weak emergence in the field. Among methods for improving the efficiency and emergence of seeds, nutritional priming can be considered for its performance on weak seeds. The presence of micronutrients is one of the factors that may affect the efficiency of the seeds. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of priming with nutrients on optimization of dormancy status, germination, and enhancement of shallot seeds for its conservational, restoration and domestication programs.
Materials and Methods: In order to study effects of nutrients on germination and emergence of Allium hirtifolium, a CRD factorial experiment was conducted with four replications at Seed Science and Technology Lab of Shahrekord University in 2015. Two dormancy breaking treatments (sulfuric acid and sulfuric acid + gibberellic acid) as the first factor and nine nutrition treatments including four levels of ZnSO4 (5, 10, 50 and 100 mM) and four levels of FeSO4 (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2%) versus control were compared on shallot seeds.
Results: The results showed that dormancy breaking treatments, nutrient pretreatment of seeds and their interaction had significant effects on germination percentage, germination rate, time to reach l0% and 50% germination, germination uniformity, seedling length and vigor index I at 1% probability level. Sulfuric acid and FeSO41% increased germination versus control. Application of gibberellic acid affected the behavior of iron but did not indicate significant effects for zinc. The concentration of 5 mM ZnSO4 increased the rate of germination, compared with the control but decreased with higher concentrations. The gibberellic acid did not show any sharp effects on germination rate. Time to reach 50% germination was also affected by FeSO4 0.5% and 1% and lower levels of zinc. Application of gibberellic acid did not show any significant impact on the germination time reduction, compared with control and increased T50 in higher concentrations. Although germination traits were rarely affected by gibberellic acid, seedling length and vigor index were positively influenced with GA, and the highest seedling length was achieved at 0.5 and 1% of iron and gibberellic acid.
Conclusion: Seed priming with nutrients can improve germination and plant vigur indices. Different concentrations of iron and zinc showed different impacts on the seeds, which showed interaction with dormancy breaking methods. Although application of gibberellic acid did not have an effective role in increasing germination rate and reducing the time to reach 10% and 50% of germination, it enhanced seedling length and vigor index I, especially for iron.
  1. Addition of iron and zinc sulfate to shallot seeds whose dormancy was broken with sulfuric acid caused higher germination rate of  25.54%, compared with the control.
  2. Gibberellin compensated for zinc effect in germination and was able to replace it, but had a slight synergic effect with iron sulfate.
  3. Although gibberellin application did not affect germination traits, the seedling length and vigor index showed a positive response to it.

Marzie Soltani Alikooyi, Ali Abbasi Surki, Mohsen Mobini Dehkordi, Shahram Kiyani,
Volume 6, Issue 2 ((Autumn & Winter) 2020)

DOR: 98.1000/2383-1251.1398. 1575.1610

Extended Abstract
Introduction: Salinity is one of the most serious abiotic stresses, causing instability in germination and seed emergence due to low osmotic potential and ionic toxicity. Development of simple and low-cost biologic methods is essential for short-term management of salt stress. The use of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria increases the rate and uniformity of germination. This research aimed to investigate the effect of bacterial growth-promoting bacteria on the germination and seedling growth indices of alfalfa c.v. Hamedani in different salinity levels.
Materials and Methods: A CRD factorial experiment with four replications was conducted in Seed Science and Technology Laboratory of Shahrekord University in 2016. The first factor consisted of 6 salinity levels 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 and 12.5 dS/m created with sodium chloride, and the second was four levels of bacterial pre-treatment: no inoculation with bacteria and biopriming, inoculation of alfalfa seeds with Acinetrobacter calcoaceticus PTCC 1318, Bacillus megaterium PTCC 1250 and Enterobacter aerogenes PTCC 1221. The seeds were treated with bacteria and placed at a 20 °C growth chamber. They were then irrigated with desired solutions depending on the salinity treatment. Germinated seeds were counted daily and the parameters of germination percentage and rate, seedling length, seedling dry weight, vigour index I, II and allometric coefficient were calculated after 10 days.
Results: Salinity levels higher than 10 dS/m reduced germination indices and seedling growth of alfalfa. The highest reductions were obtained for 12.5 ds/m salinity level versus control for germination percentage (10.81%), germination rate (49.48%), plumule and radicle length (13.30% and 28.88% respectively) and vigor index I and II, which were 30.27% and 6.28%, respectively. The seed treated with A. calcoaceticus was able to tolerate salinity stresses more than others. For example, the reduction for the seed treated with A. calcoaceticus was only 4%, compared with non-stressed control. In salinity conditions 2.5 and 5 dS/m, the highest rate of germination was obtained, using A. calcoaceticus bacteria. In addition, the seeds treated with E. aerogenes showed higher stability at different levels of salinity for seedling length traits. The highest vigour index related to the use of A. calcoaceticus in salinity was 7.5 ds/m.
Conclusions: A. calcoaceticus had a significant role in reducing the negative effects of salinity on germination percentage and rate, vigour index I and II and allometric coefficient while E. aerogenes bacteria were more effective in reducing negative effects of salinity on seedling length and dry weight.

  1. Acinetrobacter calcoaceticus bacterium increased the percentage and rate of germination of alfalfa seeds under salt stress.
  2. Enterobacter aerogenes bacteria efficiently adjusted the negative effects of salinity on alfalfa seedlings length and dry weight.

Mahboubeh Hajiabasi, Reza Tavakkol Afshari, Alireza Abbasi, Reza Kamaei,
Volume 6, Issue 2 ((Autumn & Winter) 2020)

DOR: 98.1000/2383-1251.1398.

Extended Abstract
Introduction: Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is the primary source of vegetable oil. Even in desirable conditions, soybean seeds lose their viability in long term storage. Many factors contribute to seed deterioration, including genetic factors, mechanical damage, relative humidity, storage temperature, seed moisture content, existence of microflora, and seed maturity, which reduce seed quality and make seeds unfit for cultivation purposes.
Materials and Methods: In order to investigate the effects of seed deterioration on seed germination and also the effects of salicylic acid and ethylene on the improvement of deteriorated seeds of G. max., accelerated aging test for 0, 6 and 10 days and natural aging test for 6 months were conducted. After aging conditions, seeds were imbibed with 50 µM salicylic acid and 10 µM ACC (precursor of ethylene) for 6 hours at 25 °C. In addition, after natural and accelerated aging tests, a bunch of seeds was used without any hormonal treatment (i.e., dry seeds) as control seeds. The seeds’ germination percentage, total sugar, fructose, and glucose were investigated. Moreover, the gene expression of GAI1 and LOX1 was measured on dry seeds and under imbibition of water, salicylic acid and ACC at 6, 12 hours using Q-RT-PCR method.
Results: The germination results showed that increasing number of aging days led to a decrease in germination. Total sugar content in seeds aged for 6 days did not have a significant difference, as compared with non-aged seeds. However, total sugar content in seeds aged for 10 days was significantly higher than non-aged seeds. Increasing accelerated aging levels from 0 days to 10 days led to increases in glucose and fructose contents in dry seeds. In addition, genes exhibited different expressions in different days and hours. Increasing aging from 0 days to 10 days led to increases in GAI1 gene expression. Moreover, LOX2 expression increased in accelerated aging from 0 to 6 days. LOX2 gene expression in naturally dried aged seeds also increased and was higher than that in non-aged seeds. SA and ACC had different effects on measured values.
Conclusion: In general, it can be concluded that the deterioration of seed quality and vigor result from numerous degradation processes and disruption in seeds’ physiological activity. This study showed that aging is associated with an increase in total sugar, glucose and fructose levels. In addition, the expression of the genes involved in the germination is also affected. Increases in LOX2 gene expression were observed in both accelerated aging and natural aging pathways. GAI1 gene expression increased in accelerated aging. However, in normal aging, it decreased.

  1. Identifying the role of LOX2 and GAL1 genes in soybean seed deterioration.
  2. Investigating seeds’ physiological responses under natural and laboratory aging conditions.

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