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Showing 116 results for Type of Study: Research

Leila Yari, Shahla Hashemi, Farshid Hasani,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (6-2014)
Abstract

The cultivation of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) has significantly increased in recent years, mainly due to the quality of its oil, which is useful for the human consumption and industrial purposes. In order to investigate the effect of different seed storage temperatures on seed quality of two sunflower cultivars (Euorfluor and Rcord), seeds were exposed to three storage temperatures (5, 20 and 20-30C°) for four months. Experimental units were arranged factorial manner in a completely randomized design with four replications. The effect of storage under 20C° was more effective in maintaining the vigor of sunflower seeds. The effect of storage at 5C° culminated in damage of vigor of sunflower seeds by increasing electrical conductivity (EC) and mean germination time. The effect of storage at 20-30C° (alternative temperature) brought about seedling growth by comparing with other treatments. This study indicated that best results for germination and vigor of sunflower seeds found for the seed of Euorflour cultivar in comparison with to Record cultivar under seeds storage temperature.

Gholam Reza Sharifi-Sirchi,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (6-2014)
Abstract

In order to extend the cultivation season and increase in growth ability in tropical regions, the effect of priming media, SA, NaCl, PEG, water and vitamin B1 with chemical elimination of pericarp by sulphuric acid, evaluated on growth characters of spinach under high temperature stress (25, 30, 35 °C). Results showed that PEG and vitamin B1 pretreatment after scarification with sulphuric acid 9 M increased germination percentage under 25 and 30°C. Also, for the propose of considering the effect of different priming media on spinach see at the optimum temperature of winter, seeds were sown in greenhouse and farm in Minab city. Results of greenhouse cultivation showed that hydro-primed seed and seed which primed with vitamin B1 and PEG had the highest emergence. In the field, the primed plant treated with vitamin B1, NaCl and distilled water had the highest yield. Therefore, this study suggests proofing laboratory results some experiments should be performed in farm filed with hotter temperatures by using vitamin B1 and PEG pretreatments.

Elias Soltani, Afshin Soltani, Serollah Galesh, Farshid Ghaderi-Far, Ebrahim Zeinali,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (6-2014)
Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate and to quantify the effect of burial depth on seedling emergence of volunteer canola and wild mustard. Seeds were buried in 12 different depths (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15, 20, 30 cm) in 4 replications and seedling emergence was measured daily. Results indicated that emergence percentage of volunteer canola was around 98 % from 1 to 2.9 cm of burial depth and deeper depths decreased emergence percentage with a slope of -0.4 and reached to zero in burial depth of 10 cm. Seedling emergence percentage of wild mustard was described using an exponential model on the response to burial depth. According to the model, wild mustard seedling emergence decreased from 66 % in 1 cm depth to 0 % in 8 cm depth. Increasing burial depth leads to reduction of seedling emergence rate that it well quantified for both species. Seeds of these two species that buried in deeper soil layers from 10 cm for volunteer canola and 8 cm for wild mustard can expand soil seed bank and will not emerge. The results of this study may provide useful information in ecological weed management and prediction seedling emergence of weeds.


Azam Roumani, Seyed Mohammadreza Ehteshami,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (6-2014)
Abstract

In order to study the effect of different levels of salinity stress on germination indices and early growth of Trigonella foenum-greacum L., an experiment was conducted in agronomy laboratory of Faculty of Agricultural at the University of Guilan in 2012. The experiment was arranged base on completely randomized design with four replications. The used treatments were different levels of salinity stress due to NaCl (0, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, -0.8, -1, -1.2, -1.4, -1.6 and -1.8 MPa). Results showed, by increasing of salinity levels, decreased germination percentage, germination speed, germination energy, germination rate index, water percentage of seedling tissue, seedling length, the dry and fresh weight of seedling and vigor index significantly. However, the levels of salinity (-0.2 and -0.4 MPa) increased the dry and fresh weight of seedling in comparing with control by growth stimulation. Moreover, germination rate reduction had increased trend in comparing with control. Results indicated that there was a positive significant correlation between percent of germination and other germination indices except for germination rate. Generally, the results showed fenugreek seed can tolerate salinity amount until -1.2 MPa (38.9 ds/m) in germination time.

Hamdollah Eskandari, Ashraf Alizadeh-Amraie,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (6-2014)
Abstract

A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of seed priming under salt and drought conditions on seed germination and early seedling development of millet. A factorial experiment (3×2×5) based on completely randomized design with three replications was employed. The first factor was the effect of seed priming (control, hydro priming and KNO3), the second factor was the effect of salt and drought stresses including NaCl and PEG 6000 and the third factor was the effect of osmotic potential levels (-0.3, -0.6, -0.9 and -1.2 MPa). Results showed that germination performance was negatively affected by decreasing osmotic potential. There was a variable germination with different stress condition, in which seeds were able to germinate at all concentration of NaCl but no significant germination was occurred at -0.6 MPa of PEG for no primed and KNO3. However, both seed priming treatments (Hydropriming and KNO3), improved seed germination performance with the clear effectiveness of Hydropriming in improving germination properties under salt and drought conditions. It was concluded that germination inhibition resulted from osmotic effect rather than salt toxicity.

Ebrahim Khalilvand Behrouzyar, Mehrdad Yarnia,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (6-2014)
Abstract

In order to investigate the seed vigor of corn hybrid 704 after maternal plant foliar application with methanol, some micro and macro-nutrients an experiment was conducted in a factorial form based on RCBD with three replications during growing seasons of 2010-2011. Treatments were four growth stages (the 8-10 leaves, the tasseling, the seed-filling, all the stages), seven levels of foliar application (Methanol, Zn, B, Mg, N, Mn, a mixture of all combinations) and control. The analysis of the data showed a significant effect of the combination type of foliar application in different stages on the germination percent, mean daily germination, germination speed, seedling vigor index, radical length, plumule length and seedling dry weight. The detailed results of the study showed that foliar application with N, Mg, Zn, Mn and B in grain-filling stage, foliar application with N, Mg and Mn in tasseling and foliar application with N, Mg and B in all stages had the highest germination percent (100%) and mean daily germination (14.29%). Also, Mg-foliar application in grain-filling and all stages, B-foliar application in grain-filling stage had the highest germination seed (12.33). In addition, Mg-foliar application in grain-filling stage had the vigor index, radical length, plumule length and seedling dry weight.


Asad Masoumi Asl, Rreza Amiri Fahliani, Hamidreza Balouchi,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (6-2014)
Abstract

Salinity is one of the most extensive environmental stresses and is a limiting factor for the growth and development of crops, such as rice. Then, an experiment based upon completely randomized design with four low levels (0, 7.5, 15, 22.5) and four high of salinity (75, 150, 225 and 300 mM) with control as the first factor and nine cultivars of rice (dollars, Hasan Saraii, Mousa Tarom, Kamfiruz, Lenjan Askari, Gharib, Domsiah Mamassani, 304, Champa Yasouj) as the second factor with three replications was conducted in 2012 in the Yasouj University. Results showed that Hasan Saraii had salinity tolerance with the most germination percentage, germination rate and shoot length at high salinity levels (more than 75 mM), and Domsiah Mamassani with the minimum of that traits had not any salinity tolerance. But in the low salinity (less than 22.5 mM), Hasan Saraii, Lenjan and Mousa Tarom had the highest percentage of germination. The maximum germination rate was due to Mousa Tarom and the maximum shoot length observed in Gharib variety. So it seems, if we would only consider the germination percentage, Hasan Saraii is the best variety and if the maximum germination percentage and rate are considered, the variety that would be considered is Mousa Tarom. Therefore, high salinity we should not just rely on the germination but the germination rate should also be noted and in lower salinity due to different cultivars germination percentage, germination rate and dry weight of root should be paid much more attention.

Kazem Badeleh, Mehdi Aghighi Shahverdi, Haeshmat Omidi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (2-2015)
Abstract

To evaluate the effect of priming on seed germination of Cucurbita pepo in drought stress conditions, a factorial experiment was conducted as completely randomized design with three replications. Treatments included drought stress at five levels of osmotic potential (zero, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 MP), priming at levels of GA3 (250 ppm to 24 hours), KNO3 (0.2% for 24 hours) Hydro prime (H2O) (to 24 hours) and control. The results showed that priming effect was significant on germination percentage, germination rate, mean daily germination, the average time required for germination and germination rate index. A significant difference was found between drought stress on seed germination rate. In addition, the interaction of seed priming and drought stress was significant on all traits (germination percentage, germination rate, average daily germination, the average time required for germination, germination rate daily, the coefficient of germination rate and the seed vigor). Seed priming, particularly in severe drought stress levels, led to significant increase in mean germination percentage, germination rate and seed vigor. Furthermore, the results of our study indicated that Cucurbita pepo seed priming had partial resistance to drought. Gibberellin acid in the first grade and the hydro priming in second grade can improve the germination and growth of the seedlings under drought stress.

Hassan Habibi, Mehdi Agihghi Shahverdi, Zahra Nasiri, Mohammadreza Chaichi, Mohammad Hossein Fotokian,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (2-2015)
Abstract

The effect of seed rate of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and efficiency of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPR) that facilitates phosphorus uptake with different doses of phosphate fertilizer was evaluated on seed quality. For this purpose, the germination and seed vigor tests before and after accelerated aging were performed in a split split plot experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications in 2010 in the field of education and research in the College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Tehran University, Karaj. Phosphorus factor at 4 levels (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg Phosphorus.ha-1) in main plots, PGPR (Pseudomonas) in three levels (no bacteria, bacterial strains, No. 9 and bacterial strains No. 41) in subplots and rate of seed factors on three levels (2, 6, and 10 kg of seed per hectare) were the sub-subplots. The results showed the highest rate of germination and seed vigor obtained by use of 6 kg seeds per hectare, PGPR No.41 strains with 30 kg Phosphorus per hectare and after accelerated aging. The highest rate of germination and seed vigor at 10 kg of seed per hectare were found for PGPR No.41 strains, with 60 kg Phosphorus ha-1 treatments. After accelerated aging practices to achieve maximum germination index and vigor, seed rates and phosphorus requirement were more than standard conditions. Based on obtained results for the storage conditions, bacterial strains No. 41 had a better effect on increasing seed vigor than bacterial strains No. 9. To produce alfalfa seed with high vigor and obtain better results, use of optimum seed rates and phosphorus (6 and 30 kg.ha-1, respectively) along with PGPR (strain No. 41) could be considered in crop plants.


Ghorbanali Rassam, Samaneh Rahban, Mahnaz Mojtabaii, Atefeh Badri,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (2-2015)
Abstract

Seed quality is one of the most important factors affecting seed germination and seedling growth. In order to investigate the effects of seed aging on germination and seedling growth of sunflower cultivars, a factorial experiment was conducted based on a completely randomized design with three replications in seed research laboratory of Shirvan Higher Education Complex. To create 7 different treatments of seed aging, seeds of three cultivars Ghasem, Farrokh and Barzgar (as the first factor) were kept at a high temperature (43◦ C) and high relative humidity (100%) for 0 (control), 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 hours (as a second factor). The results of mean comparison showed that germination percentage, rate and seedling growth of Farrokh cultivar was more than other cultivars in each aging level. Germination percentage, rate and uniformity, seedling dry weight, radicle and stem length reduced linearly with increase in the duration aging in all cultivars. Under the aging conditions, the time to beginning and ending of germination was significantly increased. Overall, it was concluded that seed quality of sunflower cultivars was seriously decreased under the aging conditions.

Mohammad Sedghi, Farzaneh Hasani, Raouf Seyed Sharifi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (2-2015)
Abstract

Application of zinc can improve the tolerance and resistance of plants especially sunflower to environmental stresses and be effective on kernel set and yield. To investigate the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on the length, effective period, the rate of kernel filling and kernel weight in sunflower cultivars, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted at the University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran. Treatments were three sunflower cultivars as Aline 191, Aline 122 and Farrokh and three concentrations of nano zinc oxide including 0, 0.5 and 1 g lit-1 which sprayed at three stages. Results showed that interaction of cultivar and nano zinc oxide was significant on kernel filling rate, the effective period of kernel filling, maximum kernel weight and duration of kernel filling. The rate of filling and maximum kernel weight increased with 0.5 g lit-1 spraying of Nano zinc oxide in Aline 191 and 122, but in Farrokh cultivar was significantly reduced in comparison to the control. Also, no significant difference was found between 0, 0.5 and 1 g lit-1 of nano zinc oxide on kernel filling rate, effective kernel-filling period and duration in Farrokh cultivar. In conclusion, foliar application of zinc oxide nanoparticles led to the improvement of kernel weight and their filling parameters and the more appropriate response was observed in foreign cultivars for this treatment, while final kernel weight decreased in Farrokh cultivar. Therefore, it can be used 0.5 g lit-1 of nano zinc oxide for increasing grain yield in foreign cultivars of Aline.

Mohammad Ziaee, Hooshang Farajee, Reza Amiri Fahliyani,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (2-2015)
Abstract

In addition to common vegetative multiplication, potato crop can be reproduced by true potato seed (TPS). Only the limited number of pests and diseases, which are the most important causes of a decrease in potato production, can be transmitted by true potato seed. Hence, to evaluate the potential of true potato seed in comparison to potato seed tuber and mini tuber, an experiment was conducted in Marvdasht in Fars Province during summer of 2012. Treatments were arranged in a split plot experiment using a randomized complete blocks design with three replications. The main factor consisted of three planting date including 10 July, 20 July, 30 July and sub-factor was allocated to different multiplication methods in 7 levels composed of 3 seed tuber cultivar (Agria, Marfona, Santé), 3 mini tuber varieties, the same as seed tuber varieties, and BSS296 hybrid of true potato seed. The results showed that the effect of the main factor (planting date) on the yield of a tuber, weight of marketable tuber, number of the marketable tuber, and biomass was significant. The interaction effect between main and sub-factors on all characteristics was significant except for yield of the tuber, number of marketable tuber and dry matter traits. The highest yield of a plant was achieved in Santé seed tuber (36.5 t/ha) in the first planting date (10 July) and the lowest one was observed in Marfona mini tuber (19.07 t/ha). The maximum biomass was measured at the first planting date of TPS (338.1 g/plant). The marketable tubers yield in second planting date of TPS was in the lower level than Marfona seed tuber however, it was placed at the same statistical level with other seed tubers but it was better than all mini-tubers. The results of this study suggested that TPS was better than mini-tubers in mostly measured characteristics, but TPS in comparison to different seed tubers at three mentioned planting date indicated variable situations.

Sayyed Jalil Mirmahmood, Mohammad Javad Ahmadi-Lahijani, Yahya Emam,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (2-2015)
Abstract

Osmotic stress is the most important of the abiotic stresses that lead to limitation of growth and yield in rapeseed. This study was conducted to examine the effect of cycocel seed priming on osmotic stress tolerance in germination and early growth stages of rapeseed, as a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design at Agriculture College of Shiraz University in 2012. The treatments included seed priming in three cycocel concentrations: 0 (without priming as control), 2.5 and 3.5 g L-1 and osmotic stress in five levels: 0 (as control), -0.3, -0.6, -0.9 and -1.2 MPa using polyethylene glycol. The results showed that osmotic stress was significantly reduced germination percentage (15.1%), germination rate (15.3%), radicle length (29.5%), plumule length (31.6%), radicle fresh weight (22.4%), plumule fresh weight (37.6%) and vigor index (39.9%). Furthermore, osmotic stress leads to increase radicle to plumule fresh weight and radicle to plumule length ratio as 6.8 and 24.3 percent, respectively. Seed priming with cycocel reduced the adverse effects of osmotic stress on measured parameters. Although, there was no positive effect on germination percentage and rate under osmotic and nonosmotic conditions for cycocel in both concentrations, but cycocel at 3.5 g L-1 appeared to have a greater positive effect than 2.5 g L-1. Considering positive impact of cycocel seed priming on the reduction adverse effects of osmotic stress further research on cycocel seed priming and osmotic stress tolerance is recommended under field conditions.


Somayeh Malekzade, Seyfollah Fallah2,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (2-2015)
Abstract

In order to investigate the effect of priming techniques on germination parameters of ajowan (Carum copticum L.) seed, an experiment was conducted in completely randomized design with four replications. The experiment treatments included a control (no priming), three hydropriming levels with distilled water (24, 36, and 48 h), three osmopriming levels with PEG (solutions with osmotic potential of -4, -8 and -12 bar), three hormone priming levels with GA3 (50, 100 and 150 ppm), three halopriming levels with KNO3 solution (2, 3, and 4%) and three zinc sulfate levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 %). The results showed that priming treatments had a significant effect on all traits. The rate and percentage of germination were declined in some priming treatments compared to control. Radicle length and root dry weight were decreased in polyethylene glycol -8 bar. Polyethylene glycol -4 bar and 24h hydropriming treatments significantly decreased shoot length and allometry coefficient. However, the treatment of 100 ppm hormone priming significantly increased these traits. Hydropriming 24 h treatment significantly increased germination rate, percentage and seed vigor, but hydropriming 48 h significantly increased radicle and shoot length compared to control. In conclusion, according to the priority of germination or radicle, shoot growth and seed priming cost as well, the hydropriming 24 or 48 h can be recommended as most appropriate priming type for ajowan seeds.

Mansour Taghvaei, Neda Aliolad,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (2-2015)
Abstract

Trittipyrum is an important annual grass plant for forage production in arid and semiarid regions. The effects of drought stress on Trittipyrum lines were evaluated in the field experiment in a randomized complete block design with a factorial experiment involving three replications in 2012. Treatments were water stress (field capacity (FC), 75% of FC, 50% of FC and 25% of FC throughout the experimental period and 13 primary Trittipyrum lines ((St/b)(Cr/b)F4, (Ma/b)(Cr/b)F4, (Ma/b)(Cr/b)F3, (Ka/b)(Cr/b)F2, (Ka/b)(Cr/b)F3, (Ka/b)(Cr/b)F5, (Ka/b)(Cr/b)F6, La(4b,4d)/b, St/b, Cr/b, La/b, Ka/b, Az/b). The results showed that drought stress had significant effects on seedling traits. Drought stress significantly decreased shoot length, root length, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, seedling dry weight, seedling length vigor index and seedling weight vigor index. The results of mean comparison revealed that (az/b)(cr/b)F5 and Kz/b lines were the most sensitive and the most tolerant lines to drought stress in early vigor stage, respectively. Although the response of Trittipyrum lines was different to drought stress; but the result indicated that Trittipyrum lines are sensitive to drought at emergence stage.

Ali Moradi, Farzad Sharif Zadeh, Reza Tavakkol Afshari, Reza Maali Amiri,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (2-2015)
Abstract

Seed priming is one of the most important techniques used to improve seed germination under biotic and abiotic stresses. For this purpose, germination and seedling growth characteristics of primed seeds of Tall wheatgrass (Agropyron elongatum (Host.) P. Beauv) were evaluated under drought and low-temperature condition. A factorial experiment was conducted on the basis of randomized completely block design with three factors with four replications. The experimental factors were priming with two levels including urea primed (using urea -4 bar at 10 °C for 36 h) and non-primed seeds germination temperatures, including 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 20 and 25 °C and osmotic potential including zero (distilled water), -3, -6, -9, and -12 bars (applied by polyethylene glycol 6000). Increasing trend has been observed for all germination indices, except mean germination time, with increasing temperature from 3 to 25 °C and seeds revealed the greatest sensitivity to temperatures below 9 °C. However, this trend was reversed with increasing drought stress, the seeds sensitivity to drought stress started from the potential of -6 bar and reached the maximum in -12 bar. However, primed seeds compared to non-primed seeds have demonstrated better germination under both drought and low-temperature stresses. The results of this study showed that the highest seedling vigor index and germination rates achieved in the temperature range of 20-25 °C and water potential of zero to -3 bar.


Mehdi Baraani-Dastjerdi, Mohammad Rafieiolhossaini, Abdorazagh Danesh-Shahraki,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (2-2015)
Abstract

In order to evaluate the electrical conductivity and seedling growth characteristics of red bean seed grown under drought stress and foliar application of zinc and manganese, a split factorial experiment was conducted in a Randomized Complete Block Design in the field and also laboratory experiment at Shahrekord University in 2011. Factors included three levels of drought stress (irrigation after 50, 70 and 90 mm evaporation from class A pan) as the main plot and three levels of zinc foliar application (with water, 100 and 200 grams per hectare zinc), and three levels of manganese foliar application (with water, 150 and 300 grams per hectare manganese) in a factorial combination as subplot. The results showed that severe drought stress led to decrease of electrical conductivity while the seedling and root length of red bean seed were increased. In the measured characteristics, Mn foliar application had a significant effect on electrical conductivity and root dry weight. In different Mn foliar application treatments, the lowest electrical conductivity was related to control while the maximum seedling dry weight was observed at 150 g Mn foliar application per hectare. Zn foliar application had a significant effect on all the traits measured during this experiment. Based on means comparison, the highest seedling dry weight, shoot, seedling and root length, as well as the lowest electrical conductivity, belonged to the 100 g Zn foliar application per hectare. The highest root dry weight was obtained for 200 g Zn per hectare which no significant difference was observed with 100 g Zn per hectare. According to the results of this experiment, mild stress and foliar application of zinc and manganese led to increasing the quality of the produced seeds. In total, foliar application of zinc and manganese (at the amount of 100 and 300 g ha-1 respectively) with mild stress (irrigation after 70 mm evaporation from class A pan) are recommended for the production of seeds with high vigor under this region conditions.

Amin Salehi, Asad Masumiasl, Ali Moradi,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (9-2015)
Abstract

Bilhar or Mountain Kandall (Dorema aucheri) belongs to Apiacea family that contains flavonoid and coumarine compounds. Since propagation of this plant in natural habitats occurs through seed and due to deep dormancy, the identification of different seed dormancy breaking methods is necessary for the preservation of this species. In this respect, different methods, including chilling, washing and gibberellic acid was studied, on the seeds gathered from Kohgiloyeh and Boyerahmad province. For this reason, a factorial experiment with three factors was done based on a completely randomized design in three replications, in the faculty of agriculture, Yasouj University, in 2012. Experimental factors were included, chilling period (stratification periods of 3 and 4 weeks), gibberellic acid (zero and 1500 ppm) and washing (washing with distilled water and non-washable). Results showed that 4 weeks chilling treatment had maximum germination percentage and germination rate and seedling vigor. Also, maximum root and shoot dry weight were obtained from the seeds of this treatment. Whereas, double and triple interaction effects for germination percentage, epicotyl and hypocotyl length were not significant. Germination percentage was better in 4 weeks prechilled seed than 3 weeks. Obtained results from this research showed that Bilhar seeds have the physiological dormancy.


Seyyed Mohammad Seyyedi, Mohammad Khajeh-Hossieni, Parviz Rezvani Moghaddam, Hamid Shahandeh,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (9-2015)
Abstract

In order to investigate the effects of priming with a KH2Po4 solution on emergence and heterotrophic growth of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) seedling, a series of experiments were conducted at the Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2013 and 2014. A field experiment was conducted as factorial layout based on a randomized complete block design with four replications. The fertilizer resources (vermicompost (V)+Tiobacilus (T), micronized Sulfur (S)+T, V+S+T and control) and three levels of phosphorus (0, 30 and 60 kg.ha-1) were the first and second experimental factors, respectively. In the second experiment, selected treatments (in which showed emergence below 60% in the previous experiment) and seed priming (no priming, hydro priming and three levels of phosphorus (P)-priming as 100, 300 and 500 mM KH2Po4) were the first and second experimental treatments, respectively. Based on the results, the resources of soil amendment (V+T and V+S+T) significantly increased the emergence percentage of black seed (by 50 and 54%, respectively). In addition, seed reserve depletion percentage, seed reserve utilization efficiency and emergence percentage significantly increased by 300 mM KH2PO4 (by 9, 143 and 29%, respectively). There was a significant positive relationship between the weight of mobilized seed P and the emergence percentage of black seeds (R2= 0.90 **).


Jalal Jalilian, Nabi Khaliliaqdam,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (9-2015)
Abstract

Rocket (Eruca sativa) is an important medicinal plant which not be done any experiment about its germination quantification response to temperature. Thus, an experiment base on CRD performed in seed research laboratory of Urmia University with four replications with ten levels of temperatures includes 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 0C. Results revealed that the temperature had significant effects on the rate and germination percent and Dent-like model estimated greatly cardinal temperature (base, upper and bottom optimum and ceiling temperatures). Germination rate stopped at equal and less than 0.79 and equal and higher than 47.6 0C and Rmax were 0.066 in 16.9-32.6 0C. Also, results emphasized that Rocket seed needs low temperature for germination but, germination rate and percent of Rocket increased by temperature increment. Therefore, the Rocket can germinate and emerge in dispersal spans of an environmental thermal from 0.79 to 47.6 0C and thus recognized as a crop with allowable production for various seasons and climate.



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