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Showing 31 results for Subject: Seed Ecology

Sayyed Jalil Mirmahmood, Mohammad Javad Ahmadi-Lahijani, Yahya Emam,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (2-2015)
Abstract

Osmotic stress is the most important of the abiotic stresses that lead to limitation of growth and yield in rapeseed. This study was conducted to examine the effect of cycocel seed priming on osmotic stress tolerance in germination and early growth stages of rapeseed, as a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design at Agriculture College of Shiraz University in 2012. The treatments included seed priming in three cycocel concentrations: 0 (without priming as control), 2.5 and 3.5 g L-1 and osmotic stress in five levels: 0 (as control), -0.3, -0.6, -0.9 and -1.2 MPa using polyethylene glycol. The results showed that osmotic stress was significantly reduced germination percentage (15.1%), germination rate (15.3%), radicle length (29.5%), plumule length (31.6%), radicle fresh weight (22.4%), plumule fresh weight (37.6%) and vigor index (39.9%). Furthermore, osmotic stress leads to increase radicle to plumule fresh weight and radicle to plumule length ratio as 6.8 and 24.3 percent, respectively. Seed priming with cycocel reduced the adverse effects of osmotic stress on measured parameters. Although, there was no positive effect on germination percentage and rate under osmotic and nonosmotic conditions for cycocel in both concentrations, but cycocel at 3.5 g L-1 appeared to have a greater positive effect than 2.5 g L-1. Considering positive impact of cycocel seed priming on the reduction adverse effects of osmotic stress further research on cycocel seed priming and osmotic stress tolerance is recommended under field conditions.


Mansour Taghvaei, Neda Aliolad,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (2-2015)
Abstract

Trittipyrum is an important annual grass plant for forage production in arid and semiarid regions. The effects of drought stress on Trittipyrum lines were evaluated in the field experiment in a randomized complete block design with a factorial experiment involving three replications in 2012. Treatments were water stress (field capacity (FC), 75% of FC, 50% of FC and 25% of FC throughout the experimental period and 13 primary Trittipyrum lines ((St/b)(Cr/b)F4, (Ma/b)(Cr/b)F4, (Ma/b)(Cr/b)F3, (Ka/b)(Cr/b)F2, (Ka/b)(Cr/b)F3, (Ka/b)(Cr/b)F5, (Ka/b)(Cr/b)F6, La(4b,4d)/b, St/b, Cr/b, La/b, Ka/b, Az/b). The results showed that drought stress had significant effects on seedling traits. Drought stress significantly decreased shoot length, root length, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, seedling dry weight, seedling length vigor index and seedling weight vigor index. The results of mean comparison revealed that (az/b)(cr/b)F5 and Kz/b lines were the most sensitive and the most tolerant lines to drought stress in early vigor stage, respectively. Although the response of Trittipyrum lines was different to drought stress; but the result indicated that Trittipyrum lines are sensitive to drought at emergence stage.

Amin Salehi, Asad Masumiasl, Ali Moradi,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (9-2015)
Abstract

Bilhar or Mountain Kandall (Dorema aucheri) belongs to Apiacea family that contains flavonoid and coumarine compounds. Since propagation of this plant in natural habitats occurs through seed and due to deep dormancy, the identification of different seed dormancy breaking methods is necessary for the preservation of this species. In this respect, different methods, including chilling, washing and gibberellic acid was studied, on the seeds gathered from Kohgiloyeh and Boyerahmad province. For this reason, a factorial experiment with three factors was done based on a completely randomized design in three replications, in the faculty of agriculture, Yasouj University, in 2012. Experimental factors were included, chilling period (stratification periods of 3 and 4 weeks), gibberellic acid (zero and 1500 ppm) and washing (washing with distilled water and non-washable). Results showed that 4 weeks chilling treatment had maximum germination percentage and germination rate and seedling vigor. Also, maximum root and shoot dry weight were obtained from the seeds of this treatment. Whereas, double and triple interaction effects for germination percentage, epicotyl and hypocotyl length were not significant. Germination percentage was better in 4 weeks prechilled seed than 3 weeks. Obtained results from this research showed that Bilhar seeds have the physiological dormancy.


Leila Aslani, Mostafa Mobli, Mohammad Solemani,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (9-2015)
Abstract

The effect of spermidine on seed germination of three different cucumber cultivars under cold stress was studied as a 4×2 factorial experiment by using a completely randomized design with 4 replications. The first factor was 4 concentrations of spermidine consisted of 0 (control), 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mM and the second one was three cucumber cultivars consisted of ‘Emperator’, ‘Amiran’ and ‘Rashid’. For this purpose, 50 seeds of each cultivar were placed on filter papers inside sterilized Petry dishes and spermidine solutions were added to them according to each treatment. All petry dishes were placed at a 13°C temperature of the incubator until end of the experiment and germinated seeds were counted daily. The measured traits were the percentage of germination, plumule length, radicle length, the dry and fresh weight of the plumule and radicle. The results showed that treating seeds of ‘Rashid’ cultivar with 0.1 mM spermidine increased the percentage of germination, plumule and radicle length, fresh and dry weights of radical compared with control. Treating ‘Rashid’ seeds with high concentration (1 mM) of spermidine showed inhibitory effects on all measured characteristics, but in ‘Amiran’ cultivar only decreased the percentage of germination, plumule and radicle length, the fresh and dry weight of radicle.


Hamid Sharifi, Mohammad Khajeh-Hosseini, Mohammad-Hassan Rashed-Mohassel,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (9-2015)
Abstract

Seeds of seven species of medicinal plants collected from the natural habitat in Lorestan province in summer 2011. Germination test carried out in a completely randomized design with four replications of 25 seeds in H2O. Species of Smyrnium cordifrolium, Kelussia odoratissima, Dorema aucheri and Ferulago angulata had no germination while Heracleum persicum, Bunium luristanicum and Falcaria vulgaris showed germination of 30, 96 and 97% respectively. Different treatments of breaking dormancy applied to the species with germination below 30% [moist-chilling for periods of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 weeks, with two concentrations of 250 and 500 ppm of gibberellic acid, a combination treatment (gibberellic 250 ppm + 4 weeks moist-chilling and gibberellic acid 500 ppm + moist-chilling for 4 weeks) and potassium nitrate 2 g/l]. The results showed that moist-chilling was the most effective treatments to break seed dormancy of Heracleum persicum (6 weeks), Dorema aucheri (12 weeks), Kelussia odoratissima (12 weeks) and Ferulago angulata (12 weeks). Therefore, based on their reactions to the treatments, dormancy of Kelussia odoratissima and Ferulago angulata could be classified as deep physiological dormancy and species of Dorema aucheri and Heracleum persicum intermediate physiological dormancy type.


Hamid Sharifi, Morteza Goldani,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (3-2016)
Abstract

Seed coat color as a perfect and simple index is effective in water absorption, seed dormancy and germination. The mustard plant produces seeds with different coat color. So, in order to investigate the effect of seed coat color on germination rate, the percentage of germination and dormancy of Mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) seeds an experiment was carried out based on a completely randomized design with four replications. Treatments were included two types of seed coat color (brown and black) and dormancy breaking treatments (Control, Potassium nitrate 0.2%, GA3 250, GA3 500 ppm and one, two and three weeks prechilling). The results showed that the differences between germination indices traits in brown and black seeds were significant. So that, the germination rate and germination percent in black seed were greater than brown seeds, but the duration of dormancy in brown seeds was greater than black seed. One week prechilling treatment had the most effect on breaking dormancy. So that germination percentage and germination rate for black seed was 75% and 0.54 respectively and these amounts for brown seeds were 58% and 0/43 respectively. Potassium nitrate and GA3 (250 and 500 ppm) reduced germination rate and germination percent in both types of seeds. In addition, water absorption percent in brown seeds was more than black seeds. The final results showed that heteromorphic seeds of Mustard have variation in duration of dormancy, germination and water absorption percent.


Mina Arast, Ali Tavili, Saied Shojaei,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (3-2016)
Abstract

A vast area of Iran is covered by sand dunes. Biological control is an appropriate method for sand dune fixation. So, it is essential to recognize characteristics of psammophyte plant species and introducing suitable species for sand dunes. Ammodendron persicum is one of the important and compatible species in desert ecosystems. The current research was carried out to investigate the effect of different treatments on seed dormancy breaking and germination stimulation of Ammodendron persicum in order to determine the most effective treatment in enhancing of germination and primary growth of seedlings. The experiment was done in a completely Randomized Design. Our experimental design was included10 random attendance namely: soaking of Ammodendron persicum seeds in gibberellic acid (300ppm) for 48 hr, seed scratching scarification with acid in two interval times of 20&30 min, incorporation of later with sand paper scratching scarification, seed scratching with gibberellic acid (300ppm) and time period of 48hr Ammodendron persicum seed sand papering combined with gibberellic acid soaking, wetting Ammodendron persicum seeds with high temperature water (80°C) for 5&10 min then scratching them by sand paper and also using distillated water as control treatment evidence. Experimental results showed, 30 minutes sulfuric acid soaking combined with sand papering can increase germination to 90% of the laboratory. In addition, seed scratching with gibberellic acid (300ppm) and time period of 48hr Ammodendron persicum seed sand papering combined, wetting Ammodendron persicum seeds with high-temperature water (80°C) for 5&10 min, the percentage of germination, respectively, 45/15, 45/8, 17/10 and 68/28 respectively. Moreover, 30min high-density sulfuric acid caring improves Ammodendron persicum, seed vigor, the power of greenhouse and lab samples to 450 and 510 respectively. Finally, authors reported scratching and acid soaking combination as an efficient, caring method in this research.


Bita Oskouei, Eslam Majidi-Hervan, Aidin Hamidi, Foad Moradi, Ali Moghaddam,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (3-2016)
Abstract

This experiment was conducted as a factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design with three replications at two locations: Agricultural and natural resource center of Ardebil province (Moghan) and seed and plant certification and registration institute of Karaj in 2013. The treatments included: planting date in three levels (10-May, 25-May and 9-Jun), seed moisture content at harvest time in four levels (30%, 25, 20 and 15) and seed size in three levels (flat, round and medium). The measured traits were a standard germination test, mean time of germination, seedling weight and length vigor index, germination percent in radical emergence test and germination percent in cold test. The results illustrated that delayed planting caused reduction of seed quality and this reduction was more obvious in delayed harvest (15%), also the reduction rate in round seeds was more than flattered and medium seeds. The minimum percentage of germination and vigor were seen in round seeds of third planting date and moisture harvest by 15%. So it is recommended for corn seed production to sow the seeds before the last week of May and when seed moisture content reached 30 percent, cob harvesting should be started and the harvest not is delayed.


En Mehrazar Ashraf, Kamal Sadat Asilan, Farid Golzardi, Shahram Nazari, Ramin Salehi,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (3-2016)
Abstract

Three separate experiments conducted to survey the response of two populations of common purslane weed collected from Karaj and Ahvaz on germination and early growth. The first experiment was based on 4 levels of flooding, including 1, 2, 4, 8 days plus non-flooding treatment as a control. Second experiment addressed the impact of various acidity levels, such as 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and finally third experiment considered the influence of high temperatures of 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220 centigrade on germination rate, germination percentage, radicle length and plumule length as well as fresh weight of the aforementioned population of common purslane (Karaj and Ahvaz). Analysis of variance revealed that in both weed populations, all germination indices were impressed by flooding periods, acidity levels and high temperatures. Extending the flooding periods resulted in reducing all measured parameters in both weed populations, so the growth of common people was completely inhibited less than 8 consecutive days of flooding. Germination rate and percentage improved gradually by increasing the acidity value from 4 up to 7. An adverse relation was observed between the measured parameters and temperature variations in both Karaj and Ahvaz weed population. Germination rate and percentage, radicle and plumule length, as well as the fresh weight of seedling, decreased significantly in response to increasing the oven temperature. Overall, it can be concluded that boosting our knowledge about both ecology and biology aspects of the common person can pave the way for introducing new ways in line with expanding long-term strategies, improving management systems and predicting the mode of germination and growth of this important weed.


Saman Sheidaei, Hossein Heidari Sharif Abad, Aidin Hamidi, Ghorban Nour Mohammadi, Ali Moghaddam,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (3-2016)
Abstract

In order to assess seed deterioration of soybean at Ardebil province, this study was conducted as a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design in 2014. The treatments consisted of germination ability, seed moisture content and seed storing conditions. Germination ability treatment was concluded of three germination levels: 80%, 85% and 90%. Also, three rates of seed moisture content including 10%, 12% and 14%; and two seed storing conditions including seed storage of Moghan and controlled storage were considered as second and third treatments. The results indicated that seed quality significantly reduced by increasing the seed moisture content up to 14% and this moisture content was determined as inappropriate moisture for soybean seed storage. Seeds with high moisture content showed significantly lower normal seedlings percent, germination rate and seedling vigor indices. However, there was no significant difference between 12% and 10% seed moisture contents, so it can be concluded that 12% seed moisture content is proper moisture for soybean seed storage. According to the results, enhancement of seed moisture content more than 12% will result in more accelerated deterioration of soybean seed, in a way that seeds with higher moisture content, especially at inappropriate seed storage conditions will lose their quality and will cause yield reduction at field due to low plant density aroused from inadequate seedling emergence.


Shahram Nazari, Mohammad Ali Aboutalbian, Farid Golzardi,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (9-2016)
Abstract

Seed priming is a method which is a quite effective method for improving germination and seedling establishment. Two separate experiments were performed to determine the best hydro and osmopriming treatments effects on canola‘s seed germination. The experiments were performed in seed technology laboratory of Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran, 2014. The first experiment contained three canola varieties seeds hydropriming (Okapi, Zarfam and Talayeh) using tap water over time interval 0. 2, 6, 10, 14, 18, 20 and 24 hours. The second experiment included, tree canola cultivars in accompany with six concentrations of ZnS04 (0, 0.035, 0.1, 0.4, 1 and 4 gr.Lit-1) over priming time interval of 0, 6, 10 14 and 18 hours. Both experiments were conducted as a factorial experiment in the context of completely randomized design (CRD) with four replications. The results revealed that the maximum germination percentage across all cultivars e.g. Okapi (99%), Zarfam (95%) and Talayeh (80%) is achieved at 10 hours hydropriming interval. Also concerning to germination rate, the best performance was observed for Talayeh cultivar at 10 hydropriming hour’s interval. The most vigor longitudinal and vigor weighted indices (1050.55 and 4.56) were observed in the Okapi cultivar in the fourth hydropriming level. The interaction between the cultivars, the concentration of ZnS04 and osmopriming time was significant for all characters except for shoot dry weight and vigor weighted Index. The three-way interaction showed that the highest shoots dry weight (0.11, 0.057 and 0.055) and also vigor weighted index observed in Okapi, Zarfam and Talayeh cultivar in 0.035 concentration of ZnS04 (gr.lit-1) at the time was 10 hours, respectively. The results of this study showed that hydropriming and ZnS04 might improve the performance of rapeseed Cultivars seed.


Marjan Diyanat, Seyyed Meisam Hosseini,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (9-2016)
Abstract

In order to study the responses of redstem filaree (Erodium cicutarium L.) seed germination to temperature levels, an experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with four replications and twelve levels of temperature (0, 3, 5, 7, 10, 12, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 0C). Results showed that the effect of treatments on germination properties of redstem was significant, so the highest percentage of germination was achieved at 150C and reduced with increasing temperature and was totally inhibited at 40ºC. Based on a linear regression between germination rate and temperature, the cardinal temperatures: minimum (Tmin), optimum (To) and maximum (Tmax) were determined: 0, 15.20 and 37.18 ºC, respectively. A significant difference was not observed in plumule length at a range of 5-30°C that showed that it is less sensitive to temperature in comparison with root length. Highest wet-dry weight was achieved at 20 °C that was not different by 10, 12 and 20°C. Above results suggest that redstem failure could grow in a wide range of growing conditions, but prefers temperate zones. The results of this study are important to understanding thermal requirements and improvement of management strategies of redstem filaree.


Almas Nemati, Hamid Sharifi, Mohammad Gerdakaneh, Zeynab Sharifi,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (9-2016)
Abstract

The seeds of two species (Citrulus colocynthis) and (Silybum mrianum) gathered from natural habitat located in the Koohdasht city (Lorestan province) and transferred to Kermanshah Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center in the summer of 2014. For each species, separate experiments in a completely randomized design with 14 treatments and 4 replications were done. Treatments included moist-chilling time (control, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 70 and 90 days at 4 °C), gibberellic acid concentration (200, 400, 600 and 800 PPM) and integrated treatment of gibberellic acid 400 ppm with moist-chilling for 30 days and 70 days. The results showed that for both species increasing of moist-chilling duration and concentration of gibberellic acid significantly increased germination percentage, germination rate and seed vigor index. The best breaking seed dormancy treatment was moist-chilling of 90 days for seeds of (Citruluus colocynthis) and gibberellic acid 800 ppm for (Silybum mrianum). The result showed that seeds of two species had the combination of physiological (related to seed inside inhibitors) and physical dormancy (related to hard coat).


Seyyed Mahdi Javadzadeh, Parviz Rezvani Moghaddam, Mohammad Banayan-Aval, Javad Asili,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (3-2017)
Abstract

Roselle is an important medicinal and industrial plant of the family of Malvaceae, and is planted in vast areas of Sistan and Baluchestan. In a laboratory study, the effect of varying temperatures on seed germination of Hibiscus sabdariffa was investigated and minimum, optimum and maximum temperatures for its germination were determined in a completely randomized design with four replications.  For this purpose, temperatures 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50°C were considered in each treatment. Cardinal temperatures for germination were determined consistent with three models (i.e., Intersected-lines Model, Five-Parameters Beta Model and Quadratic Polynomial Model). The traits measured were germination percentage, the speed of germination and mean germination time. The temperature effect on all the measured traits was significant. The results of the regression analysis showed that the best model in terms of cardinal point of this plant is the Five-Parameters Beta Model. Given the results of this model, the minimum and the optimal temperatures for the germination of Roselle are 4.04°C, and 29.83° C, respectively.
 


Shahram Nazari, Reza Deihimfard, Javad Faraji,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (3-2017)
Abstract

Gaining insights into the germination and emergence patterns of weeds as well as the factors which have an impact on these patterns is beneficial for weeds management programs. In order to investigate the effect of temperature, waterlogging and salinity on germination and emergence of common lambsquarters, three separate experiments were conducted, adopting a completely randomized design with four replications. The results of the temperature experiment showed that the highest germination percentages, which were 87, 93 and 88%, were obtained in the temperature range of 15, 20 and 25°C, respectively. Maximum values of germination rate, radicle length, plumule length, and seedling dry weight were obtained at 20°C. In addition, optimum seed vigor index of 796.29 was observed at 20°C. The results of the Regression Model showed that germination percentage decreased with an increase in waterlogging duration and halted after 8 and 10 days of consecutive waterlogging. Mean comparisons revealed that radicle and plumule length, seedling dry weight and vigor index decreased significantly by increasing the period of waterlogging. Salinity adversely affected germination percentage, germination rate and seedling dry weight of common lambsquarters. These factors were at their highest amounts in the control and 50 mM NaCl treatments. A downward trend was observed in these factors as NaCl concentrations increased and finally the germination process stopped in concentrations ranging from 300 to 400 mM NaCl. Radicle and plumule length also decreased from 10.51 and 9.23 cm in the control treatment to 3.57 and 2.47 cm at 250 mM NaCl. Overall, the results revealed that the maximum seed vigor index of 851.84 was obtained in the control treatment and seed vigor halted when the salinity level increased to more than 250 mM NaCl. Finally, the results showed that optimum temperature for germination of common lamsquarters was 20 °C and the existence of salinity and waterlogging stress can decrease growth indices of this weed at germination and seedling stages.


Omid Ansari, Farshid Ghaderifar, Farzad Sharif Zadeh, Ali Moradi,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (3-2017)
Abstract

The present study sought to evaluate the effect of different temperatures on germination and to determine cardinal temperatures (i.e., base, optimum and maximum) of Secale mountanum at temperatures of 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35oC. Three nonlinear regression models (i.e., segmented, dent-like and beta) were used for quantifying the response of germination rate to temperature. The results showed that in addition to germination percentage, the temperature has a significant impact on germination rate. Given the root mean square of errors (RMSE) of germination time, the coefficient of determination (R2), the simple linear regression coefficients a and b, and the relationship between the observed and the predicted germination rates, the best models for determination of cardinal temperatures of Secale mountanum were dent-like and beta models. Base, optimum and maximum temperatures were estimated to be about 2.70 to 3.17, 21.27 to 30.00 and 35.00 to 35.05°C, respectively for the dent-like model. However, given the high value of SE for temperature base and a negative estimate of the base temperature of the beta model, one can report the dent-like model as the right model. Therefore, by using the dent-like model and the estimated parameters, it is possible to use this model for predicting germination.
 


Gholamhassan Ranjbar, Hossein Ghadiri,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (3-2017)
Abstract

A controlled experiment was run to quantify emergence of Kochia indica under different temperature, salinity and seeding depth levels at Yazd National Salinity Research Center in 2013. Treatments were five day/night temperature regimes: 20/10, 25/15, 30/20, 35/25 and 40/30 °C, five salinity levels: 2, 6, 10, 14 and 18 dS m-1, and seeding depth on the surface (0 mm), 5, 10 and 15 mm. Final emergence percentage, emergence rate index and elapsed time (days) to reach 50% of the maximum emergence were measured. The results showed that the highest and lowest final emergence percentages were observed at 25/15°C and 40/30°C day/night, respectively. Final emergence percentages at salinity levels of 6, 10, 14 and 18 dS m-1were, respectively, 9, 22, 36 and 57% lower than 2 dS m-1. Final emergence percentages for 5, 10 and 15 mm seeding depths were, respectively, 30, 44 and 72% lower, as compared with the placement of seeds on the soil surface. Regression analysis showed that final emergence percentage linearly decreased with increase in salinity and seeding depth levels. However, elapsed time (days) to reach 50% of the maximum emergence (T50), increased as salinity and seeding depth increased, so that the highest T50 was obtained for 18 dS m-1 and seeding depth of 15 mm. Increase in salinity and seeding depth was associated with a significant decrease in emergence rate index. In addition, using a logistic regression equation, emergence rate of K. indica was quantified on each day after sowing for each temperature-salinity combination to predict the distribution range of the plant in these situations.
 


Mostafa Alinaghizadeh, Mohammad Khajeh-Hosseini, Seyed Ahmad Hosseini, Mohammad Hasan Rashed Mohasel,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (3-2017)
Abstract

In order to study the seed germination behavior and dormancy breaking methods of three weed species (i.e., Chenopodium album, Convolvulus arvensis and Setariaviridis) of pistachio orchards in Rafsanjan, Iran, three separate factorial experiments (with 2 factors) were conducted based on a completely randomized design with four replications, at the Faculty of Agriculture, Vali-E-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Iran, in 2014. Weed seeds were collected from five different regions of Rafsanjan, such as Markazi, Anar, Koshkoiyeh, Kabotarkhan and Nogh. Dormancy breaking treatments for Chenopodium album involved distilled water (control), KNO3 (at 500 and 1000 ppm), chemical scarification by sulfuric acid (for 5 and 10 min), and cold stratification (for 1, 3 and 5 weeks). Treatments for Convolvulus arvensis involved distilled water (control), scarification by sandpaper, chemical scarification by sulfuric acid (20 and 30 min), and boiling water (for 15 and 30 min). Treatments for Setaria viridis involved distilled water (control), gibberellic acid (250, 500 and 1000 ppm), KNO3 (500 and 1000 ppm), and cold stratification (for 1, 3 and 5 weeks). The results showed that seed germination percentage (SGP) and mean germination time (MGT) of three weed species were significantly different among weed populations and dormancy breaking methods. For Chenopodium album, cold stratification of 5 weeks resulted in highest SGP (97%) in Nogh population. For Convolvulus arvensis and Setaria viridis, the highest SGP was obtained after scarification by sandpaper (98% in Kabotarkhan population) and using 1000 ppm gibberellic acid (60% in Kabotarkhan population), respectively. In addition, increasing the weight of 1000 seeds in the three weed species in question increased SGP.
 
 


Zahra Ajribzadeh, Hamidreza Balouchi, Alireza Yadavi, Amin Salehi,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (9-2017)
Abstract

In order to evaluate the allelopathic effect of aqueous extract of nine weeds species on Anise (Pimpinella anisum) seed germination and seedling growth characteristics, an experiment was conducted in the Laboratory of Yasouj University in 2014. This experiment was carried out as factorial with the aqueous extracts of nine weeds species, as the first factor, in different concentrations (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g.l-1), as the second factor, in a completely randomized design with four replications. The results showed that interactions between different weed aqueous extracts and concentrations had a significant impact on the germination percentage and rate, root and shoot length and weight, and vigor of anise seeds at 1% probability. The most allelopathic effects on germination percentage and rate were observed in 10 g/l of the aqueous extract of Cowherb and Corn Buttercup, in 20 to 30 g/l of Corn Buttercup and Whitetop, and in 40 to 50 g.l-1 of Corn Buttercup, Whitetop, Wild lettuce and Cowherb, which completely stopped seed germination in Anise.

Highlights:
  1.  Allelopathic effects of 9 common weedy types on germination of Anise Seed were studied in Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad.
  2. The effect of different concentrations of aqueous extracts of weeds on germination characteristics of anise was studied.

Zahra Mohammadzadeh Nasrabad Olya, Ahmad Mohtadi,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (9-2017)
Abstract

Weeds pose a serious threat to farmers. Using allopathic properties of the plants, especially those of the medicinal plants, has an important role in controlling weeds. This study was conducted to examine the allelopathic potential of Achillea wilhelmsii in germination of Hirshfeldia incana and Hordeum glaucum. A factorial experiment was conducted, adopting a completely randomized design with three replicates in both libratory and pot cultivation. Organ extracts (flower, leaf and root) of Achillea wilhelmsii in four concentrations were used, namely: 1, 2 and 5%. In addition, distilled water was used as a control. The result showed that the greatest percentages of the germination of Hordeum glaucum and Hirshfeldia incana were in the distilled water, which were 100 and 91%, respectively and that their germination reached zero percent under extraction of leaf and flower with a concentration of 5%. The concentration higher than 2% of the extraction of Achillea wilhelmsii significantly decreased germination, length of radicle and aerial part, fresh and dry weight of shoot and root, leaf area index and amount of chlorophyll in Hordeum glaucum and Hirshfeldia incana, in contrast with distilled water. The results showed that leaf and flower extraction of Achillea wilhelmsii had allopathic effects. In addition, it had impacts on germination and growth of the seeds of Hordeum glaucum and Hirshfeldia incana, which could be used in the production of natural herbicides.

Highlights:
  1.  Aqueous extrac of Achillea wilhelmsii significantly decreases germination and growth of Hordeum glaucum and Hirshfeldia incana.
  2. Aqueous extrac of Achillea wilhelmsii can be used to produce the natural herbicides.


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