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Mansour Taghvaei, Neda Aliolad,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (1-2015)

Trittipyrum is an important annual grass plant for forage production in arid and semiarid regions. The effects of drought stress on Trittipyrum lines were evaluated in the field experiment in a randomized complete block design with a factorial experiment involving three replications in 2012. Treatments were water stress (field capacity (FC), 75% of FC, 50% of FC and 25% of FC throughout the experimental period and 13 primary Trittipyrum lines ((St/b)(Cr/b)F4, (Ma/b)(Cr/b)F4, (Ma/b)(Cr/b)F3, (Ka/b)(Cr/b)F2, (Ka/b)(Cr/b)F3, (Ka/b)(Cr/b)F5, (Ka/b)(Cr/b)F6, La(4b,4d)/b, St/b, Cr/b, La/b, Ka/b, Az/b). The results showed that drought stress had significant effects on seedling traits. Drought stress significantly decreased shoot length, root length, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, seedling dry weight, seedling length vigor index and seedling weight vigor index. The results of mean comparison revealed that (az/b)(cr/b)F5 and Kz/b lines were the most sensitive and the most tolerant lines to drought stress in early vigor stage, respectively. Although the response of Trittipyrum lines was different to drought stress; but the result indicated that Trittipyrum lines are sensitive to drought at emergence stage.

Seyyed Mohammad Seyyedi, Mohammad Khajeh-Hossieni, Parviz Rezvani Moghaddam, Hamid Shahandeh,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (9-2015)

In order to investigate the effects of priming with a KH2Po4 solution on emergence and heterotrophic growth of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) seedling, a series of experiments were conducted at the Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2013 and 2014. A field experiment was conducted as factorial layout based on a randomized complete block design with four replications. The fertilizer resources (vermicompost (V)+Tiobacilus (T), micronized Sulfur (S)+T, V+S+T and control) and three levels of phosphorus (0, 30 and 60 kg.ha-1) were the first and second experimental factors, respectively. In the second experiment, selected treatments (in which showed emergence below 60% in the previous experiment) and seed priming (no priming, hydro priming and three levels of phosphorus (P)-priming as 100, 300 and 500 mM KH2Po4) were the first and second experimental treatments, respectively. Based on the results, the resources of soil amendment (V+T and V+S+T) significantly increased the emergence percentage of black seed (by 50 and 54%, respectively). In addition, seed reserve depletion percentage, seed reserve utilization efficiency and emergence percentage significantly increased by 300 mM KH2PO4 (by 9, 143 and 29%, respectively). There was a significant positive relationship between the weight of mobilized seed P and the emergence percentage of black seeds (R2= 0.90 **).

Bita Oskouei, Eslam Majidi-Hervan, Aidin Hamidi, Foad Moradi, Ali Moghaddam,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (2-2016)

This experiment was conducted as a factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design with three replications at two locations: Agricultural and natural resource center of Ardebil province (Moghan) and seed and plant certification and registration institute of Karaj in 2013. The treatments included: planting date in three levels (10-May, 25-May and 9-Jun), seed moisture content at harvest time in four levels (30%, 25, 20 and 15) and seed size in three levels (flat, round and medium). The measured traits were a standard germination test, mean time of germination, seedling weight and length vigor index, germination percent in radical emergence test and germination percent in cold test. The results illustrated that delayed planting caused reduction of seed quality and this reduction was more obvious in delayed harvest (15%), also the reduction rate in round seeds was more than flattered and medium seeds. The minimum percentage of germination and vigor were seen in round seeds of third planting date and moisture harvest by 15%. So it is recommended for corn seed production to sow the seeds before the last week of May and when seed moisture content reached 30 percent, cob harvesting should be started and the harvest not is delayed.

Gholamhassan Ranjbar, Hossein Ghadiri,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (2-2017)

A controlled experiment was run to quantify emergence of Kochia indica under different temperature, salinity and seeding depth levels at Yazd National Salinity Research Center in 2013. Treatments were five day/night temperature regimes: 20/10, 25/15, 30/20, 35/25 and 40/30 °C, five salinity levels: 2, 6, 10, 14 and 18 dS m-1, and seeding depth on the surface (0 mm), 5, 10 and 15 mm. Final emergence percentage, emergence rate index and elapsed time (days) to reach 50% of the maximum emergence were measured. The results showed that the highest and lowest final emergence percentages were observed at 25/15°C and 40/30°C day/night, respectively. Final emergence percentages at salinity levels of 6, 10, 14 and 18 dS m-1were, respectively, 9, 22, 36 and 57% lower than 2 dS m-1. Final emergence percentages for 5, 10 and 15 mm seeding depths were, respectively, 30, 44 and 72% lower, as compared with the placement of seeds on the soil surface. Regression analysis showed that final emergence percentage linearly decreased with increase in salinity and seeding depth levels. However, elapsed time (days) to reach 50% of the maximum emergence (T50), increased as salinity and seeding depth increased, so that the highest T50 was obtained for 18 dS m-1 and seeding depth of 15 mm. Increase in salinity and seeding depth was associated with a significant decrease in emergence rate index. In addition, using a logistic regression equation, emergence rate of K. indica was quantified on each day after sowing for each temperature-salinity combination to predict the distribution range of the plant in these situations.

Asma Ricki Maryshany, Mahdieh Ebrahimi, Ebrahim Shirmohammadi,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (9-2018)

Extended abstract
Introduction: Allelopathic effects of plant on one another are one of the most important concerns in reclamation and rehabilitation of rangelands in Iran. Allelopathy refers to the deterrent effects of a plant on growth, development or emergence of another plant. One of the rangeland reclamation methods is planting suitable and compatible species. However, without considering the plant’s allelopathis characteristic, it is highly likely that the project will be a failure. The present study sought to investigate the effects of Artemisia sieberi extract on seedling emergence, some morphological characteristics and nutrient uptake of Prosopis cineraria which has hard emergence.
Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out under greenhouse conditions, with 23±5 °C, 60% relative humidity and 70% water-holding capacity of soil. The experimental design was a completely randomized one with four replications. Soil samples were selected from Deging village, located in the city of Khash (Sistan and Baloochestan Province). In order to prepare the plant extract, the A. sieberi samples were dried in the shade and were ground to powder. Then, 190 g of the powder was put in a plastic bottle, then filled with 1 L ethanol and placed on a shaker for 24 hours. The resulting solution was filtered out and the extract was obtained. The planting was carried out in plastic pots with the capacity of 6 kg which were filled with 3 kg of soil. In each pot, 30 seeds were buried, at a depth of 3 cm. The treatments were treated at concentrations of 0.2% (2 ml in 1000 ml distilled water), 0.4%, and zero along with plant irrigation. The parameters measured included emergence percentage and rate, radicle and pedicel length, seedling dry weight, photosynthetic pigments, carotenoid contents and nutrient uptake of P. cineraria.
Results: The results showed that A. sieberi extract significantly decreased plant photosynthetic pigments. The highest chlorophyll a, b, total chlorophyll and carotenoid belonged to the control treatment and by increasing extract concentration, photosynthetic pigments decreased. In addition, the findings were that the highest and lowest nitrogen and phosphorus contents were obtained in the 0.2 and 0.4% treatments, respectively. Potassium and manganese decreased with increases in extract concentration. However, with increases in extract concentration, zinc significantly increased in the plant tissues. In general, the results showed that A. sieberi extract increases P. cineraria emergence in the 0.2% treatment.
Conclusion: In general, morphological traits and photosynthetic pigments of P. cineraria decreased with increases in the concentrations of A. sieberi extract. Artemisia extract had a different effect on the absorption of nutrients by P. cineraria. at low concentrations. It increased nitrogen and phosphorus adsorption and increased concentrations of manganese in high concentrations. The concentration of 0.2% of Artemisia extract had a positive effect on plant emergence. Given the positive effect of A. sieberi on the emergence of P. cineraria, plant extract at low concentrations can be used to increase emergence of P. cineraria, especially given that the P. cineraria has an emergence problem. However, due to the negative effect of A. sieberi on growth and absorption of nutrients in P. cineraria, the cultivation of these two plants is not recommended in dry rangelands.
  1. The extract of A. sieberi had deterrent effects on seed emergence and morphological characteristics of P. cineraria.
  2. Increasing the concentration of the A. sieberi extract led to a decrease in the morphological characteristics of P. cineraria.
  3. A. sieberi extract had negative effects on photosynthesis pigments of P. cineraria.

Elahe Hoseinpur Askarian, . Ali Abbasi Surki, Abdolrazagh Danesh Shahraki,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (9-2019)

Extended Abstract
Introduction: In addition to dormancy, seeds of Allium hirtifolium have a weak emergence in the field. Among methods for improving the efficiency and emergence of seeds, nutritional priming can be considered for its performance on weak seeds. The presence of micronutrients is one of the factors that may affect the efficiency of the seeds. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of priming with nutrients on optimization of dormancy status, germination, and enhancement of shallot seeds for its conservational, restoration and domestication programs.
Materials and Methods: In order to study effects of nutrients on germination and emergence of Allium hirtifolium, a CRD factorial experiment was conducted with four replications at Seed Science and Technology Lab of Shahrekord University in 2015. Two dormancy breaking treatments (sulfuric acid and sulfuric acid + gibberellic acid) as the first factor and nine nutrition treatments including four levels of ZnSO4 (5, 10, 50 and 100 mM) and four levels of FeSO4 (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2%) versus control were compared on shallot seeds.
Results: The results showed that dormancy breaking treatments, nutrient pretreatment of seeds and their interaction had significant effects on germination percentage, germination rate, time to reach l0% and 50% germination, germination uniformity, seedling length and vigor index I at 1% probability level. Sulfuric acid and FeSO41% increased germination versus control. Application of gibberellic acid affected the behavior of iron but did not indicate significant effects for zinc. The concentration of 5 mM ZnSO4 increased the rate of germination, compared with the control but decreased with higher concentrations. The gibberellic acid did not show any sharp effects on germination rate. Time to reach 50% germination was also affected by FeSO4 0.5% and 1% and lower levels of zinc. Application of gibberellic acid did not show any significant impact on the germination time reduction, compared with control and increased T50 in higher concentrations. Although germination traits were rarely affected by gibberellic acid, seedling length and vigor index were positively influenced with GA, and the highest seedling length was achieved at 0.5 and 1% of iron and gibberellic acid.
Conclusion: Seed priming with nutrients can improve germination and plant vigur indices. Different concentrations of iron and zinc showed different impacts on the seeds, which showed interaction with dormancy breaking methods. Although application of gibberellic acid did not have an effective role in increasing germination rate and reducing the time to reach 10% and 50% of germination, it enhanced seedling length and vigor index I, especially for iron.
  1. Addition of iron and zinc sulfate to shallot seeds whose dormancy was broken with sulfuric acid caused higher germination rate of  25.54%, compared with the control.
  2. Gibberellin compensated for zinc effect in germination and was able to replace it, but had a slight synergic effect with iron sulfate.
  3. Although gibberellin application did not affect germination traits, the seedling length and vigor index showed a positive response to it.

Mohammad Amin Makvandi, Mousa Meskarbashee, Payman Hassibi, Hasan Hamdi,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (3-2020)

Extended abstract
 Introduction: Management of agricultural operations in sugarcane fields should be informed by the accurate knowledge of sugarcane growth stages and phenology and is to be reviewed based on variety differences. Given the importance of emergence stage on the establishment of seedling and final quality and quantity of sugarcane yield and given the absence of respective information, a study was conducted to investigate the effect of different planting dates on the phenological characteristics of the seedling stage of sugarcane cultivars in the south of Khuzestan Province during 2016-17 and 2017-18.
 Materials and Methods: The experiment was carried out as a randomized complete block design with three replications. In terms of growth period length, Very premature, Premature, and Semi mature cultivars included CP73-21, CP57-614 and CP69-1062. Planting dates were Aug. 11th, Aug. 23rd, Sep. 1st and Sep 11th. Planting operation was conducted manually and with 1/3 overlap of grafts. In order to prevent the negative effects brought about by the dispersion and non-uniformity of the experimental field and the special conditions of sugarcane cultivation, each cultivar was cultivated in a separate field and after sampling and the study of different traits, the statistical analysis of each cultivar was performed separately.
 Results: The results showed that sugarcane seedling was not affected by annual conditions and the interaction effect of annual conditions and planting dates. The significant differences of planting dates were observed at the beginning of emergence, its completion and rate of emergence and the number of leaves produced and their area. The fastest rate of the beginning and the completion of emergence was obtained in CP73-21, and on different planting dates, it was more permanent than other cultivars studied, while CP69-1062 had the slowest and more behavioral diversity of emergence on different planting dates. The cultivar CP73-21 did not produce good results in terms of leaf area, but the CP69-1062 cultivar was able to produce the highest level of leaf area due to the extra number of leaves and the mean value of a single leaf area. In addition, the best results were obtained in all characteristics in August, followed by September.
 Conclusions: Based on the results, in order to achieve the best emergence of sugarcane buds, it is necessary to complete the cultivation of most of the fields within the first twenty days of the beginning of the planting season and priority should be given to cultivar CP69-1062 and then cultivars CP57-614 and CP73-21. Due to the differences between sugarcane cultivars, utilizing seedling stage growth data can lead to more scientific management of the crops in terms of the characteristics of each cultivar, which eventually leads to desirable yields.
  1. Estimation and comparison of emergence characteristics of commercial cultivars of sugarcane under farm conditions.
  2. Study of the effect of planting dates on leaf development characteristics of important commercial sugarcane cultivars in early growth stages.
  3. Determination of the best planting date for sugarcane cultivars based on the seedling stage characteristics.

Marziyeh Rostami, Sina Fallah, Ali Abassi Surki, Mohammad Rafieoalhosseini,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (9-2020)

Extended Abstract
Introduction: Plants release much of bioactive chemicals from different parts such as leaves, stems and roots through different mechanisms to their surrounding environement. These biologically active chemicals are often referred to as "allelochemicals". Allelopathic compounds play a major role in reducing germination and the growth of crops.
Materials and methods: In this study, the effect of leaching on the reduction of phytotoxicity effect of soybean, black cumin, dragonhead and dill was investigated on the emergence and early growth of canola (Brassica napus L.). The experiment was conducted as factorial based on a completely randomized design with four replications in 2016. Treatments included four previous crop residue (soybean, black cumin, dragonhead, and dill), and three levels of leaching (without leaching, one-time leaching, and two-times leaching). The leaching-free treatment (control) was sub-irrigated to maintain the uniformity of environment moisture. Five days after the first leaching, the two leaching treatment was irrigated again. Five days after the second leaching, when the soil moisture was suitable for seed planting, 10 seeds of canola were cultivated in each pot at a depth of 3 cm of soil. After three weeks seedlings of canola were removed from the pot and the traits were measured.
Results: The results showed that the growth characteristics of canola, except root length, were affected by the residues of the previous crop. In non-leaching conditions, the residue of the four plants reduced the rate and amount of canola emergence, and the greatest reduction in canola emergence was recorded for the application of black cumin residue (7.5%). In the leaching conditions, the length of canola leaves increased, which was higher in the twice leaching treatment. This trend shows that as the amount of leaching frequency increased, it is highly likely that more inhibitiing materials leave the soil and conditions become suitable for canola germination and growth.. The highest dry weight of canola root was observed in one-time leaching treatment. The dry weight of canola leaf grown in dill and soybean residues was increased as a result of one-time leaching, whereas the dry weight of canola grown in black cumin and dragonhead residues showed a higher increase in two-times leaching. Results show that four studied plants have canola growth inhibiting compounds and leaching can ameliorate this effect. The response of canola in the soil containing black cumin and dragonhead residues is higher in two-times leaching, and in the soil containing plant residues dill, one-time leaching is sufficient. In soils containing soybean residue, the response index was almost similar in case of one and two-times leaching.
Conclusion: Generally, the results showed that the application of leaching before planting canola reduced the inhibitory effects of plant residue on germination and growth of canola. Therefore, it is suggested that in the agricultural ecosystems in which canola is present in crop rotation, cultivation of canola must be avoided in presence of soybean, black cumin, dragonhead, and dill residue to eliminate their inhibitory effects on canola growth. In areas with water restriction, autumn rainfall can act as leaching and reduce the effect of allelopathic compounds. In case leaching is not possible, cultivation of canola inside the residue of these plants must be avoided.
1-Leaching can reduce the effect of allelopathic compounds.
2- Allelopathic compounds of some plants such as black cumin showed better response to two-times leaching.

Asgar Ganje, Ali Ebadie, Ghasem Parmoon, Soodabeh Jahanbaksh,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (3-2021)

Extended Abstract
Introduction: Water deficit stress is one of the important factors affecting seed germination. This stress decrease germination rate and affects germination percentage under high levels as well. Seed priming improves germination by changing metabolic activities before radicle emergence. This investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of seed priming by salicylic acid on the emergence index and grain weight of spring wheat under water deficit stress.
 Material and Method: These experiments were conducted as factorial based on the completely randomized design with three replicates in the greenhouse of the Faculty of the Agriculture Sciences University of Mohaghegh Ardabili. Experiment treatments included different salicylic acid concentrations (0, 1, 2 mM) and water deficit stresses (25%, 45%, 65% and 85% Field capacity).
Result: According to results, emergence index (emergence percentage and emergence rate, uniformity emergence, and times to 10, 50, and 90% emergence) was influenced at 1% by water deficit stress. The effect of salicylic acid was significant on the emergence index. The interactions of water deficit stress and salicylic acid were effective at 1% on emergence uniformity and time to 90% emergence. Changes in plant height and heading rate were lower under water deficit stress. Also, both slope (b) and maximum content (a) decreased by water stress (22% and 7%). Priming by salicylic acid at 2 mM had the highest effect on both traits and resulted in a decrease in their slopes (17% and 13%) and an increase in their maximum content (34 and 10%). Plant dry weight was influenced by the interactions of water deficit stress and salicylic acid at 5% level. The plant's final height and grain weight was influenced by water deficit stress and salicylic acid. The highest grain weight was obtained at 80% and 60% field capacity with means of 0.79 and 0.75 g, which had no significant differences with eachother. The heights grain weight (0.72 g) was obtained by application of  2 mM salicylic acid which led to an increase of 250% compared to control.
Conclusions: Overall, we showed that water deficit stress resulted in decreased emergence rate and emergence percentage of wheat and finally declined plant growth and grain weight. Application of salicylic acid in seed priming resulted in improvement in the emergence index, growth, and grain weight of wheat. Also, the highest grain weight was observed at 2 mM concentration and it can be considered as the enhancing treatment.

1- Response of plant growth stage to stress was quantified using nonlinear regression
2- Relationship between emergence and grain weight was investigated under stress and priming by salicylic acid.

Ladan Zinati, Asieh Siahmarguee, Farshid Ghaderi-Far, Masomeh Yones-Abadi, Bhagirath Singh Chauhan,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (9-2023)

Extended Abstract
Introduction: The genus Amaranthus is one of the most important genera of the Amaranth family. In Iran, 14 species of this genus have been identified and are known as weeds in most parts of the country. Due to the importance of studying the effect of management factors on seed dynamics of different weed species, this experiment aimed to investigate the effect of burial depth and high temperatures on the seed dynamic of different species of Amaranthus in Golestan province including white pigweed (A. albus), prostrate pigweed (A. belitoides), hybrid Amaranthus (A. chlorostachys), redroot pigweed (A. retrofelexus) and green Amaranthus (A. viridis) were performed.
Materials and Methods: This research was conducted as two separate experiments in the seed laboratory of Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources. In the first experiment (burial depth), seed germination of different species of Amaranthus was studied in eight burial depths including 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 10 cm. At first, 25 seeds of each species were planted in pot at the intended depths. Pots were watered as needed to maintain adequate soil moisture. The pots were placed under natural outdoor conditions. Seedling emergence was defined as the appearance of cotyledons above the soil surface. The emerged seedlings were counted daily up to 14 days. The soil in the pot was removed thereafter and non-germinated seeds were retrieved. After disinfection of seeds with a 3% sodium hypochlorite solution, they were then placed in Petri dishes with 5 ml distilled water to test germination. Finally, the viability of non-germinated seeds was determined using the Pressure test. In the second experiment (pretreatment with high temperatures), 100 seeds from different species of Amaranthus were selected and wrapped in aluminum foil and placed in the oven for 5, 10 and 15 minutes at temperatures of 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100 and 110 °C. Then, four replicates of 25 pre-treated seeds were placed on a layer of filter paper in plastic petri dishes and incubated at 25 °C. Seedlings were counted daily. After recording the germination percentage, the viability of non-germinated seeds was examined using a pressure test.
Results: The seeds germination of different species of Amaranths were affected by the depth of burial; All seeds of A. blitoides and A. viridis germinated in the topsoil (zero depth); But, in A. albus, A. retroflexus, A. chlorostachys, 93%, 83% and 3% of the seeds were emergence at the soil surface, respectively. By increasing the burial depth to one centimeter, the percentage of seeds emergence in different species of Amaranthus were decreased significantly. With increasing burial depth, the number of missing seeds has increased. Germination test performed on recycled seeds showed that zero to 16% of the seeds were able to germinate in petri dish, depending on the type of species and burial depth. In all species except A. chlorostachys, the highest germination percentage was obtained from seeds recycled from a soil depth of 10 cm. Also, most of the recycled and non-germinated seeds in Petri dish were viable. Seed pre-treatment of different species of Amaranthus reduced the germination percentage of all species.
Conclusion: The key of weeds control is to reduce the stable soil seed bank and eliminate the established seedlings. Due to the reduction of seed germination percentage of different species of Amaranthus from a depth of more than one centimeter of soil, it seems that the use of conservation and conventional tillage methods has a good potential to reducing contamination of fields to these weeds. However, deep burial of the seeds induces a dormancy to the seeds and stabilizes their seed bank in the soil. Also, although increasing the temperature to 110 ° C reduced the germination percentage of different species of Amaranthus, but a large part of the seeds viable and dormant. Therefore, it seems that the temperature of 50 to 110 ° C, although they reduce weed contamination of fields, but do not have a significant effect on emptying the seed bank of these species. Of course, due to the fact that under natural conditions, fire is accompanied by smoke, In order to complete the results of this experiment, it is necessary to study both fire and smoke on seed germination of different species of Amaranthus

1- Seed dynamics of different species of Amaranthus were affected by burial depth and high temperature
2- Deep burial of seeds of different species of Amaranthus causes the stability of their seeds in the soil seed bank.

Farzaneh Amirikia, Majid Nabipour, Masoumeh Farzaneh,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (9-2023)

Extended Abstract
Introduction: The use of seed priming technology to accelerate the germination and seedling emergence of multi-purpose plants such as halophytes (Alhagi) with the ability to produce medicine and forage in environmental stress conditions or use of saline water (such as seawater Persian Gulf) has received much attention today. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate seed priming methods and different salinity levels on germination, seedling emergence, and some growth responses of Alhagi plant.
Material and Methods: Two separate split factorial experiments were conducted based on a randomized complete block design with four replications in the petri dish culture (first experiment) and the pot experiment in the field was performed in the Department of Plant Production and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University (Ahwaz, Iran) during 2020-21. In both experiments, different levels of salinity (municipal water source with EC=0.96 dS.m-1, 8 and 16 dS.m-1 using seawater Persian Gulf) as the main plot, and other methods of seed priming (non-priming, hydro priming, hormonal priming with 50 ppm gibberellin and hydro priming+hormonal priming with 50 ppm gibberellin) and species (A. maurorum and A. graecorum) were considered as sub-factors.
Results: The results showed significant interaction effects of salinity × species × priming on all studied traits. Means comparing results showed that the highest values of final germination percentage, seed vigor index, final seedling emergence, plant height, number of branches, total dry matter and stomatal conductance were obtained from a municipal water source with EC=0.96 dS.m-1 and hydro priming+hormonal priming with 50 ppm gibberellin for A. graecorum (29.1, 90.2, 24.0, 32.3, 52.5, 52.1 and 32.4% increase compared to non-priming and control salinity stress on this species, respectively). Based on the output results of fitted logistic models, this model the best fit for the explanation of the relationship between seedling emergence of two Alhagi species in responses to salinity and seed priming was obtained (R2adj≥0.98 and RMSE≤3.38). Results showed that the process of reducing seedling emergence started in the two studied species from the 8 dS/m salinity level. However, at the 16 dS/m salinity level, the slope of increasing the seedling emergence percentage was slower in exchange for time.
Conclusion: The results of this experiment show, that for the cultivation and development of this plant breeding program for saline coastal lands and also for the restoration of pastures and according to the results, A. graecorum species under the combined treatment of hydro priming + hormonal priming with 50 ppm gibberellin recommended for other levels of treatments.

1- Germination aspects and growth responses of two Iranian Alhagi species and the possibility of production by irrigation of seawater in the Persian Gulf are investigated.
2- Seed priming technique to accelerate seedling emergence and improve some traits of two Alhagi species. Are Applied.

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