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Showing 5 results for Accelerated Aging

Maryam Akbari, Mehdi Baradaran, Mohammadreza Amerian, Naser Farrokhi,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (3-2020)

Extended abstract
Introduction: A wide range of deteriorative conditions (especially moisture content and temperature) may affect seed quality during storage which may lead to seed aging. As the most important component of the phenylpropanoids pathway, trans-cinnamic acid, found abundantly in plants and its endogenous levels is influenced by stress conditions. The present study was conducted to investigate germination features, seed reserve mobilization, electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde content in aged cowpea seeds affected by different concentrations of cinnamic acid.
Materials and Methods: The research has been performed in the laboratory of Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrood University of Technology, Iran. The experiment was designed as a factorial (two factors of the experiment included two levels of seed quality including non-aged and aged seeds and five levels of cinnamic acid concentrations including 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 µM) based on a completely randomized design. Accelerated aging was applied as an efficient method to mimic storage conditions in the presence of accelerating factors. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds (Bastam local variety) were incubated in a relative humidity of 95% and a temperature of 43 °C for 72 h to accelerate aging. Both seed lots were treated with 5 different concentrations of cinnamic acid for 6 h followed by standard germination and vigor tests. Data of germination and vigor tests were processed using the GERMINATOR software. Heterotrophic growth, seed reserves mobilization, electrical conductivity and membrane lipid peroxidation were assessed using the available methods.
Results: In this study, cowpea seeds responded to cinnamic acid differently based on their primary quality. In deteriorated seeds, concentrations of 45 µM and 60 µM could successfully enhance seed germination percentage, as compared with the aged seeds (i.e., control). A concentration of 45 µM also improved the vigor of deteriorated seeds. Seed pretreatment of 15, 30 and 45 µM enhanced seed reserves utilization in non-aged seeds. Aging negatively affected area under curve, germination uniformity and seedling dry weight of the deteriorated seeds. Application of 30 µM cinnamic acid improved germination uniformity. The area under the curve was positively affected by 15µM and 30µM. Concentrations of 45 µM and 60 µM enhanced seedling dry weight. Applying 45 µM cinnamic acid decreased electrolyte leakage by 38% and improved efficiency of seed reserves mobilization. Moreover, seed malondialdehyde content, as an indication of membrane lipid peroxidation, showed a sharp decline by applying increased concentrations of cinnamic acid.  
Conclusions: Based on our results, cowpea seeds respond to cinnamic acid differently based on their primary quality. These results imply that seed pretreatment with 45 µM cinnamic acid may successfully invigorate aged cowpea seeds. We also conclude that cinnamic acid application cannot improve physiological traits and can be regarded as a potent antioxidant in the invigoration of the aged seeds.
  1. This is the first study focusing on the role of cinnamic acid in alleviating deterioration in aged seeds.
  2. Cinnamic acid has been introduced as a robust antioxidant, which is effective in reducing the deleterious effects of seed deterioration.

Mahboubeh Hajiabbasi, Reza Tavakkol Afshari, Alireza Abbasi, Reza Kamaei,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (3-2020)

Extended Abstract
Introduction: Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is the primary source of vegetable oil. Even in desirable conditions, soybean seeds lose their viability in long term storage. Many factors contribute to seed deterioration, including genetic factors, mechanical damage, relative humidity, storage temperature, seed moisture content, existence of microflora, and seed maturity, which reduce seed quality and make seeds unfit for cultivation purposes.
Materials and Methods: In order to investigate the effects of seed deterioration on seed germination and also the effects of salicylic acid and ethylene on the improvement of deteriorated seeds of G. max., accelerated aging test for 0, 6 and 10 days and natural aging test for 6 months were conducted. After aging conditions, seeds were imbibed with 50 µM salicylic acid and 10 µM ACC (precursor of ethylene) for 6 hours at 25 °C. In addition, after natural and accelerated aging tests, a bunch of seeds was used without any hormonal treatment (i.e., dry seeds) as control seeds. The seeds’ germination percentage, total sugar, fructose, and glucose were investigated. Moreover, the gene expression of GAI1 and LOX1 was measured on dry seeds and under imbibition of water, salicylic acid and ACC at 6, 12 hours using Q-RT-PCR method.
Results: The germination results showed that increasing number of aging days led to a decrease in germination. Total sugar content in seeds aged for 6 days did not have a significant difference, as compared with non-aged seeds. However, total sugar content in seeds aged for 10 days was significantly higher than non-aged seeds. Increasing accelerated aging levels from 0 days to 10 days led to increases in glucose and fructose contents in dry seeds. In addition, genes exhibited different expressions in different days and hours. Increasing aging from 0 days to 10 days led to increases in GAI1 gene expression. Moreover, LOX2 expression increased in accelerated aging from 0 to 6 days. LOX2 gene expression in naturally dried aged seeds also increased and was higher than that in non-aged seeds. SA and ACC had different effects on measured values.
Conclusion: In general, it can be concluded that the deterioration of seed quality and vigor result from numerous degradation processes and disruption in seeds’ physiological activity. This study showed that aging is associated with an increase in total sugar, glucose and fructose levels. In addition, the expression of the genes involved in the germination is also affected. Increases in LOX2 gene expression were observed in both accelerated aging and natural aging pathways. GAI1 gene expression increased in accelerated aging. However, in normal aging, it decreased.

  1. Identifying the role of LOX2 and GAL1 genes in soybean seed deterioration.
  2. Investigating seeds’ physiological responses under natural and laboratory aging conditions.

Faegheh Jangjoo, Mehdi Tajbakhsh-Shishvan,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (9-2020)

Extended abstract
Introduction: Seed deterioration is a physiological phenomenon that affects all germination, biochemical, cytological, and growth characteristics of plants. So it is necessary to use seed vigor enhancement methods to resolve these problems. One of these methods is the application of seed priming techniques to reduce deterioration effects. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of different pre-treatments by using Nano-zinc, ascorbic acid, humic acid, gibberellin and KNO3 on germination indices and chromosomal aberration of aged onion seeds.
Material and Methods: This experiment was performed as factorial based on a completely randomized design with 3 replications (100 seeds per replicate) in the faculty of agriculture at Urmia University. The first factor was the level of aging at 4 levels (control, 12h, 24h, and 48h) and the second factor was seed pre-treatments at 6 levels (control, Nano-zinc (30 mg), ascorbic acid (100 mg), humic acid (150 mg), gibberellin (200 mg/l) and KNO3 (0.1%). Given that the germination was not similar at different levels of aging, the seeds were germinated at control and 12h of aging after 6 days, at 24 and 48h of aging after 8 and 9 days, respectively. Hence, germination percentage, germination rate, normal seedling, mean germination time, and seed vigor were evaluated after the mentioned times. Chromosomal aberrations were also examined.
Results and Discussion: The results showed that the interaction effect of aging and seed pre-treatments on germination indices were significant at %1 probability level. By increasing the period of aging, all germination characters decreased significantly. The highest germination percentage (80%, 70%, 50%) and germination rate (5.350, 3. 316, 1.525 seed/day) were obtained by using Nano-zinc At 12h, 24h and 48h ageing levels. Nano-zinc and gibberellin had the highest effect on seedling vigor and normal seedlings. Seedling vigor increased significantly by using Nano-zinc and gibberellin at 12h (1133, 933.9), 24h (742.9, 692), and 48h (369.9, 323.3). The chromosomal aberration was reduced by using pre-treatment.
Conclusion: In this study, the most effective pre-treatments to improve germination characteristics and reduce chromosomal aberrations were gibberellin (200 mg/l) and Nano-zinc (30 mg). Therefore, it can be stated that the use of Nano-zinc and gibberellin as seed pre-treatments can significantly reduce the effects of deterioration on onion seeds.

1- Nano-Zinc and gibberellin were the most effective priming treatments on seed germination and growth characteristics of the aged onion seeds.
2- Priming treatment reduced the percentage of chromosomal aberration in the onion and the highest effect was obtained using Nano-zinc and gibberellin.

Amin Haghighi, Yazdan Izady, Miad Haji Mahmoudi, Seyed Amir Moosavi,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (3-2021)

Extended Abstract
Introduction: Seed germination and seedling emergence depend on the genetics of plant species and are also influenced by environmental factors. Genetics and nutritional status of the maternal plant, maturity stage at a time of harvest, and environmental factors such as temperature, salinity, drought, and soil fertility influence seed germination. Seed vigor as the main parameter of seed quality decreases due to accelerated aging and storage. The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of accelerated aged Chia seed to different levels of salinity stress.
Material and Methods: Two-way factorial experiment with experimental factors, including five levels of seed accelerated aging durations (0, 24, 48, 72, 96 h) and six levels of salinity stress (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mM) was arranged based on a complete randomized block design with three replications. The experiment was conducted at seed technology laboratory Khuzestan Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, University of Khuzestan, in 2019.
Results: Results of analysis of variance revealed that the effect of seed accelerating aging, salinity stress, and interaction effects of both factors on all measured germination traits were significant (p<0.01). The best pattern of seed germination was evaluated using three-parameter sigmoid models (logistic, Gompertz, and sigmoidal) and two polynomial models (quadratic and cubic), then the performance of all models was compared using (R2adj), root square of the mean (RMSE) and corrected Akaike index (AICc). Results showed that at accelerated aging duration, models' performance to describe Chia seed germination response varied at different levels of salinity stress. At no aging and 72h of accelerated aging treatments, the sigmoidal model exhibited the best fit on final seed germination, whereas for the other levels of accelerated aging, Gompertz exhibited the best fit. Based on the output of the sigmoidal model, for no aging and 72 hours of accelerated aging, 50% of seed germination was declined at 171.7 and 76.9 mM, respectively, and based on the results of the Gompertz model, after 24 and 48 h of accelerated aging, seed germination declined to 50% at 163.8 and 129.6 mM. Results obtained from fitting polynomial models on seed germination showed that the cubic model provides reasonable descriptions for studied traits such as seed vigor.
Conclusion: Chia seed germination was sensitive to salinity and accelerated aging treatments. At no aging condition, Chia seeds tolerate salinity stress up to 200 mM and were able to germinate. By increasing aging durations, seed germination declined dramatically at all salinity levels and after 96 hours of aging, there was no seed germination at 150 mM.

1- The best nonlinear model to study accelerated Chia seed response to salinity stress was selected using the model selection criterion.
2- Chia seed germination threshold to salinity stress was determined for not- aged and aged seeds.

Omid Ansari, Esmaeil Shirghani, Khodadad Shabani,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (9-2023)

Extended abstract
Introduction: Due to the high sensitivity of seeds to damage caused by diseases or environmental stresses, germination is considered an important stage in the plant life cycle: Germination, its uniformity and emergence decline during storage due to seed vigor deterioration. Moisture stress is one of the important environmental factors affecting germination, especially during improper storage. Seed priming with gibberellic acid improves seedling characteristics in different plants under different environmental conditions. Therefore, this research aims to investigate the effect of gibberellic acid and seed deterioration on germination indices and antioxidant enzymes of safflower seeds (Carthamus tinctorius L.) under water stress conditions.
Materials and Methods: In order to investigate the effect of gibberellic acid on germination indicators and changes in antioxidant enzymes of aged safflower seeds under osmotic stress conditions, a factorial experiment was conducted in the form of a completely randomized design with four replications. The first factor includes three osmotic stress levels: zero (control), -0.4, and -0.8 MPa, the second factor includes nine aging levels (zero, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 days of aging). at a temperature of 41 degrees Celsius) and the third factor included seed priming treatment at three control levels (non-priming), zero (hydro-priming), and priming with 50 mg/l gibberellic acid. A 3-parametric sigmoid model was used to show the changes in germination indices at different levels of seed deterioration.
Results: The effect of osmotic stress, seed deterioration, and seed priming on the measured indices such as germination percentage, germination rate, seedling dry weight, normal seedling percentage, seedling length, seed germ, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase, as well as seed protein were significant so that the measured indicators decreased with increasing seed deterioration and moisture stress. The results showed that the highest measured germination indices were obtained from seed treatment with 50 mg/l gibberellic acid under normal osmosis and non-deterioration conditions. Also, seed priming with gibberellic acid treatment caused an increase in catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and protein activity compared to non-primed seeds under deterioration and non-deterioration conditions.
Conclusion: Results showed that the most suitable prime level used was gibberellic acid 50 mg/l, which had acceptable results under both stress conditions and normal conditions and deterioration and non-deterioration in comparison with other treatments. Therefore, the use of gibberellic acid hormone can help to improve germination indices as a result of changes in biochemical activities.


1. The effect of accelerated aging and priming on safflower seed germination under moisture stress conditions was investigated.
2.The effect of priming on catalase and peroxidase activity of aged safflower seeds was investigated.

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