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Showing 104 results for Seed

Leila Yari, Shahla Hashemi, Farshid Hasani,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (5-2014)
Abstract

The cultivation of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) has significantly increased in recent years, mainly due to the quality of its oil, which is useful for the human consumption and industrial purposes. In order to investigate the effect of different seed storage temperatures on seed quality of two sunflower cultivars (Euorfluor and Rcord), seeds were exposed to three storage temperatures (5, 20 and 20-30C°) for four months. Experimental units were arranged factorial manner in a completely randomized design with four replications. The effect of storage under 20C° was more effective in maintaining the vigor of sunflower seeds. The effect of storage at 5C° culminated in damage of vigor of sunflower seeds by increasing electrical conductivity (EC) and mean germination time. The effect of storage at 20-30C° (alternative temperature) brought about seedling growth by comparing with other treatments. This study indicated that best results for germination and vigor of sunflower seeds found for the seed of Euorflour cultivar in comparison with to Record cultivar under seeds storage temperature.

Elias Soltani, Afshin Soltani, Serollah Galesh, Farshid Ghaderi-Far, Ebrahim Zeinali,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (5-2014)
Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate and to quantify the effect of burial depth on seedling emergence of volunteer canola and wild mustard. Seeds were buried in 12 different depths (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15, 20, 30 cm) in 4 replications and seedling emergence was measured daily. Results indicated that emergence percentage of volunteer canola was around 98 % from 1 to 2.9 cm of burial depth and deeper depths decreased emergence percentage with a slope of -0.4 and reached to zero in burial depth of 10 cm. Seedling emergence percentage of wild mustard was described using an exponential model on the response to burial depth. According to the model, wild mustard seedling emergence decreased from 66 % in 1 cm depth to 0 % in 8 cm depth. Increasing burial depth leads to reduction of seedling emergence rate that it well quantified for both species. Seeds of these two species that buried in deeper soil layers from 10 cm for volunteer canola and 8 cm for wild mustard can expand soil seed bank and will not emerge. The results of this study may provide useful information in ecological weed management and prediction seedling emergence of weeds.


Hamdollah Eskandari, Ashraf Alizadeh-Amraie,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (5-2014)
Abstract

A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of seed priming under salt and drought conditions on seed germination and early seedling development of millet. A factorial experiment (3×2×5) based on completely randomized design with three replications was employed. The first factor was the effect of seed priming (control, hydro priming and KNO3), the second factor was the effect of salt and drought stresses including NaCl and PEG 6000 and the third factor was the effect of osmotic potential levels (-0.3, -0.6, -0.9 and -1.2 MPa). Results showed that germination performance was negatively affected by decreasing osmotic potential. There was a variable germination with different stress condition, in which seeds were able to germinate at all concentration of NaCl but no significant germination was occurred at -0.6 MPa of PEG for no primed and KNO3. However, both seed priming treatments (Hydropriming and KNO3), improved seed germination performance with the clear effectiveness of Hydropriming in improving germination properties under salt and drought conditions. It was concluded that germination inhibition resulted from osmotic effect rather than salt toxicity.

Asad Masoumi Asl, Rreza Amiri Fahliani, Hamidreza Balouchi,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (5-2014)
Abstract

Salinity is one of the most extensive environmental stresses and is a limiting factor for the growth and development of crops, such as rice. Then, an experiment based upon completely randomized design with four low levels (0, 7.5, 15, 22.5) and four high of salinity (75, 150, 225 and 300 mM) with control as the first factor and nine cultivars of rice (dollars, Hasan Saraii, Mousa Tarom, Kamfiruz, Lenjan Askari, Gharib, Domsiah Mamassani, 304, Champa Yasouj) as the second factor with three replications was conducted in 2012 in the Yasouj University. Results showed that Hasan Saraii had salinity tolerance with the most germination percentage, germination rate and shoot length at high salinity levels (more than 75 mM), and Domsiah Mamassani with the minimum of that traits had not any salinity tolerance. But in the low salinity (less than 22.5 mM), Hasan Saraii, Lenjan and Mousa Tarom had the highest percentage of germination. The maximum germination rate was due to Mousa Tarom and the maximum shoot length observed in Gharib variety. So it seems, if we would only consider the germination percentage, Hasan Saraii is the best variety and if the maximum germination percentage and rate are considered, the variety that would be considered is Mousa Tarom. Therefore, high salinity we should not just rely on the germination but the germination rate should also be noted and in lower salinity due to different cultivars germination percentage, germination rate and dry weight of root should be paid much more attention.

Kazem Badeleh, Mehdi Aghighi Shahverdi, Haeshmat Omidi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (1-2015)
Abstract

To evaluate the effect of priming on seed germination of Cucurbita pepo in drought stress conditions, a factorial experiment was conducted as completely randomized design with three replications. Treatments included drought stress at five levels of osmotic potential (zero, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 MP), priming at levels of GA3 (250 ppm to 24 hours), KNO3 (0.2% for 24 hours) Hydro prime (H2O) (to 24 hours) and control. The results showed that priming effect was significant on germination percentage, germination rate, mean daily germination, the average time required for germination and germination rate index. A significant difference was found between drought stress on seed germination rate. In addition, the interaction of seed priming and drought stress was significant on all traits (germination percentage, germination rate, average daily germination, the average time required for germination, germination rate daily, the coefficient of germination rate and the seed vigor). Seed priming, particularly in severe drought stress levels, led to significant increase in mean germination percentage, germination rate and seed vigor. Furthermore, the results of our study indicated that Cucurbita pepo seed priming had partial resistance to drought. Gibberellin acid in the first grade and the hydro priming in second grade can improve the germination and growth of the seedlings under drought stress.

Hassan Habibi, Mehdi Agihghi Shahverdi, Zahra Nasiri, Mohammadreza Chaichi, Mohammad Hossein Fotokian,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (1-2015)
Abstract

The effect of seed rate of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and efficiency of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPR) that facilitates phosphorus uptake with different doses of phosphate fertilizer was evaluated on seed quality. For this purpose, the germination and seed vigor tests before and after accelerated aging were performed in a split split plot experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications in 2010 in the field of education and research in the College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Tehran University, Karaj. Phosphorus factor at 4 levels (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg Phosphorus.ha-1) in main plots, PGPR (Pseudomonas) in three levels (no bacteria, bacterial strains, No. 9 and bacterial strains No. 41) in subplots and rate of seed factors on three levels (2, 6, and 10 kg of seed per hectare) were the sub-subplots. The results showed the highest rate of germination and seed vigor obtained by use of 6 kg seeds per hectare, PGPR No.41 strains with 30 kg Phosphorus per hectare and after accelerated aging. The highest rate of germination and seed vigor at 10 kg of seed per hectare were found for PGPR No.41 strains, with 60 kg Phosphorus ha-1 treatments. After accelerated aging practices to achieve maximum germination index and vigor, seed rates and phosphorus requirement were more than standard conditions. Based on obtained results for the storage conditions, bacterial strains No. 41 had a better effect on increasing seed vigor than bacterial strains No. 9. To produce alfalfa seed with high vigor and obtain better results, use of optimum seed rates and phosphorus (6 and 30 kg.ha-1, respectively) along with PGPR (strain No. 41) could be considered in crop plants.


Ghorbanali Rassam, Samaneh Rahban, Mahnaz Mojtabaii, Atefeh Badri,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (1-2015)
Abstract

Seed quality is one of the most important factors affecting seed germination and seedling growth. In order to investigate the effects of seed aging on germination and seedling growth of sunflower cultivars, a factorial experiment was conducted based on a completely randomized design with three replications in seed research laboratory of Shirvan Higher Education Complex. To create 7 different treatments of seed aging, seeds of three cultivars Ghasem, Farrokh and Barzgar (as the first factor) were kept at a high temperature (43◦ C) and high relative humidity (100%) for 0 (control), 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 hours (as a second factor). The results of mean comparison showed that germination percentage, rate and seedling growth of Farrokh cultivar was more than other cultivars in each aging level. Germination percentage, rate and uniformity, seedling dry weight, radicle and stem length reduced linearly with increase in the duration aging in all cultivars. Under the aging conditions, the time to beginning and ending of germination was significantly increased. Overall, it was concluded that seed quality of sunflower cultivars was seriously decreased under the aging conditions.

Mohammad Ziaee, Hooshang Farajee, Reza Amiri Fahliyani,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (1-2015)
Abstract

In addition to common vegetative multiplication, potato crop can be reproduced by true potato seed (TPS). Only the limited number of pests and diseases, which are the most important causes of a decrease in potato production, can be transmitted by true potato seed. Hence, to evaluate the potential of true potato seed in comparison to potato seed tuber and mini tuber, an experiment was conducted in Marvdasht in Fars Province during summer of 2012. Treatments were arranged in a split plot experiment using a randomized complete blocks design with three replications. The main factor consisted of three planting date including 10 July, 20 July, 30 July and sub-factor was allocated to different multiplication methods in 7 levels composed of 3 seed tuber cultivar (Agria, Marfona, Santé), 3 mini tuber varieties, the same as seed tuber varieties, and BSS296 hybrid of true potato seed. The results showed that the effect of the main factor (planting date) on the yield of a tuber, weight of marketable tuber, number of the marketable tuber, and biomass was significant. The interaction effect between main and sub-factors on all characteristics was significant except for yield of the tuber, number of marketable tuber and dry matter traits. The highest yield of a plant was achieved in Santé seed tuber (36.5 t/ha) in the first planting date (10 July) and the lowest one was observed in Marfona mini tuber (19.07 t/ha). The maximum biomass was measured at the first planting date of TPS (338.1 g/plant). The marketable tubers yield in second planting date of TPS was in the lower level than Marfona seed tuber however, it was placed at the same statistical level with other seed tubers but it was better than all mini-tubers. The results of this study suggested that TPS was better than mini-tubers in mostly measured characteristics, but TPS in comparison to different seed tubers at three mentioned planting date indicated variable situations.

Ali Moradi, Farzad Sharif Zadeh, Reza Tavakkol Afshari, Reza Maali Amiri,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (1-2015)
Abstract

Seed priming is one of the most important techniques used to improve seed germination under biotic and abiotic stresses. For this purpose, germination and seedling growth characteristics of primed seeds of Tall wheatgrass (Agropyron elongatum (Host.) P. Beauv) were evaluated under drought and low-temperature condition. A factorial experiment was conducted on the basis of randomized completely block design with three factors with four replications. The experimental factors were priming with two levels including urea primed (using urea -4 bar at 10 °C for 36 h) and non-primed seeds germination temperatures, including 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 20 and 25 °C and osmotic potential including zero (distilled water), -3, -6, -9, and -12 bars (applied by polyethylene glycol 6000). Increasing trend has been observed for all germination indices, except mean germination time, with increasing temperature from 3 to 25 °C and seeds revealed the greatest sensitivity to temperatures below 9 °C. However, this trend was reversed with increasing drought stress, the seeds sensitivity to drought stress started from the potential of -6 bar and reached the maximum in -12 bar. However, primed seeds compared to non-primed seeds have demonstrated better germination under both drought and low-temperature stresses. The results of this study showed that the highest seedling vigor index and germination rates achieved in the temperature range of 20-25 °C and water potential of zero to -3 bar.


Mehdi Baraani-Dastjerdi, Mohammad Rafieiolhossaini, Abdorazagh Danesh-Shahraki,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (1-2015)
Abstract

In order to evaluate the electrical conductivity and seedling growth characteristics of red bean seed grown under drought stress and foliar application of zinc and manganese, a split factorial experiment was conducted in a Randomized Complete Block Design in the field and also laboratory experiment at Shahrekord University in 2011. Factors included three levels of drought stress (irrigation after 50, 70 and 90 mm evaporation from class A pan) as the main plot and three levels of zinc foliar application (with water, 100 and 200 grams per hectare zinc), and three levels of manganese foliar application (with water, 150 and 300 grams per hectare manganese) in a factorial combination as subplot. The results showed that severe drought stress led to decrease of electrical conductivity while the seedling and root length of red bean seed were increased. In the measured characteristics, Mn foliar application had a significant effect on electrical conductivity and root dry weight. In different Mn foliar application treatments, the lowest electrical conductivity was related to control while the maximum seedling dry weight was observed at 150 g Mn foliar application per hectare. Zn foliar application had a significant effect on all the traits measured during this experiment. Based on means comparison, the highest seedling dry weight, shoot, seedling and root length, as well as the lowest electrical conductivity, belonged to the 100 g Zn foliar application per hectare. The highest root dry weight was obtained for 200 g Zn per hectare which no significant difference was observed with 100 g Zn per hectare. According to the results of this experiment, mild stress and foliar application of zinc and manganese led to increasing the quality of the produced seeds. In total, foliar application of zinc and manganese (at the amount of 100 and 300 g ha-1 respectively) with mild stress (irrigation after 70 mm evaporation from class A pan) are recommended for the production of seeds with high vigor under this region conditions.

Amin Salehi, Asad Masumiasl, Ali Moradi,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (9-2015)
Abstract

Bilhar or Mountain Kandall (Dorema aucheri) belongs to Apiacea family that contains flavonoid and coumarine compounds. Since propagation of this plant in natural habitats occurs through seed and due to deep dormancy, the identification of different seed dormancy breaking methods is necessary for the preservation of this species. In this respect, different methods, including chilling, washing and gibberellic acid was studied, on the seeds gathered from Kohgiloyeh and Boyerahmad province. For this reason, a factorial experiment with three factors was done based on a completely randomized design in three replications, in the faculty of agriculture, Yasouj University, in 2012. Experimental factors were included, chilling period (stratification periods of 3 and 4 weeks), gibberellic acid (zero and 1500 ppm) and washing (washing with distilled water and non-washable). Results showed that 4 weeks chilling treatment had maximum germination percentage and germination rate and seedling vigor. Also, maximum root and shoot dry weight were obtained from the seeds of this treatment. Whereas, double and triple interaction effects for germination percentage, epicotyl and hypocotyl length were not significant. Germination percentage was better in 4 weeks prechilled seed than 3 weeks. Obtained results from this research showed that Bilhar seeds have the physiological dormancy.


Seyyed Mohammad Seyyedi, Mohammad Khajeh-Hossieni, Parviz Rezvani Moghaddam, Hamid Shahandeh,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (9-2015)
Abstract

In order to investigate the effects of priming with a KH2Po4 solution on emergence and heterotrophic growth of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) seedling, a series of experiments were conducted at the Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2013 and 2014. A field experiment was conducted as factorial layout based on a randomized complete block design with four replications. The fertilizer resources (vermicompost (V)+Tiobacilus (T), micronized Sulfur (S)+T, V+S+T and control) and three levels of phosphorus (0, 30 and 60 kg.ha-1) were the first and second experimental factors, respectively. In the second experiment, selected treatments (in which showed emergence below 60% in the previous experiment) and seed priming (no priming, hydro priming and three levels of phosphorus (P)-priming as 100, 300 and 500 mM KH2Po4) were the first and second experimental treatments, respectively. Based on the results, the resources of soil amendment (V+T and V+S+T) significantly increased the emergence percentage of black seed (by 50 and 54%, respectively). In addition, seed reserve depletion percentage, seed reserve utilization efficiency and emergence percentage significantly increased by 300 mM KH2PO4 (by 9, 143 and 29%, respectively). There was a significant positive relationship between the weight of mobilized seed P and the emergence percentage of black seeds (R2= 0.90 **).


Maral Etesami, Ali Rahemi Karizaki, Benyamin Torabi,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (9-2015)
Abstract

Germination rate and percentage are maximal at optimum temperatures and then reach to zero at the base and ceiling temperatures. An experiment was conducted at the Gonbad Kavous University laboratory as a completely randomized design with 4 replications, to study germination response to temperature and evaluation of cardinal temperature on germination rate and percentage of hibiscus tea. Seeds germinated at 0 to 45 0C by 5 0C intervals. Results indicated that the response of germination percentage and rate adequately fitted with dent like and segmented functions, continually. Base and ceiling temperatures were 1.66 and 43.33 0C for germination percentage and 4.53 and 42.95 0C for germination rate. Optimum temperatures were 30 0C for germination rate and 11.56 and 33.63 0C for germination percentage. In conclusion, base and favorable temperatures for hibiscus tea seeds were 11 and 35 0C. Therefore it is recommended to cultivate at Gonbad kavous weather condition.


Zeinab Alipoor, Sohrab Mahmodi,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (9-2015)
Abstract

Due to the importance of medicinal plants, understanding the seed germination response to temperature is agronomically important. A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effect of different temperatures on seed germination of fennel, cannabis and sesame in a completely randomized design with four replications. Various constant temperatures (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40°C) were considered. According to the results, the effect of temperature on germination rate and percentage in all species was significant. The seeds of fennel were not germinated in 5, 35 and 40 0C and seeds of sesame germinated only in 5 0C. The maximum rate of germination obtained in 30 °C for fennel and 25 °C for sesame and cannabis. The highest germination percentage of fennel and cannabis and sesame were in 20, 25 and 30 0C respectively. The lowest of germination uniformity (GU) were observed in 20 0C for fennel and in 15 0C for cannabis and sesame. Amount of seedling vigor maximized for fennel and cannabis in 250C and for sesame in the 300C. The values of length and weight of radical and plumule were enhanced with the increase of temperature and record on maximum in special temperature and then reduced slowly. The quantitative information provided by this study can be used in prediction of emergence under diverse temperature conditions. Germination of cannabis seeds occurred in a wide range of temperatures and this seed are less sensitive to temperature compared to the other two plants. Germination of fennel seeds was less, except at 200C. The sesame seeds had good germination at 15-35 0C.


Khadijeh Badpa, Mohsen Movahhedi Dehnavi, Alireza Yadavi,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (2-2016)
Abstract

To evaluate the interaction of Cd and SA on seed germination of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. cv. Soffe), this experiment was carried out as a factorial based on CRD with four replications in 2012, in Yasouj University seed lab. Factors included of four levels of seed priming with SA (0, 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 mM) and eight levels of cadmium nitrate (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 mM). In all Cd treatments, SA 0.9 mM had maximum germination percentage (84% in 0 mM Cd) and rate (6.58 seed day-1 in 5 mM Cd), radical length (4.21 cm in 0 mM Cd) and stem (3.29 cm in 0 mM Cd), radical dry mater (2.25 mg in 0 mM Cd), shoot dry matter (0.94 mg in 0 mM Cd) and seed vigor index (6.30 in 0 mM Cd). Generally, seed priming with SA decreased the impact of Cd on seed germination and SA 0.9 mM was the best treatment.


Hossein Reza Badrooj, Aidin Hamidi, Amir Hossein Shirany Rad,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (2-2016)
Abstract

In order to study of drought stress and normal irrigation effect on seed germination and seedling vigor of 10 oilseed rape spring genotypes, RGS003, Sarigol, Option 500, RGS006, 19_H, ORS3150-3006, ORS3150-3008, RG4403, RG405/03 and RGAS0324, an experiment was conducted as factorial, based on a completely randomized design with four replications, in the seed analysis laboratory of Seed and Plant Certification and Registration Institution at Karaj during 2013. Results indicated that RG4403 genotype by 3.498 gr. and RGS006 genotype by 3.082 gr had the highest and lowest one thousand seeds weight respectively. Seeds of Sarigol, Option500 and RGS006 genotype, respectively, by normal irrigation and drought stress, had the most primary root, shoot and seedling length and seeds of ORS3150-3008 and RGAS0324 genotypes by normal irrigation respectively had the most primary root and seedling and primary shoot and seedling dry weight. Seeds of Sarigol and RGAS0324 genotypes by normal irrigation had the highest final germination percent. The highest mean germination time, the coefficient of the velocity of germination and mean daily germination, also respectively belonged to seeds of RGS003genotype by drought stress and19-H and RGAS0324 genotypes by normal irrigation. Besides, Sarigol and RGAS0324 had the most length and weight vigor indices. Generally, results showed that drought stress at flowering and maturity duration caused a decrease in seed quality of studied genotypes, but under what conditions, some genotypes like RGS006, 19-H and ORS3150-3006 seed had relatively optimum germination quality and seedling vigor traits.


Zeinab Alipoor, Sohrab Mahmodi,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (2-2016)
Abstract

In order to determinate the cardinal temperatures and investigate the effect of temperature on seed germination and seedling growth of Securigera securidaca, a study was conducted in a completely randomized design with 8 temperature treatments (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40oC) and four replications in research laboratory of faculty of agriculture at the Birjand University in 2013. A two-segmented linear regression model was fitted between germination rate and temperatures to determine cardinal temperatures for germination. Cardinal (minimum, optimum and maximum) temperatures of germination were determined as -1, 22.5 and 40.2oC respectively. Maximum rate and percentage of germination obtained in the range of 20-25oC. Maximum of radicle length and dry weight, maximum of caulicle length and dry weight and maximum of vigor seedling were obtained in 20oC,10-20oC and 5-30oC respectively. Maximum and minimum germination uniformity (GU) was obtained in 25 and 5oC. 


Hamid Sharifi, Morteza Goldani,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (2-2016)
Abstract

Seed coat color as a perfect and simple index is effective in water absorption, seed dormancy and germination. The mustard plant produces seeds with different coat color. So, in order to investigate the effect of seed coat color on germination rate, the percentage of germination and dormancy of Mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) seeds an experiment was carried out based on a completely randomized design with four replications. Treatments were included two types of seed coat color (brown and black) and dormancy breaking treatments (Control, Potassium nitrate 0.2%, GA3 250, GA3 500 ppm and one, two and three weeks prechilling). The results showed that the differences between germination indices traits in brown and black seeds were significant. So that, the germination rate and germination percent in black seed were greater than brown seeds, but the duration of dormancy in brown seeds was greater than black seed. One week prechilling treatment had the most effect on breaking dormancy. So that germination percentage and germination rate for black seed was 75% and 0.54 respectively and these amounts for brown seeds were 58% and 0/43 respectively. Potassium nitrate and GA3 (250 and 500 ppm) reduced germination rate and germination percent in both types of seeds. In addition, water absorption percent in brown seeds was more than black seeds. The final results showed that heteromorphic seeds of Mustard have variation in duration of dormancy, germination and water absorption percent.


Ali Ghatei, Ghasem Parmoon, Zahra Amin Deldar, Hadi Ghamary,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (2-2016)
Abstract

In order to evaluate the effect of hydropriming on seed germination of Vigna radiata under salinity stress, an experiment was arranged in a factorial based on a completely randomized design with three replications in the laboratory of the Agricultural College of the University of Ramin Khuzestan. Treatments were salinity stress at 4 levels (0, 3, 6 and 9 Mmhos) and hydro priming at 3 levels (1, 1.5 and 3 h) and two sizes of seed (small and large seeds) that was carried out by NaCl. Results showed that all of the germination characteristics decreased with increased salinity, but this decrement for seeds that primed at a long time, was less. Also at all characteristics, small seeds, showed better reactions than large seeds. Generally, hydropriming was improved germination characteristics of Vigna radiata under saline conditions. According to this experiment, hydropriming improved germination and establishment.


Mina Arast, Ali Tavili, Saied Shojaei,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (2-2016)
Abstract

A vast area of Iran is covered by sand dunes. Biological control is an appropriate method for sand dune fixation. So, it is essential to recognize characteristics of psammophyte plant species and introducing suitable species for sand dunes. Ammodendron persicum is one of the important and compatible species in desert ecosystems. The current research was carried out to investigate the effect of different treatments on seed dormancy breaking and germination stimulation of Ammodendron persicum in order to determine the most effective treatment in enhancing of germination and primary growth of seedlings. The experiment was done in a completely Randomized Design. Our experimental design was included10 random attendance namely: soaking of Ammodendron persicum seeds in gibberellic acid (300ppm) for 48 hr, seed scratching scarification with acid in two interval times of 20&30 min, incorporation of later with sand paper scratching scarification, seed scratching with gibberellic acid (300ppm) and time period of 48hr Ammodendron persicum seed sand papering combined with gibberellic acid soaking, wetting Ammodendron persicum seeds with high temperature water (80°C) for 5&10 min then scratching them by sand paper and also using distillated water as control treatment evidence. Experimental results showed, 30 minutes sulfuric acid soaking combined with sand papering can increase germination to 90% of the laboratory. In addition, seed scratching with gibberellic acid (300ppm) and time period of 48hr Ammodendron persicum seed sand papering combined, wetting Ammodendron persicum seeds with high-temperature water (80°C) for 5&10 min, the percentage of germination, respectively, 45/15, 45/8, 17/10 and 68/28 respectively. Moreover, 30min high-density sulfuric acid caring improves Ammodendron persicum, seed vigor, the power of greenhouse and lab samples to 450 and 510 respectively. Finally, authors reported scratching and acid soaking combination as an efficient, caring method in this research.



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