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Showing 8 results for Proline

Shayeste Bemany, Batool Mahdavi, Benyamin Torabi,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (9-2015)

In order to study the effect of alkaline stress on seed germination and seedling biochemical characteristics of two safflower cultivars, a laboratory experiment was conducted based on a completely randomized design with three replications in the Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan. Experimental factors included the levels of alkaline with sodium bicarbonate (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 mM) and two cultivars of safflower (Soffeh and 411). The result showed that alkaline stress had significant effects on seed germination characteristics. Increasing alkaline stress reduced percentage and rate of germination, length and dry weights of shoots and roots, K+ concentration and K+/Na+. However, alkaline increased malondialdehyde content, proline, total carbohydrate and Na+ concentration. In alkaline stress condition, there was a significant difference between cultivars in length of shoots and roots, proline content and K+ concentration. 411 cultivar showed notable superiority compared to Soffeh cultivar. Both cultivars had the highest malondialdehyde at 60 mM alkalinity and the lowest malondialdehyde obtained in Soffeh cultivar and control. The result of this research showed that 411 cultivar was better than Soffeh cultivar in proline and soluble sugar content, but these two cultivars had no significant differences in other traits.

Sayyed Ali Tabatabaei, Omid Ansari,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (8-2016)

The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of salicylic acid and gibberellic acid on germination characteristics and changes of proline, protein and catalase activity of Brassica napus seedlings under Cu(SO4) stress. The experimental design was factorial with complete randomized design as a base design with 3 replications. The first factor was 4 levels of Cu(SO4) stress (0, 10, 20 and 30 mg/l), and the second factor was 4 levels of priming with salicylic acid and gibberellic acid 50 mg/l, hydro prime and control (non-priming). Results showed that with increasing levels of Cu(SO4) stress, germination characteristics (germination percentage, germination rate, normal seedling percentage, seedling length and seed vigor index) reduced and using of salicylic acid, gibberellic acid and hydro prime increased germination characteristics. The highest germination percentage (94%), germination rate (30.75 seed per day), normal seedling percentage (86.17%) seedling length (10.53 cm) and seed vigor index (9.08) were attained from priming by salicylic acid 50 ppm under non-stress conditions. Cu(SO4) stress increased proline (35%) and catalase (37%) activity but reduced protein (65%) and priming increased proline, protein and catalase activity as compared to unprimed under stress and control conditions. In this study, using priming treatment salicylic acid had usually higher germination characteristics and catalase activity, total proteins and proline content in comparison with untreated or control seeds.

Vahid Mansouri Gandomany, Heshmat Omidi, Mohammad Rezaei Charmahin,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (2-2017)

In order to investigate the effect of pretreatment of chitosan biological compounds on seeds of soybean (Glycine max L. cv. Williams) under salt stress conditions, a factorial experiment was conducted, adopting a completely randomized design with three replications at Shahed University in 2015. Factors examined included the combination of chitosan at three levels (0, 0.25 and 0.5 the weight-volume) and salinity at 4 levels (0, 5, 5.7 and 10 dS/m). The results showed that the interaction of chitosan and salinity had a significant impact on seed germination characteristics such as germination percentage, germination rate, mean germination time, normal seedling and physiological characteristics such as proline and soluble sugars of shoots. In contrast to salt stress increase of 30%, and an increase of 24 and 35% of proline and soluble sugars of the shoot, pretreatment of chitosan (0.25%) improves seedling germination characteristics of soybeans. Given the impact of the treatments of chitosan on seed germination and seedling growth of soybean, it is possible to introduce 0.25% W/V chitosan as a treatment to deal with conditions of salinity.

Seyed Ali Tabatabaei, Omid Ansari,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (3-2019)

Extended abstract
Introduction: Heavy metal pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems. These metals which accumulate in food chain bring about a lot of hazards to both humans and animals. Among heavy metals, lead is considered to be the most dangerous heavy metal in the environment. It contaminates the environment through the lead-acid battery industry, paint and gasoline additives, insecticides, chemical fertilizers, car exhaust pipes and soldering. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Pb(NO3)2 on germination characteristics and biochemical changes of two wheat cultivars (Chamran and Kohdasht cultivars).
Materials and Methods: The objective of this research was to evaluate germination and biochemical changes of two wheat cultivars under Pb(NO3)2 stress, using three-parameter sigmoid model. The experimental design adopted was factorial with a completely randomized design, as the base design, with 3 replications. The first factor was 2 wheat cultivars (Kohdasht and Chamran), and the second factor was 6 levels of Pb(NO3)2 (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1 and 1.5 mg.L).
Results: The results showed that with increases in levels of Pb(NO3)2 stress, germination percentage, germination rate, normal seedling percentage, seedling length, seedling weight and seed vigor index reduced for both wheat cultivars. The results of fitting three-parameter sigmoidal to characteristics indicated that the highest characteristics and X50 were obtained from the Chamran cultivar. The highest germination percentage (96%), germination rate (23 seeds per day), normal seedling percentage (93.33%), seedling length (13.07 cm), seedling weight (0.07) and seedling vigor index (12.18) were obtained from the Chamran cultivar under non-stress conditions. Pb(NO3)2 stress increased proline and catalase activity but reduced protein, proline and protein for the Chamran cultivar, as compared with the Kohdasht cultivar.
Conclusion: Generally speaking, the results showed that Pb(NO3)2 had a significant effect on germination characteristics and catalase, proline and protein of wheat. Finally, it could be said that in copper-accumulated areas, choosing proper cultivars can slightly mitigate the damages caused by copper. The Chamran cultivar seems to be a better candidate for these conditions.

  1. Evaluation of the effect of Pb(NO3)2 stress on germination characteristics of wheat.
  2. Using three-parameter sigmoid model for the evaluation of biochemical changes and germination of wheat under Pb(NO3)2 stress.

Yaser Alizadeh, Ehsan Zeidali, Hamid Hassaneian Khoshro,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (3-2019)

Extended abstract
Introduction: Crop rotations are practiced to eliminate the effect of monoculture, but the succeeding crop may be influenced by the phytotoxins released by the preceding crop. Among plants, Brassica species contain allelochemical compounds as glucosinolate that is, under special conditions, released to environment and affects seed germination and plant growth. Wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) as a weed of 30 crops in 52 countries which has a series of allelopathic effects that prevent germination of other plants. Products of glucosinolate- like ionic thiocyanate (SCN-) inhibited the root or shoot growth of many crop species. Also volatile compounds like isoprenoid and benzenoid released from Brassica tissue degradation may suppress many crops growth. It was also found in many studies that allelochemicals, which inhibited the growth of some species at certain concentrations, might stimulate the growth of same or different species at lower concentrations. The present research was conducted to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract concentration of various mustard parts on barley seed germination and seedling growth.
Materials and Methods: In order to evaluate the allelopathic effect of mustard in agro ecosystems, a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications was carried out in botany laboratory of agriculture faculty, Illam University in 2014. Experimental treatments included five concentrations of mustards foliage and root aqueous extract (0, 10, 30, 50, and 70 percent) that were studied at germination and early growth stage of barley (cv. Abidar) in two separate experiments. In the seed germination section, the effects of aqueous extract of mustard on germination rate and germination percentage of barley seed were measured. In the study of the effect of aqueous extract of mustard on barley seedlings, weight and length of root and shoot, leaf chlorophyll content, proline and soluble sugars content were measured.
Results: Results showed that the highest amount of barley seed germination percentage and germination rate (100 and 19.5, respectively) were observed in control and the lowest amount (40 and 9.5, respectively) belonged to mustard root aqueous treatment with 70 percent concentration. The most decrease in barley seedlings length and weight were observed at the highest concentration of aqueous extract. The amount of chlorophyll a decreased from 2.39 in control to 1.66 mg per fresh weight in 70 percent concentration of aqueous extract treatment. The highest amount of proline (66.8 μM per fresh weight) in barley foliage was observed in 70 percent aqueous extract treatment. The results from this study showed that mustard allelopathic effect may be a possible mechanism controlling the barley germination and early growth stage in agro ecosystems.
Conclusion: Generally, we were able to demonstrate short term auto toxicity and possible short-term allelopathy due to mustard has harmful effects on barley including reduced seed germination and emergence of barley seedling. Depending on the concentrations of Mustard extract, allelopathic activity will vary Mustard. Further investigations are also needed to determine the influence of cultivar variations, and to identify the active compounds involved in mustard auto toxicity and Allelopathy.
1-Mustards aqueous extract reduced seed germination percentage and plant growth in barley.
2-Mustards aqueous extract increased proline and soluble sugars in barley, but it reduced amount of chlorophyll in this plant.

Hasan Teimori, Hamidreza Balouchi, Ali Moradi, Elias Soltani,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (3-2019)

Extended abstract
Introduction: Seed germination is one of the first important and complex stages in the plant life cycle and is affected by many hereditary and environmental factors. Various factors affect germination and seedling establishment. Among these factors are the characteristics of the maternal plant (nutrition, genetics), seed treatment stage at harvest time, as well as environmental factors (temperature, water potential, and ventilation and soil compaction). Also, under the influence of seed loss during storage, seed vigor, which is known as the first component of seed quality, decrease. The aim of this study was investigation of germination and biochemichal responses of the aged seed of Fenugreek to different temperature and humidity ranges.
Materials and Methods: This experiment was conducted as a factorial based on a completely randomized design with four replications in the Laboratory of Seed Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Yasouj University in 2016. The experimental treatments consisted of nine levels of temperature (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 degrees Celsius), water potential included seven levels (zero (control), -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, -0.8, -1 and -1.2 MPa) and seed aging at two levels (no aged (control) and aged seed).
Results: In this experiment, the effect of seed aging, water potential and their interactions on each environment on germination indices (germination percentage and germination rate, length and weight vigor index) and biochemical indices (soluble sugar, proline, soluble protein and catalase enzymes) of Fenugreek seeds were significant. The results showed that in the aged seed the germination percentage and rate and seedling vigor index tended to decrease with water potential reduce in temperature lower and higher than 20 degrees Celsius, and the amount of biochemical components of the seed (soluble sugar, soluble protein, proline, and catalase enzyme) also increase.
Conclusion: In general, germination and biochemical indices of seed of Fenugreek are sensitive to water potentials, aging, and seed germination temperatures, respectively. In terms of osmotic potential decrese, the germination temperature of less than 20 ° C resulted in increased germination resistance of fenugreek seed to a more negative water potential.
  1. Study of germination and biochemical properties of fenugreek seed aged under different level of osmotic potantials and temperatures.
  2. In areas with a lower osmotic potential it is better to cultivate Fenugreek seed at temperatures below 20 °C.

Roya Behboud, Ali Moradi, Hooshang Farajee,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (9-2020)

Extended Abstract
Introduction: Sweet corn (Zea mays var. saccharata) is a corn variety that is distinguished from other varieties due to the presence of genes that affect starch production in the endosperm. Given that the most of plants including sweet corn face with problems such as non- uniform germination and poor seed emergence in the early stages of germination. Thus, the use of organic stimulants is one of the ways to reduce the harmful effects of non-biological stresses, increase seed germination, uniform appearance and increase their yield and quality. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of different concentrations of chitosan on seed germination and some biochemical traits of sweet corn under osmotic potential conditions.
 Materials and Methods: To investigate the effect of chitosan and osmotic stress on germination and biochemical parameters of sweet corn, a factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications at the Seed Technology Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Yasouj University in 2017. The first factor was osmotic stress at 0, -3, -6, and -9 bar osmotic potentials and the second factor was pre-treatment at five levels of chitosan zero, 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75% and 1% and one level of distilled water. The seeds were immersed in the desired solutions of chitosan for 3 hours at 25 °C and under dark conditions, and then the pre-treated seeds were germinated under standard germination condition. In each petri dish, 25 seeds were placed on a filter paper and osmotic potential was applied using polyethylene glycol 6000. Seed germination was carried out in the germinator at 25 ± 1 ° C for 7 days under dark conditions. The germination traits and biochemical traits were measured according to standard methods.
Results: Osmotic stress reduced germination percentage and germination rate, seedling vigour length index, germination uniformity coefficient, allometric coefficient, and soluble protein content and also increased the mean germination time, proline, soluble sugar content and hydrogen peroxide. Pre-treatment of seeds with a concentration of 0.5% chitosan increased protein, proline, and soluble sugars content at all osmotic stress levels. At the osmotic stress levels, the highest and lowest levels of hydrogen peroxide respectively were observed in 0.5% chitosan treatment and distilled water treatment. The results showed that pre-treatment with 0.5% chitosan increased germination percentage and rate and seedling vigour length index, and also reduced the mean germination time and malondialdehyde. Pre-treatment of seed with zero and 1% chitosan led to reduction in some of the germination and biochemical traits in comparison with 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75% chitosan.
Conclusions: The results showed that seed treatment with 0.5% chitosan could reduce the harmful effects of osmotic potential on some germination and biochemical traits in sweet corn seedlings and improve seedling growth.
1-Chitosan increases the germination percentage and germination rate.
2-Chitosan increases soluble sugars, proline, and soluble protein.
3-Chitosan reduces the amount of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide.

Seyyed Esmaeil Mousavi, Heshmat Omidi, Ayatollah Saeedizadeh, Mehdi Aghighishahverdi,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (3-2021)

Extended Abstract
Introduction: Salinity is one of the most harmful factors in the arid and semi-arid regions in the world that influences crop production. Micro-organisms can play an important role in adaptation strategies of plants to stress and by producing of plant growth promotion hormones such as cytokinin, gibberellic acid, auxin, amino acids, and vitamins of B groups help to more growth of the plant and have an important role in increasing of tolerant in plants in unsuitable environments.
Material and Methods: This experiment was established as factorial in a completely randomized design with three replicates at Shahed University of Tehran. The treatments included salinity in four levels (0, 40, 80, and 120 mM NaCl) and biological pre-treatment at eight levels (control: non-inoculation), inoculation with Trichoderma harzianum fungus strain BI, with inoculation with azotobacter bio-fertilizer, inoculation with phosphate bio-fertilizer, inoculation with both bio-fertilizer, a combination of fungus and azotobacter bio-fertilizer, a combination of fungus and phosphate bio-fertilizer, inoculation with fungus and both bio-fertilizer). In this experiment, germination indices, photosynthetic pigments, proline, sodium, and potassium amount, starch, carbohydrate, electrical conductivity, and soluble protein were studied.
Results: The result showed that the interaction effect of biological pre-treatment and salinity was significant on all indices except chlorophyll b and anthocyanin. Treatment of phosphate bio-fertilizer had maximum positive effect on germination percent with increasing salinity. In the co-application of fungus and azotobacter bio-fertilizer treatment, the amounts of chlorophyll a, b, and total chlorophyll in different levels of salinity were more than the other treatments and were incremental with further increasing of salinity level. The highest amount of potassium (4.10 mg/g FW) obtained in the co-application of a fungus with azotobacter bio-fertilizer under 40 mM of salinity and showed 22.02 percent increase in comparison to control. With rising salinity, fungus treatments were the most effective in preventing more increasing sodium amount and azotobacter bio-fertilizer in preventing more reducing potassium. The number of soluble proteins was the highest amount (13.09 mg/g FW) in the co-application of fungus and both bio-fertilizer and showed 38% increase compared to control at the same level of salinity.
Conclusion: The uses of microorganisms reduced the negative effect of salinity and led to the increase of potassium in shoots. Also, utilization of microorganism led to lower electrical conductivity at the highest salinity level compared to control and thus, positively affected germination.

1- The effect of bio- primed bacteria and fungus on physiological traits of Pumpkin was investigated seedlings under salinity.
2- Threshold of tolerance of pumpkin seedlings to salinity was improved by increasing K content and reducing Na under bio- primed treatments.
3- Osmolite components of pumpkin seedlings increased under bio- primed treatments.

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