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Showing 32 results for Germination Percentage

Asad Masoumi Asl, Rreza Amiri Fahliani, Hamidreza Balouchi,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (5-2014)
Abstract

Salinity is one of the most extensive environmental stresses and is a limiting factor for the growth and development of crops, such as rice. Then, an experiment based upon completely randomized design with four low levels (0, 7.5, 15, 22.5) and four high of salinity (75, 150, 225 and 300 mM) with control as the first factor and nine cultivars of rice (dollars, Hasan Saraii, Mousa Tarom, Kamfiruz, Lenjan Askari, Gharib, Domsiah Mamassani, 304, Champa Yasouj) as the second factor with three replications was conducted in 2012 in the Yasouj University. Results showed that Hasan Saraii had salinity tolerance with the most germination percentage, germination rate and shoot length at high salinity levels (more than 75 mM), and Domsiah Mamassani with the minimum of that traits had not any salinity tolerance. But in the low salinity (less than 22.5 mM), Hasan Saraii, Lenjan and Mousa Tarom had the highest percentage of germination. The maximum germination rate was due to Mousa Tarom and the maximum shoot length observed in Gharib variety. So it seems, if we would only consider the germination percentage, Hasan Saraii is the best variety and if the maximum germination percentage and rate are considered, the variety that would be considered is Mousa Tarom. Therefore, high salinity we should not just rely on the germination but the germination rate should also be noted and in lower salinity due to different cultivars germination percentage, germination rate and dry weight of root should be paid much more attention.

Kazem Badeleh, Mehdi Aghighi Shahverdi, Haeshmat Omidi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (1-2015)
Abstract

To evaluate the effect of priming on seed germination of Cucurbita pepo in drought stress conditions, a factorial experiment was conducted as completely randomized design with three replications. Treatments included drought stress at five levels of osmotic potential (zero, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 MP), priming at levels of GA3 (250 ppm to 24 hours), KNO3 (0.2% for 24 hours) Hydro prime (H2O) (to 24 hours) and control. The results showed that priming effect was significant on germination percentage, germination rate, mean daily germination, the average time required for germination and germination rate index. A significant difference was found between drought stress on seed germination rate. In addition, the interaction of seed priming and drought stress was significant on all traits (germination percentage, germination rate, average daily germination, the average time required for germination, germination rate daily, the coefficient of germination rate and the seed vigor). Seed priming, particularly in severe drought stress levels, led to significant increase in mean germination percentage, germination rate and seed vigor. Furthermore, the results of our study indicated that Cucurbita pepo seed priming had partial resistance to drought. Gibberellin acid in the first grade and the hydro priming in second grade can improve the germination and growth of the seedlings under drought stress.

Hassan Habibi, Mehdi Agihghi Shahverdi, Zahra Nasiri, Mohammadreza Chaichi, Mohammad Hossein Fotokian,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (1-2015)
Abstract

The effect of seed rate of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and efficiency of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPR) that facilitates phosphorus uptake with different doses of phosphate fertilizer was evaluated on seed quality. For this purpose, the germination and seed vigor tests before and after accelerated aging were performed in a split split plot experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications in 2010 in the field of education and research in the College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Tehran University, Karaj. Phosphorus factor at 4 levels (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg Phosphorus.ha-1) in main plots, PGPR (Pseudomonas) in three levels (no bacteria, bacterial strains, No. 9 and bacterial strains No. 41) in subplots and rate of seed factors on three levels (2, 6, and 10 kg of seed per hectare) were the sub-subplots. The results showed the highest rate of germination and seed vigor obtained by use of 6 kg seeds per hectare, PGPR No.41 strains with 30 kg Phosphorus per hectare and after accelerated aging. The highest rate of germination and seed vigor at 10 kg of seed per hectare were found for PGPR No.41 strains, with 60 kg Phosphorus ha-1 treatments. After accelerated aging practices to achieve maximum germination index and vigor, seed rates and phosphorus requirement were more than standard conditions. Based on obtained results for the storage conditions, bacterial strains No. 41 had a better effect on increasing seed vigor than bacterial strains No. 9. To produce alfalfa seed with high vigor and obtain better results, use of optimum seed rates and phosphorus (6 and 30 kg.ha-1, respectively) along with PGPR (strain No. 41) could be considered in crop plants.


Sayyed Jalil Mirmahmood, Mohammad Javad Ahmadi-Lahijani, Yahya Emam,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (1-2015)
Abstract

Osmotic stress is the most important of the abiotic stresses that lead to limitation of growth and yield in rapeseed. This study was conducted to examine the effect of cycocel seed priming on osmotic stress tolerance in germination and early growth stages of rapeseed, as a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design at Agriculture College of Shiraz University in 2012. The treatments included seed priming in three cycocel concentrations: 0 (without priming as control), 2.5 and 3.5 g L-1 and osmotic stress in five levels: 0 (as control), -0.3, -0.6, -0.9 and -1.2 MPa using polyethylene glycol. The results showed that osmotic stress was significantly reduced germination percentage (15.1%), germination rate (15.3%), radicle length (29.5%), plumule length (31.6%), radicle fresh weight (22.4%), plumule fresh weight (37.6%) and vigor index (39.9%). Furthermore, osmotic stress leads to increase radicle to plumule fresh weight and radicle to plumule length ratio as 6.8 and 24.3 percent, respectively. Seed priming with cycocel reduced the adverse effects of osmotic stress on measured parameters. Although, there was no positive effect on germination percentage and rate under osmotic and nonosmotic conditions for cycocel in both concentrations, but cycocel at 3.5 g L-1 appeared to have a greater positive effect than 2.5 g L-1. Considering positive impact of cycocel seed priming on the reduction adverse effects of osmotic stress further research on cycocel seed priming and osmotic stress tolerance is recommended under field conditions.


Zeinab Alipoor, Sohrab Mahmodi,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (9-2015)
Abstract

Due to the importance of medicinal plants, understanding the seed germination response to temperature is agronomically important. A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effect of different temperatures on seed germination of fennel, cannabis and sesame in a completely randomized design with four replications. Various constant temperatures (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40°C) were considered. According to the results, the effect of temperature on germination rate and percentage in all species was significant. The seeds of fennel were not germinated in 5, 35 and 40 0C and seeds of sesame germinated only in 5 0C. The maximum rate of germination obtained in 30 °C for fennel and 25 °C for sesame and cannabis. The highest germination percentage of fennel and cannabis and sesame were in 20, 25 and 30 0C respectively. The lowest of germination uniformity (GU) were observed in 20 0C for fennel and in 15 0C for cannabis and sesame. Amount of seedling vigor maximized for fennel and cannabis in 250C and for sesame in the 300C. The values of length and weight of radical and plumule were enhanced with the increase of temperature and record on maximum in special temperature and then reduced slowly. The quantitative information provided by this study can be used in prediction of emergence under diverse temperature conditions. Germination of cannabis seeds occurred in a wide range of temperatures and this seed are less sensitive to temperature compared to the other two plants. Germination of fennel seeds was less, except at 200C. The sesame seeds had good germination at 15-35 0C.


Khadijeh Badpa, Mohsen Movahhedi Dehnavi, Alireza Yadavi,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (2-2016)
Abstract

To evaluate the interaction of Cd and SA on seed germination of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. cv. Soffe), this experiment was carried out as a factorial based on CRD with four replications in 2012, in Yasouj University seed lab. Factors included of four levels of seed priming with SA (0, 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 mM) and eight levels of cadmium nitrate (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 mM). In all Cd treatments, SA 0.9 mM had maximum germination percentage (84% in 0 mM Cd) and rate (6.58 seed day-1 in 5 mM Cd), radical length (4.21 cm in 0 mM Cd) and stem (3.29 cm in 0 mM Cd), radical dry mater (2.25 mg in 0 mM Cd), shoot dry matter (0.94 mg in 0 mM Cd) and seed vigor index (6.30 in 0 mM Cd). Generally, seed priming with SA decreased the impact of Cd on seed germination and SA 0.9 mM was the best treatment.


Zeinab Alipoor, Sohrab Mahmodi,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (2-2016)
Abstract

In order to determinate the cardinal temperatures and investigate the effect of temperature on seed germination and seedling growth of Securigera securidaca, a study was conducted in a completely randomized design with 8 temperature treatments (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40oC) and four replications in research laboratory of faculty of agriculture at the Birjand University in 2013. A two-segmented linear regression model was fitted between germination rate and temperatures to determine cardinal temperatures for germination. Cardinal (minimum, optimum and maximum) temperatures of germination were determined as -1, 22.5 and 40.2oC respectively. Maximum rate and percentage of germination obtained in the range of 20-25oC. Maximum of radicle length and dry weight, maximum of caulicle length and dry weight and maximum of vigor seedling were obtained in 20oC,10-20oC and 5-30oC respectively. Maximum and minimum germination uniformity (GU) was obtained in 25 and 5oC. 


Shahram Nazari, Mohammad Ali Aboutalbian, Farid Golzardi,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (8-2016)
Abstract

Seed priming is a method which is a quite effective method for improving germination and seedling establishment. Two separate experiments were performed to determine the best hydro and osmopriming treatments effects on canola‘s seed germination. The experiments were performed in seed technology laboratory of Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran, 2014. The first experiment contained three canola varieties seeds hydropriming (Okapi, Zarfam and Talayeh) using tap water over time interval 0. 2, 6, 10, 14, 18, 20 and 24 hours. The second experiment included, tree canola cultivars in accompany with six concentrations of ZnS04 (0, 0.035, 0.1, 0.4, 1 and 4 gr.Lit-1) over priming time interval of 0, 6, 10 14 and 18 hours. Both experiments were conducted as a factorial experiment in the context of completely randomized design (CRD) with four replications. The results revealed that the maximum germination percentage across all cultivars e.g. Okapi (99%), Zarfam (95%) and Talayeh (80%) is achieved at 10 hours hydropriming interval. Also concerning to germination rate, the best performance was observed for Talayeh cultivar at 10 hydropriming hour’s interval. The most vigor longitudinal and vigor weighted indices (1050.55 and 4.56) were observed in the Okapi cultivar in the fourth hydropriming level. The interaction between the cultivars, the concentration of ZnS04 and osmopriming time was significant for all characters except for shoot dry weight and vigor weighted Index. The three-way interaction showed that the highest shoots dry weight (0.11, 0.057 and 0.055) and also vigor weighted index observed in Okapi, Zarfam and Talayeh cultivar in 0.035 concentration of ZnS04 (gr.lit-1) at the time was 10 hours, respectively. The results of this study showed that hydropriming and ZnS04 might improve the performance of rapeseed Cultivars seed.


Almas Nemati, Hamid Sharifi, Mohammad Gerdakaneh, Zeynab Sharifi,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (8-2016)
Abstract

The seeds of two species (Citrulus colocynthis) and (Silybum mrianum) gathered from natural habitat located in the Koohdasht city (Lorestan province) and transferred to Kermanshah Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center in the summer of 2014. For each species, separate experiments in a completely randomized design with 14 treatments and 4 replications were done. Treatments included moist-chilling time (control, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 70 and 90 days at 4 °C), gibberellic acid concentration (200, 400, 600 and 800 PPM) and integrated treatment of gibberellic acid 400 ppm with moist-chilling for 30 days and 70 days. The results showed that for both species increasing of moist-chilling duration and concentration of gibberellic acid significantly increased germination percentage, germination rate and seed vigor index. The best breaking seed dormancy treatment was moist-chilling of 90 days for seeds of (Citruluus colocynthis) and gibberellic acid 800 ppm for (Silybum mrianum). The result showed that seeds of two species had the combination of physiological (related to seed inside inhibitors) and physical dormancy (related to hard coat).


Shahram Nazari, Reza Deihimfard, Javad Faraji,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (2-2017)
Abstract

Gaining insights into the germination and emergence patterns of weeds as well as the factors which have an impact on these patterns is beneficial for weeds management programs. In order to investigate the effect of temperature, waterlogging and salinity on germination and emergence of common lambsquarters, three separate experiments were conducted, adopting a completely randomized design with four replications. The results of the temperature experiment showed that the highest germination percentages, which were 87, 93 and 88%, were obtained in the temperature range of 15, 20 and 25°C, respectively. Maximum values of germination rate, radicle length, plumule length, and seedling dry weight were obtained at 20°C. In addition, optimum seed vigor index of 796.29 was observed at 20°C. The results of the Regression Model showed that germination percentage decreased with an increase in waterlogging duration and halted after 8 and 10 days of consecutive waterlogging. Mean comparisons revealed that radicle and plumule length, seedling dry weight and vigor index decreased significantly by increasing the period of waterlogging. Salinity adversely affected germination percentage, germination rate and seedling dry weight of common lambsquarters. These factors were at their highest amounts in the control and 50 mM NaCl treatments. A downward trend was observed in these factors as NaCl concentrations increased and finally the germination process stopped in concentrations ranging from 300 to 400 mM NaCl. Radicle and plumule length also decreased from 10.51 and 9.23 cm in the control treatment to 3.57 and 2.47 cm at 250 mM NaCl. Overall, the results revealed that the maximum seed vigor index of 851.84 was obtained in the control treatment and seed vigor halted when the salinity level increased to more than 250 mM NaCl. Finally, the results showed that optimum temperature for germination of common lamsquarters was 20 °C and the existence of salinity and waterlogging stress can decrease growth indices of this weed at germination and seedling stages.


Samira Parsaei, Mohsen Movahhedi Dehnavi, Hamidreza Balouchi,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (9-2017)
Abstract

Micronutrients play a great role in the production of high quality seeds, especially in terms of germination. Therefore, providing seeds with sufficient amounts of these is an important consideration in seed production. The present study was conducted as two separate experiments in the Seed Laboratory of Yasouj University in 2015. In the first experiment, the sesame seeds (cv. Darab 1) obtained from a previous split plot experiment based on RCBD, consisting of three irrigation levels (after 75, 110 and 145 mm evaporation from class A pan) and four foliar applications comprising water, zinc sulfate, boric acid and mixture of zinc sulfate and boric acid, were investigated in germination experiments in the minimum temperature (i.e., 15°C). The second experiment was a factorial based on RCD with three replications. The first factor in the eight levels included seeds soaked in water, ZnSo4, H3Bo3 and ZnSo4 + H3Bo3 and seeds with high contents of Zn (159 m Kg-1), B (15.3 m Kg-1) and Zn (139.5 m Kg-1)+ B (14 m Kg-1) and dry see as the control. The second factor was accelerated aging periods at three levels (0, 2 and 4 days) at 45°c and RH = 100%. The results showed that with a delay in irrigation time, compared with water foliar application, foliar application of micronutrients (Zn, B, Zn+B), and significantly increased germination traits. The results also suggested that, compared with seeds soaked in nutrients, seeds with high Zn and B contents significantly increased germination indices and antioxidant (catalase and peroxidase) activities, especially under accelerated seed aging.

Highlights:
  1.  The role of maternal sesame plant (cv. Darab 1) foliar application by zinc and boron elements in germination, vigour and storage capability of seeds was studied.
  2. The effect of seeds soaked in solutions enriched with zinc and boron elements on germination, vigour and storage capability of seeds was examined.

Zahra Ajribzadeh, Hamidreza Balouchi, Alireza Yadavi, Amin Salehi,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (9-2017)
Abstract

In order to evaluate the allelopathic effect of aqueous extract of nine weeds species on Anise (Pimpinella anisum) seed germination and seedling growth characteristics, an experiment was conducted in the Laboratory of Yasouj University in 2014. This experiment was carried out as factorial with the aqueous extracts of nine weeds species, as the first factor, in different concentrations (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g.l-1), as the second factor, in a completely randomized design with four replications. The results showed that interactions between different weed aqueous extracts and concentrations had a significant impact on the germination percentage and rate, root and shoot length and weight, and vigor of anise seeds at 1% probability. The most allelopathic effects on germination percentage and rate were observed in 10 g/l of the aqueous extract of Cowherb and Corn Buttercup, in 20 to 30 g/l of Corn Buttercup and Whitetop, and in 40 to 50 g.l-1 of Corn Buttercup, Whitetop, Wild lettuce and Cowherb, which completely stopped seed germination in Anise.

Highlights:
  1.  Allelopathic effects of 9 common weedy types on germination of Anise Seed were studied in Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad.
  2. The effect of different concentrations of aqueous extracts of weeds on germination characteristics of anise was studied.

Masume Hematifar, Ali Tehranifar, Hasan Akbari Bishe, Bahram Abedi,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (3-2018)
Abstract

Given the medicinal and ornamental properties of Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.), and given that there are some problems in its propagation, which is due to the hard cover of the seeds and immature embryo, working out techniques that can facilitate the process of seeds’ germination is of great import. Thus, the present study sought to identify the best method for the purpose of breaking the seed dormancy of 8 species of native hawthorn of Iran. The study was carried out as factorial with a completely randomized design and had three replications. The first, second and third factors were, respectively species of Hawthorn in eight levels, sulfuric acid in three levels (half and an hour versus non-treated (control) and chilling treatment in three levels (90, 105 and 120 days, respectively). The results showed that the highest percentage of germination (32%) and germination rate (9.1 day-1) were obtained under the interaction of sulfuric acid treatment for one hour, followed by a 120-day chilling period in C.turkestanica, which had a significant difference with other treatments. It is concluded that hawthorn seeds have deep endocarp and physiological dormancy. The interaction of Sulfuric acid treatment and moist chilling play an important role in increasing the percentage and speed of germination of Hawthorn seeds.

Highlights:

  1.  Achieving the best way to break the dormancy of Hawthorn seeds in different species and genotypes.
  2. Shortening the seeds’ germination time.

Jamal Kiani, Ali Abbasi Surki, Abdulrazagh Danesh Shahraki,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (9-2018)
Abstract

Extended abstract
Introduction: Drought stress is one of the major problems in sugar beet production in Iran, and is the most important limiting factor for germination and establishment of sugar beet in the early stages of growth. Seed priming with chemical, nutrient elements or pre-chilling techniques are the most effective methods to improve germination percentage and speed, leading to uniform and tolerant seedlings in adverse environmental conditions.
Material and Methods:  In order to assess the effect of cold stratification and HCl treatments on the germination of sugar beet seed, cv. Ekbatan, under drought stress conditions, a RCBD factorial experiment with three replications was conducted in Seed Science and Technology Lab of Shahrekord University.  The first factor was stratification in two levels; the second factor was  seven levels of pretreatments including 2, 4 and 6 hours’ soaking in water and 0.03 HCL accompanied with control, and the third factor was four drought levels (control, -2, -4, -6 bar).
Result: Compared with the control, seed germination percentage and germination rate increased by at least 5-fold, relative germination by 50% and root and shoot length by 10%, due to stratification and duration of exposure to HCl treatments. With no stratification, germination traits increased with increases in exposure time in acid, and the highest values were obtained for the seeds exposed to HCl 0.03 normal for 6 hours. Although under optimal conditions, the effect of HCl was compensated for by stratification, in drought conditions, the highest values ​​were observed in stratified seeds and those placed in acid.
Conclusions: Since successful establishment of sugar beet seedlings at drought stress conditions is critical to achieving optimum density and yield, application of stratification treatments for one week and seed exposure to HCl increased the seed performance under stress conditions. This trend continued to increase with drought stress intensity, and placement of seeds in acid doubled seed germination in -2 bar drought conditions, which continued by 4 times in -6 bar, compared with stratified control seeds. Compared to separate application of the treatments, application of stratification and HCl treatments had synergistic effects on sugar beet seed performance, especially under drought stress conditions.
 
 
Highlights:
  1. Cold stratification and hydrochloric acid treatments increase the efficiency of sugar beet seeds under drought stress conditions.
  2. Cold stratification and Hydrochloric acid treatment have a synergistic effect on sugar beet seeds.


Ebrahim Gholamalipour Alamdari, Behroz Seifolahi, Zeinab Avarseji, Abbass Biabavi,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (9-2018)
Abstract

Extended abstract
Introduction: Generally speaking, plants contain various organic compounds which could influence the behavior of plant communities. These compounds are basically secondary metabolites which are found in various parts of plants such as rhizomes, roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds. The objective of the present study was to investigate the hetrotoxicity potential of different organs of Euphorbia maculata weed on traits of germination, chlorophyll and carotenoids pigments of wheat cultivars.
Material and Methods:  In this experiment Euphorbia maculate weed was collected at full maturity stage from the Moghan region, located in Ardebil Province. Then various organs of Euphorbia maculate such as stems, leaves, and fruits were separated from each other. Another treatment namely, a mixture of different organs, was also made. This experiment was carried out as a factorial, adopting a completely randomized design with three replications in Weeds Science Laboratory of Gonbad–e- Kavous University in 2017. The first factor was wheat cultivar at two levels, consisting of Morvarid and Gonbad and organs in 5 levels (control, stem, leaf, fruit and their mixture, with equal amount of each) were the second factor. For the bioassay experiment, from each organ and their mixture, 5% suspension (w/v) was prepared, using distilled water. 10 ml of concentrated extract of each organ was applied on 50 sterilized seeds of cultivars of interest in a petri dish containing filter paper. After 7 days, traits such as rate and percentage of germination, radical length, shoot length, seed length vigor index, chlorophyll a, b and total content and carotenoids content were measured.
Results:  The results showed that unlike the Morvarid cultivar, germination rate and germination percentage of the Gonbad cultivar significantly decreased, using aqueous extract of various organs of Euphorbia maculata and their mixture. The results also showed that the inhibition effect of fruit and leaf organs on the rate and germination percentage of the Gonbad cultivar were higher than that of other organs and their mixture. According to the results, stem, leaf and fruit extracts had a higher toxic effect on the radical length, compared with the shoot length of the Gonbad cultivar. The results of mean comparison also showed that seed length vigor index of the Morvarid and Gonbad cultivars decreased, due to hetrotoxic compounds of all organs of Euphorbia maculate. In terms of this trait, the highest significant decrease was found in the Gonbad cultivar, which was about 84.13%, compared with the control. In this study, the decreases in the photosynthesis pigments of total chlorophyll and carotenoids in both cultivars with aqueous extract of stem, leaf and fruit organs of Euphorbia maculata were different. The highest decrease of pigments was found in the fruit organ of the Morvarid cultivar. However, aqueous extract of mixed organs had a significant decrease and increase on the content of these pigments in the Morvarid and the Gonbad cultivars, respectively, as compared with the control. This may be due to differences in the quantity and quality of some allelochemicals as well as different reactions of the cultivars.
Conclusions:  Given the evidence of the hetrotoxicity potential of various organs of Euphorbia maculata weed on traits of germination as well as the chlorophyll and carotenoids content of wheat cultivars, it is advisable to exploit huge biomass generated by these luxuriantly growing weeds as bio-compounds in sustainable agriculture.
 
 
Highlights:
1- Study of allelopathic effect of Euphorbia maculate on various wheat cultivars in farms of the Moghan plain.
2- Aqeous extract of Euphorbia maculate organs significantly reduces germination as well as seedling growth of the Gonbad cultivar.
Ali Mansouri, Heshmat Omidi,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (9-2018)
Abstract

Extended abstract
Introduction: Quinoa, with the scientific name (Chenopodium quinoa Willd), belongs to the Spencer family. Seeds vigor can be improved with a variety of seed priming methods. In this method, the seeds are soaked in water or various osmotic solutions and then dried to the original moisture. After priming treatment, seeds are stored and cultivated as untreated seeds. Potassium nitrate is the most frequently used chemical for the purpose of increasing seed germination and is recommended by the Society of Official Seed Specialists and the International Association of Seed Testing for germination experiments of many species. In recent years, the use of nanoscale materials has been of great interest to researchers. Chitin, one of the most abundant polysaccharides in nature, is a polymer chain of N-acetyl glucosamine and is associated with other proteins and other organic compounds, and numerous industrial, pharmaceutical and agricultural applications have been reported for it. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of chitosan nanoparticles and potassium nitrate on some morphological characteristics, germination characteristics, chlorophyll content and relative humidity of quinoa plant.
Materials and Methods: In order to investigate the effect of pretreatment of quinoa seeds with chitosan nanoparticles and potassium nitrate solution on the early stages of germination, a factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications in Seed Processing Laboratory, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran. Experimental treatments consisted of priming with chitosan nanoparticles in 4 levels (no primers, 0.01, 0.20 and 0.04% w / v) and potassium nitrate in 3 levels (no primers, 0.2 and 0.5% Weight percent) and hydroperime for 2 hours at 25° C. For each replicate of every treatment 100 seeds, using standard priming methods, were treated with the materials mentioned above and were dried in a petri dish on Watman paper No. 1 at 20 ± 1 ° C and relative humidity of 70% and 16 hours of daylight and 8 hours of darkness to make germination work. After that, germination percentage, root length, shoot length, germination coefficient, Allometric coefficient, relative water content, chlorophyll content a and b were measured, using standard methods.
Results: Seed treatment with 0.2% potassium nitrate solution increased germination by 9% and treatment with chitosan 0.01% increased germination by 14%, compared with the non-primer treatment. The priming treatment with a 0.5% solution of potassium nitrate and 0.01% chitosan increased germination by 36%, compared to the non-primer treatment. Potassium nitrate increased root length by 25% and shoot length by 10%. In addition, chitosan 0.01% increased the root length by 6%, and seeds with chitosan 0.02% and potassium nitrate 0.2% increased the root length by 32%. The effects of potassium nitrate, chitosan and their interaction on chlorophyll a and b were significant at 1% probability level. The highest levels of chlorophyll a were obtained in 0.02% chitosan and 0.2% potassium nitrate. This formulation increased the chlorophyll a content by 33%. The highest amount of chlorophyll b was obtained by applying 0.01% chitosan and 0.5% potassium nitrate.
Conclusion: The results of this study showed that treatment with 0.01% w/v chitosan and 0.5% w/v potassium nitrate resulted in the highest germination percentage, chlorophyll content a and b, relative water content, and stem length. Treatment with 0.02% chitosan and 0.2% potassium nitrate resulted in the highest allometric coefficient and root length.
 
 
Highlights:
  1. Chitosan nano particle and potassium nitrate increase quinoa germination.
  2. Chitosan nano particle and potassium nitrate increase the content of chlorophyll a and b.

Samaneh Hosseini, Mohammad Rafieolhossaini, Parto Roshandel,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (9-2018)
Abstract

Extended abstract
Introduction: Niger with the scientific name of Guizotia abyssinica (L.F.) Cass. belongs to the Asteraceae family. Niger seed contains 50-75 percentage of oil which is used in the treatment of rheumatism and burns, and as a substitute for olive oil. Its meal is also used for animal feeding. Environmental crises sustained by living systems are considered as stress. Drought stress is one of the non-biological stresses. Yield reduction due to this type of stress is reported to be higher than that related to other stresses. Since plant development starts from germination and for survival, the seeds should germinate to adapt themselves to the environmental conditions and establish themselves in the soil, the success of passing the germination stage will play an important role in other stages of plant establishment. Different studies have shown the positive effect of magnetic field on increasing germination characteristics. In this regard, applying a magnetic field before planting is a safe and inexpensive method for increasing germination and seedling growth. Seed priming is useful for a faster and more powerful response to drought stress and among different types of priming, physical priming is of particular importance for ecological reasons and for not having a negative impact on the environment.
Materials and Methods: In order to study the effect of seed physical pre-treatment and drought stress on seed germination characteristics of Niger, an experiment was conducted as factorial in a completely randomized design with three replications at the Research Laboratory of Seed Science and Technology at Shahrekord University. Different magnetic field intensities at five levels including (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mT (at 5 minutes period)) as the first factor and drought stress at five levels (0, -4, -5, -6 and -7 bar Polyethylene Glycol6000) as the second factor were considered.
Results: The results of variance analysis showed that the effect of drought stress, magnetic field intensity and their interaction were significant on all of the evaluated characteristics. The maximum germination percentage and rate and the minimum of T10 and T50 were observed in 50 mT field intensity under normal conditions. The minimum germination index under normal conditions and the maximum length and shoot dry weight under non-treatment conditions and the maximum root and shoot fresh weight in 200 mT field intensity under normal conditions were obtained. The maximum root length and dry weight were observed in 50 and 100 mT field intensity under normal conditions, respectively. 
Conclusions: Seeds which cross through a magnetic field, become swollen and probably as a result, the activity of auxin hormone in these seeds increases. In addition, the respiration level also increases in them and they have higher levels of energy and activity, which results in faster and more uniform germination and the creation of stress-resistant plants. In this study, although by increasing drought stress intensity, negative effects were observed on germination characteristics, the magnetic field under these conditions improved some germination characteristics. In general, for the purpose of improving germination and alleviating drought stress conditions, for 0, -5 and -7 bar potentials, the field intensity of 50 mT and for -4 and -6 bar potentials, the field intensity of 150 mT are recommended.
 
Highlights:
  1. The effect of magnetic field on germination of multipurpose seed of Niger plant.
  2. The effect of drought stress on germination of multipurpose seed of Niger plant, given Iran’s being located in dry belt.
  3. The positive effect of magnetic field on germination of Niger seed to improve the negative effects of drought stress.

Yaser Alizadeh, Ehsan Zeidali, Hamid Hassaneian Khoshro,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (3-2019)
Abstract



Extended abstract
Introduction: Crop rotations are practiced to eliminate the effect of monoculture, but the succeeding crop may be influenced by the phytotoxins released by the preceding crop. Among plants, Brassica species contain allelochemical compounds as glucosinolate that is, under special conditions, released to environment and affects seed germination and plant growth. Wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) as a weed of 30 crops in 52 countries which has a series of allelopathic effects that prevent germination of other plants. Products of glucosinolate- like ionic thiocyanate (SCN-) inhibited the root or shoot growth of many crop species. Also volatile compounds like isoprenoid and benzenoid released from Brassica tissue degradation may suppress many crops growth. It was also found in many studies that allelochemicals, which inhibited the growth of some species at certain concentrations, might stimulate the growth of same or different species at lower concentrations. The present research was conducted to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract concentration of various mustard parts on barley seed germination and seedling growth.
Materials and Methods: In order to evaluate the allelopathic effect of mustard in agro ecosystems, a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications was carried out in botany laboratory of agriculture faculty, Illam University in 2014. Experimental treatments included five concentrations of mustards foliage and root aqueous extract (0, 10, 30, 50, and 70 percent) that were studied at germination and early growth stage of barley (cv. Abidar) in two separate experiments. In the seed germination section, the effects of aqueous extract of mustard on germination rate and germination percentage of barley seed were measured. In the study of the effect of aqueous extract of mustard on barley seedlings, weight and length of root and shoot, leaf chlorophyll content, proline and soluble sugars content were measured.
Results: Results showed that the highest amount of barley seed germination percentage and germination rate (100 and 19.5, respectively) were observed in control and the lowest amount (40 and 9.5, respectively) belonged to mustard root aqueous treatment with 70 percent concentration. The most decrease in barley seedlings length and weight were observed at the highest concentration of aqueous extract. The amount of chlorophyll a decreased from 2.39 in control to 1.66 mg per fresh weight in 70 percent concentration of aqueous extract treatment. The highest amount of proline (66.8 μM per fresh weight) in barley foliage was observed in 70 percent aqueous extract treatment. The results from this study showed that mustard allelopathic effect may be a possible mechanism controlling the barley germination and early growth stage in agro ecosystems.
Conclusion: Generally, we were able to demonstrate short term auto toxicity and possible short-term allelopathy due to mustard has harmful effects on barley including reduced seed germination and emergence of barley seedling. Depending on the concentrations of Mustard extract, allelopathic activity will vary Mustard. Further investigations are also needed to determine the influence of cultivar variations, and to identify the active compounds involved in mustard auto toxicity and Allelopathy.
  
Highlights:
1-Mustards aqueous extract reduced seed germination percentage and plant growth in barley.
2-Mustards aqueous extract increased proline and soluble sugars in barley, but it reduced amount of chlorophyll in this plant.


Hasan Teimori, Hamidreza Balouchi, Ali Moradi, Elias Soltani,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (3-2019)
Abstract



Extended abstract
Introduction: Seed germination is one of the first important and complex stages in the plant life cycle and is affected by many hereditary and environmental factors. Various factors affect germination and seedling establishment. Among these factors are the characteristics of the maternal plant (nutrition, genetics), seed treatment stage at harvest time, as well as environmental factors (temperature, water potential, and ventilation and soil compaction). Also, under the influence of seed loss during storage, seed vigor, which is known as the first component of seed quality, decrease. The aim of this study was investigation of germination and biochemichal responses of the aged seed of Fenugreek to different temperature and humidity ranges.
Materials and Methods: This experiment was conducted as a factorial based on a completely randomized design with four replications in the Laboratory of Seed Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Yasouj University in 2016. The experimental treatments consisted of nine levels of temperature (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 degrees Celsius), water potential included seven levels (zero (control), -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, -0.8, -1 and -1.2 MPa) and seed aging at two levels (no aged (control) and aged seed).
Results: In this experiment, the effect of seed aging, water potential and their interactions on each environment on germination indices (germination percentage and germination rate, length and weight vigor index) and biochemical indices (soluble sugar, proline, soluble protein and catalase enzymes) of Fenugreek seeds were significant. The results showed that in the aged seed the germination percentage and rate and seedling vigor index tended to decrease with water potential reduce in temperature lower and higher than 20 degrees Celsius, and the amount of biochemical components of the seed (soluble sugar, soluble protein, proline, and catalase enzyme) also increase.
Conclusion: In general, germination and biochemical indices of seed of Fenugreek are sensitive to water potentials, aging, and seed germination temperatures, respectively. In terms of osmotic potential decrese, the germination temperature of less than 20 ° C resulted in increased germination resistance of fenugreek seed to a more negative water potential.
 
Highlights:
  1. Study of germination and biochemical properties of fenugreek seed aged under different level of osmotic potantials and temperatures.
  2. In areas with a lower osmotic potential it is better to cultivate Fenugreek seed at temperatures below 20 °C.

Forough Hajivand Ghasemabadi, Hamid Reza Eisvand, Naser Akbari, Omid Ali Akbarpour,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (9-2019)
Abstract



Extended Abstract
Introduction: Agriculture has been influenced by different abiotic stresses such as temperature, drought and salinity, which reduces roughly half of the yield of crops. In many forage plants, germination and early seedling growth are the most sensitive stages of their growth in the face of environmental stresses. Current research was conducted to study the effects of drought and salinity iso-osmosis stresses on germination indices and growth parameters of three clover species, including Trifolium resupinatum, T. alexandrinum and T. incarnatum.
Material and Methods: Two separate experiments (drought and salinity) were conducted as a factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design with three replications. The test factors included clover species with three levels, including T. resupinatum, T. alexandrinum and T. incarnatum and different levels of drought and salinity potentials (0, -2, -4, -6, -8, -10 and -12 bar) due to polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000) and sodium chloride (NaCl), respectively. Sterile disposable petri dishes with a diameter of 10 cm were used, in each of which, 27 seeds were placed on filter paper and then 5 ml of the desired treatment solution was added to each. Petri dishes were then placed in a germinator at 20°C and relative humidity of 75%. After the end of the desired time germination (About 14 days), from each petri, germination percentage and rate, number of secondary roots, time to get 50% germination (D50), root to shoot ratio and the number of abnormal seedlings were recorded.
Results: Inhibitory effects of salinity and drought stresses affected all germination indices. Germination percentage, rate of germination, root and shoot length all decreased with increasing stress levels, while time to get 50% germination (D50) increased with the increase in stress levels. Under both drought and salinity, all growth parameters of Trifolium resupinatum were higher than the other two species. Germination percentage of T. incarnatum was 0% at -12 bar of drought, but germination of T. resupinatum and T. alexandrinum was 70.33% and 7.33% at -12 bar of these stresses, respectively. Under salinity conditions, all the seeds of the three species germinated at -12 bar. Root to shoot ratio increased with increasing stress levels and at high stress levels, it decreased. The decreases were 41.39% and 0% in drought and salinity, respectively. The number of secondary roots increased with increasing stress levels and the maximum number was observed in Trifolium alexandrinum which was 5.42 and 1 in drought and salinity, respectively. The number of abnormal seedling increased with increasing salinity levels, while under drought conditions there was no abnormal seedling.
Conclusion: Comparison of the effects of sodium chloride and polyethylene glycol showed that sodium chloride reduced germination index due to toxic effects or osmotic effects more than polyethylene glycol solution. ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­It seems that Trifolium resupinatum has the best yield in both drought and salinity stresses, and that in drought condition, Trifolium alexandrinum, and in salinity stress, Trifolium incarnatum have the best performance.
                                                                                                                           
 
Highlights:
  1. Introduction of clover species with more tolerance to drought and salinity in germination stage.
  2. Evaluation of germination indices of clover species under drought and salinity iso-osmotic conditions.


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