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Fatemeh Lkhoshnoodashkarian, Marjan Diyanat, Gorban Noormohammadi,
Volume 7, Issue 1 ((Spring and Summer) 2020)

Extended abstract
Introduction: London rocket is an important winter annual weed of the mustard family (Brassicaceae), which is propagated by seed. Germination of a seed population in response to water potential reduction is modeled using the concept of hydro time. This model has outputs that are physiologically and ecologically meaningful. One of the presumptions of the Hydro time model is the normal distribution of the base water potential among the seed population.
Materials and methods: In order to quantify the germination characteristics and determine the cardinal temperature of germination of London rocket (Sisymbrium irio L.), an experiment was done in 2018 at Science Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. The seeds were placed at constant temperatures (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 °C). Germination percentage, germination rate, root length, shoot length, seedling length and seedling fresh weight were evaluated. Intersected-lines, dent-like and quadratic polynomial models were used to determine cardinal temperatures. London rocket seed germination was tested across a range of water potential (0, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6 and -0.8 MPa) at the optimal temperature of 22.80 °C. The hydro time model, based on the normal distributions was fitted to data.
Results: Results showed that seed of London rocket did not germinate at temperatures of 5, 35, 40 and 45° C, and 25° C was the best temperature for seed germination (48%). The longest root length (4.49 mm) was observed at 20°C, which did not have significant differences with temperatures of 15 and 25 °C. The longest shoot length (10.19 mm) was obtained at 25 °C and there were not any significant differences among this temperature and temperatures of 15 and 20 °C. Similar trend with the trait of root length was observed for the trait of seedling length. The best model for estimating the cardinal temperatures in London rocket was intersected-line model with respect to coefficient of determination and mean square error. According to the intersected-lines model in London rocket, the minimum, optimum and maximum temperatures were calculated 5.83, 22.80 and 37.91°C. According to the hydro-time model based on normal distribution, the hydro-time constant and the base-water potential (which is a threshold for germination beginning) of London rocket degree were 284.28 (MPa/h) and -1.18 (MPa) at 22.80 °C, respectively.
Conclusions: Knowledge of germination and emergence of weeds also helps to predict the potential distribution to new habitats. The obtained coefficient of determination (0.94) between observed germination and predicted germination showed that the hydro time model based on normal distribution fitted well to germination percentage of London rocket seed. Due to the low hydrotime coefficient of this weed and the drought problem that most provinces face, it is expected that this weed will become more problematic in most provinces of Iran in the future.
1- The best temperature for germination of London rocket seed is 25 °C.
2- The best model for estimating the cardinal temperatures in London rocket is intersected-line model
3- The hydro-time constant and the base-water potential of London rocket degree based on normal distribution are 284.28 (MPa/h) and -1.18 (MPa) at 22.80 °C, respectively.

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