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Marjan Diyanat, Seyyed Meisam Hosseini,
Volume 3, Issue 1 ((Spring and Summer) 2016)

In order to study the responses of redstem filaree (Erodium cicutarium L.) seed germination to temperature levels, an experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with four replications and twelve levels of temperature (0, 3, 5, 7, 10, 12, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 0C). Results showed that the effect of treatments on germination properties of redstem was significant, so the highest percentage of germination was achieved at 150C and reduced with increasing temperature and was totally inhibited at 40ºC. Based on a linear regression between germination rate and temperature, the cardinal temperatures: minimum (Tmin), optimum (To) and maximum (Tmax) were determined: 0, 15.20 and 37.18 ºC, respectively. A significant difference was not observed in plumule length at a range of 5-30°C that showed that it is less sensitive to temperature in comparison with root length. Highest wet-dry weight was achieved at 20 °C that was not different by 10, 12 and 20°C. Above results suggest that redstem failure could grow in a wide range of growing conditions, but prefers temperate zones. The results of this study are important to understanding thermal requirements and improvement of management strategies of redstem filaree.

Fatemeh Lkhoshnoodashkarian, Marjan Diyanat, Gorban Noormohammadi,
Volume 7, Issue 1 ((Spring and Summer) 2020)

Extended abstract
Introduction: London rocket is an important winter annual weed of the mustard family (Brassicaceae), which is propagated by seed. Germination of a seed population in response to water potential reduction is modeled using the concept of hydro time. This model has outputs that are physiologically and ecologically meaningful. One of the presumptions of the Hydro time model is the normal distribution of the base water potential among the seed population.
Materials and methods: In order to quantify the germination characteristics and determine the cardinal temperature of germination of London rocket (Sisymbrium irio L.), an experiment was done in 2018 at Science Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. The seeds were placed at constant temperatures (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 °C). Germination percentage, germination rate, root length, shoot length, seedling length and seedling fresh weight were evaluated. Intersected-lines, dent-like and quadratic polynomial models were used to determine cardinal temperatures. London rocket seed germination was tested across a range of water potential (0, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6 and -0.8 MPa) at the optimal temperature of 22.80 °C. The hydro time model, based on the normal distributions was fitted to data.
Results: Results showed that seed of London rocket did not germinate at temperatures of 5, 35, 40 and 45° C, and 25° C was the best temperature for seed germination (48%). The longest root length (4.49 mm) was observed at 20°C, which did not have significant differences with temperatures of 15 and 25 °C. The longest shoot length (10.19 mm) was obtained at 25 °C and there were not any significant differences among this temperature and temperatures of 15 and 20 °C. Similar trend with the trait of root length was observed for the trait of seedling length. The best model for estimating the cardinal temperatures in London rocket was intersected-line model with respect to coefficient of determination and mean square error. According to the intersected-lines model in London rocket, the minimum, optimum and maximum temperatures were calculated 5.83, 22.80 and 37.91°C. According to the hydro-time model based on normal distribution, the hydro-time constant and the base-water potential (which is a threshold for germination beginning) of London rocket degree were 284.28 (MPa/h) and -1.18 (MPa) at 22.80 °C, respectively.
Conclusions: Knowledge of germination and emergence of weeds also helps to predict the potential distribution to new habitats. The obtained coefficient of determination (0.94) between observed germination and predicted germination showed that the hydro time model based on normal distribution fitted well to germination percentage of London rocket seed. Due to the low hydrotime coefficient of this weed and the drought problem that most provinces face, it is expected that this weed will become more problematic in most provinces of Iran in the future.
1- The best temperature for germination of London rocket seed is 25 °C.
2- The best model for estimating the cardinal temperatures in London rocket is intersected-line model
3- The hydro-time constant and the base-water potential of London rocket degree based on normal distribution are 284.28 (MPa/h) and -1.18 (MPa) at 22.80 °C, respectively.

Marjan Diyanat, Pouya Sonboli-Hamedani, Fereidoon Ghasem-Khan Ghajar,
Volume 8, Issue 1 ((Spring and Summer) 2021)

Extended Abstract
Introduction: Seed dormancy is the most important factor that prevents weed seed germination. Lack of simultaneous germination of weed seeds causes a number of problems in their control due to seed dormancy in the fields; therefore, weed seed dormancy is considered to be an undesirable trait for farmers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of magnetic field on seed dormancy elimination in some weed species.
Material and Methods: In order to study the effect of Magnetic field on germination and seedling growth of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus), spring wild oat (Avena fatua) and common purslane (Portulaca oleraceae), a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design was conducted at the Ecology laboratory of Science Research Branch, Islamic Azad University in 2019. Factors consisted of dormancy breaking treatment at 8 levels (gibberellic acid 1000 mg/l for 20 minutes, gibberellic acid 2000 mg/l for 20 minutes, sulfuric acid for 5 minutes, sulfuric acid for 10 minutes, sulfuric acid for 20 minutes, nitrate potassium at 0.01 g/L, nitrate potassium at 0.05 g/L and control) and magnetic field at 4 levels (0, 25, 50 and 100 mT).
Results: Results showed that responses of three weed species to magnetic field were different. Magnetic field increased percentage of germination, fresh weight of plumule and length of plumule of redroot pigweed, so magnetic field at 100 mT was the best treatment for dormancy breaking. The highest germination percentage of wild oat was obtained in 0.01 mM potassium nitrate at 50 mT. The length plumule of wild oat increased significantly at 2000 mg/l gibberellic acid with increasing magnetic field level from zero to 25 mM. Nitrate potassium at 0.05 g/L was the best treatment for breaking the dormancy of common purslane. Magnetic field at 100 mT could increase percentage of germination of this weed.
Conclusion: In general, the results of this study showed that sulfuric acid treatment was not a suitable option for the removal of dormancy in the three weed species because of the elimination of seed embryos. Magnetic field treatment significantly increased the studied traits in all three species of redroot pigweed, spring wild oat and purslane. The interaction between dormancy breaking treatment and magnetic field was significant in many of the studied traits and the effect of dormancy breaking treatment was intensified by magnetic field. Therefore, the use of magnetic field treatment is recommended to increase the germination of these three species.
1- There is a positive and significant interaction between seed dormancy elimination treatments and magnetic field.
2- Sulfuric acid treatment is not a suitable option for breaking the dormancy of redroot pigweed, spring wild oat and purslane.

Mahnaz Kandi, Asa Ebrahimi, Marjan Diyanat, Hamid Saeidian,
Volume 10, Issue 1 ((Spring and Summer) 2023)

Extended Abstract
Introduction: Weeds are one of the most important problems in agriculture and cause a lot of damage to crops. Overconsumption of herbicides in recent decades has led to harmful impacts on the environment and living organisms, including humans. In order to deal with these problems today, efforts are being made to reduce reliance on artificial herbicides and change direction towards sustainable agriculture as a part of integrated weed management. Among natural compounds, essential oils, which are components of aromatic and medicinal plants, were investigated to discover new herbicides.
Material and Methods: In order to investigate the effects of yarrow essential oil (Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch) on the germination and growth of purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.) seedlings, two factorial experiments were conducted in the form of a completely randomized design in three replicates at Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch. The first factor was the type of essential oil in two levels (normal and nanoemulsion) and the second factor was the concentration of essential oil in six levels (0, 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1000 µl L-1).
Results and Discussion: Scanning electron microscopy images showed the particles were relatively sperhical and their size varied from 1 to 100 nm. The zeta potential of the nanoparticles was -13.8 mV, indicating particle stability. Both type of essential oils reduced germination percentage, germination rate, plumule length, radicel length and seedling dry weight of both weeds and germination percentage decreased significantly with increasing concentration. At a concentration of 200 µl L-1, purslane treated with essential oil germinated 55.25%, but at the same concentration, the germination percentage of seeds treated with nanoemulsion of essential oil was 30.50%. Nanoemulsion of essential oil at concentration of 800 µl L-1 was able to completely prevent the germination and growth of purslane seedlings. Nanoemulsion of essential oil at a concentration of 1000 µl L-1 completely prevented rye seed germination. Germination rate decreased under treatment of yarrow essential oil and there was no difference between two types of essential oils at concentration of 200 µl L-1, but at a concentration of 800 µl, the germination rate of rye seeds treated with nanoemulsion of essential oil and ordinary essential oil reached to 1.40 and 0.32, respectively which was a significant difference.
Conclusions: The inhibition percentage of the studied traits in both weed species showed that the essential oil nanoemulsion was more effective than the normal essential oil. Yarrow essential oil was more effective on purslane weed compared to rye. Essential oils do not have similar effects on weeds and their inhibitory effects will be different depending on the concentration and species of weeds, and the selectivity of these compounds should be investigated. The production of nano essential oil of yarrow as a natural herbicide is a solution. It offers to control weeds in organic farming systems.

1- Nanoemulsion particles were produced from Yarrow essential oil
 2- Nanoemulsion particles had more inhibitory effects on the investigated weeds than the normal essential oil.

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