Volume 8, Issue 1 ((Spring and Summer) 2021)                   Iranian J. Seed Res. 2021, 8(1): 73-89 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Ghanbari M, Modarres-Sanavy S A M, Mokhtassi-Bidgoli A. (2021). Assessment of Germination Characteristics and α and β Amylase Activity of Indian Cheese Maker (Withania coagulans) Seed in Response to Scarification and Potassium Nitrate. Iranian J. Seed Res.. 8(1), 73-89. doi:10.52547/yujs.8.1.73
URL: http://yujs.yu.ac.ir/jisr/article-1-469-en.html
Tarbiat Modares University , modaresa@modares.ac.ir
Abstract:   (3523 Views)
Extended Abstract
Introduction: Medicinal herbs are of particular importance in the treatment and prevention of diseases. Indian Cheese Maker has strengthening, liver repair, anti-inflammatory properties and is useful in the treatment of bronchitis, asthma, wounds, neurological disorders such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. Evaluation of seed quality as a propagating organ and the most important input for crop production and medicinal products has a special place in seed production, control and certification. Studying germination and biological properties of seeds of medicinal plants and methods of breaking dormancy in them are among basic and primary studies of domestication of medicinal plants. In the meantime, scrubbing with abrasives changes the integrity of the seed shell and allows the seeds to be permeable to water and gases. The researchers stated that the dormancy of seeds containing inhibitory metabolic materials can be reduced by removing the seed shell through mechanical scarification and osmopriming. For this purpose, the effect of scarification and potassium nitrate on germination and enzymatic properties of Indian Cheese Maker was evaluated.
Material and Method: This study was conducted as factorial based on a completely randomized design with three replications during 2015-16 at the laboratory of Department of Agronomy, Tarbiat Modares University. Potassium nitrate solution (0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mg.l-1 from KNO3), scarification (un-use and scarification with soft sanding) and osmopriming durations (8, 16, 24 and 32 hour) were experimental factors. The experiment was performed on Indian Cheese Maker seeds, landrace of Khash. Petri dishes were placed in a germinator at 25 ° C and in full lighting for 14 days. In this experiment, germination rate and percentage of germination, mean of germination time and daily germination, seed vigority, alpha and beta amylase were measured.
Results: The results of the experiment showed that in scarification, the highest germination percentage (69.47%) was obtained by seed priming at a concentration of 1.5 mg.l-1 potassium nitrate for 19 hours under abrasion. In scarification, germination rate increased at 16 and 32 hour, 0.62 and 1.17 No.day-1 for each mg.l-1 of potassium nitrate. The highest daily mean germination (0.15) was observed at 1.5 mg.l-1 potassium nitrate and 24 hour time and decreased to 8 hours mean germination time (7.39 days) by reducing pretreatment time. Also, the highest mean germination time (9.35 days) was observed in 32 hours pretreatment with potassium nitrate and the highest mean germination time in non-scarification condition (9.13 days) and in scarification condition decreased with mean of germination time (8.04 days). The activity of alpha and beta-amylase germination enzymes was affected by different concentrations of potassium nitrate and scarification and at high concentrations of potassium nitrate the activity of these enzymes decreased.
Conclusions: In general, application of potassium nitrate osmopriming, by improving the activity of germination enzymes and increasing seed germination properties of Indian Cheese Maker, increased the activity of hydrolyzing enzymes in the endosperm of germinated seeds, which reduced the mean germination time, increased germination rate and germination percentage. In general, seed scarification with low concentrations of potassium nitrate at 16 to 24 hours is recommended for breaking seed dormancy of Indian Cheese Maker.

  1. Germination rate and percentage of Indian Cheese Maker seed were monitored by osmopriming and scarification.
  2. The role of α and β amylase germination enzymes in accelerating dormancy breaking of Indian Cheese Maker was studied.
  3. Mean time and mean daily germination during the dormancy breaking process of Indian Cheese Maker were estimated.
Article number: 5
Full-Text [PDF 1032 kb]   (732 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Seed Physiology
Received: 2020/03/11 | Accepted: 2020/07/25

1. Agrawal, R. 2003. Seed technology. Pub. Co. PVT. LTD, New Delhi, India, 829p.
2. Ahmadloo, F., Tabari Kouchaksaraei, M., Azadi, P. and Hamidi, A. 2016. Improving germination of Hawthorn (Crataegus pseudoheterophylla Pojark.) seed by potassium nitrate, sulfuric acid and stratification. Journal of Plant Research, 29(2): 254-263. [In Persian with English Summary].
3. Bakhtavar, Z. and Maleki Farahani, S. 2014. Effect of gibberellin, potassium nitrate, light and mechanical abrasion Brjvanh germination of medicinal plant Datura (Datura stramonium L.). 1st International and 13th Iranian Crop Science Congress and 3rd Iranian Seed Science and Technology Conference. Seed and Plant Improvement Institute Karaj, Iran, August 24-26, 1-5. [In Persian with English Summary].
4. Barakat, N.A.M., Kabeil, H.F., Hegazy, A.K. and Singer, N.S. 2013. Synergetic action of light and temperature on seed germination of some solanaceae members. Journal of Stress Physiology and Biochemistry, 9(4): 85-100.
5. Barbour, M.G. 1968. Germination requirements of the desert shrub Larrea divaricata. Ecology, 49(5): 915-923. [DOI:10.2307/1936543]
6. Basra, S.M.A., Farooq, M. and Khaliq, A. 2003. Comparative study of pre-sowing seed enhancement treatments in fine rice (Oryza sativa L.). Pakistan Journal of Life and Social Sciences, 1(1): 5-9.
7. Basra, S.M.A., Farooq, M., Tabassam, R., and Ahmad, N. 2005. Physiological and biochemical aspects of pre-sowing seed treatments in fine rice (Oryza sativa L.). Seed Science and Technology, 33: 623-628. [DOI:10.15258/sst.2005.33.3.09]
8. Bernfeld, P. 1970. Amylase a and b, in methods in Enzymology, I. (Colowick, S. and Kaplan, N., eds.). Academic Press, NY, 149p.
9. Bewley, J.D., Bradford, K.J., Hilhorst, H.W.M. and Nonogaki, H. 2013. Seeds: Physiology of Development, Germination and Dormancy. Springer, New York-Heidelberg Dordrecht London, 392p.
10. Çetinbaş, M., and Koyuncu, F. 2006. Improving germination of Prunus avium L. seeds by gibberellic acid, potassium nitrate and thiourea. Horticultural Science (Prague), 33(3): 119-123. [DOI:10.17221/3750-HORTSCI]
11. Derkan, M.P.M. and Karssen, C.M. 1993. Effect of light and temperature on seed dormancy and gibberellins stimulated germination in Arabidopsis thaliana: studies with gibberellins- deficient and in sensitive mutants. Plant Physiology, 89: 360-368. [DOI:10.1034/j.1399-3054.1993.890218.x]
12. Farooq, M., Basra, S.M.A. and Hafeez, K. 2006. Seed invigoration by osmohardening in coarse and fine rice. S. Science and Technology, 34(1): 181-187. [DOI:10.15258/sst.2006.34.1.19]
13. Ghanbari, M. and Karamnia, S. 2016. Evaluation of the seed aging effect on some characteristics of bean germination (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) landraces of Guilan province under salinity stress conditions. The 6th Iranian Pulse Crops Symposium, 4May, Khoram-abad. [In Persian Summary].
14. Ghanbari, M., Mansour Ghanaei Pashaki, K., Safaei Abdolmanaf, S., and Aziz Ali-abadi, K. 2016. Effect of salt stress and hydropriming on germination characteristics of Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek). Iranian Journal of Pulses Research, 7(1): 65-80. [In Persian with English Summary].
15. Ghasemi Pirbalouti, A., Golparvar, A.R., Riyahi Dehkordi, M. and Navid, A. 2007. The effect of different treatments on seeds dormancy and germination of five species of medicinal plants of Chahar Mahal & Bakhteyari province. Pajouhesh & Sazandegi, 74: 185-192. [In Persian with English Summary].
16. Ghavam, M., Soleimani Nejad, Z. and Tavili, A. 2018. Dormancy breaking of Ducrosia anethifolia Boiss seed under different treatment. Journal of Cell-Molecular Biotechnology up-to-date, 30(8): 35-44. [In Persian Summary].
17. Gupta, P. 2012. Withania coagulans, an overview. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, 12(2): 68-71.
18. Hamidi, A., Roodi, D., Asgari, V. and Hajiloo, S. 2008. Study on applicability of controlled deterioration vigor test for evaluation of seed vigour and field performance relationship of three oil-seed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars. Seed and Plant Improvement Journal, 24(4): 677-706. [In Persian with English Summary].
19. Hartmann, H.T., Kester, D.E., Devies, F.T. and Geneve, R.L. 2007. Plant Propagation Principles and Practices. Prentice Hall of India Pvt, Ltd, New Delhi, 528p.
20. Hunter, E.A., Glasbey, C.A. and Naylor, R.E.L. 1984. The analysis of data from germination tests. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge, 102(1): 207-213. [DOI:10.1017/S0021859600041642]
21. Jain, S., Shukla, S.D., Sharma, K. and Bhatnagar, M. 2001. Neuroprotective effects of Withania somnifera Dunn. In hippocampal sub-regions of female albino rat. Phytotherapy Research, 15(6): 544-548. [DOI:10.1002/ptr.802] [PMID]
22. Jha, S., Rai, H., Chattopadhyay, R., Kaur, V.P., Indupriya, M., and Shanti, V. 2013. Effect of metal ions on amylase production. Recent Research in Science and Technology, 5(2): 52-53.
23. Joshi, A.G. and Padhya, M.A. 2010. Shoot regeneration from leaf explants of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 2(1): 63-65. [DOI:10.15835/nsb213609]
24. Kambizi, L., Adebola, P.O. and Afolayan, A.G. 2006. Effects of temperature, pre-chilling and light on seed germination of Withania somnifera; a high value medicinal plant. South African Journal of Botany, 72(1): 11-14. [DOI:10.1016/j.sajb.2005.03.001]
25. Khan, J., Rauf, M., Ali, Z., Rashid, H. and Khattack, M.S. 1999. Different stratification techniques effects on seed germination of Pistachio. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 2: 1412-1414. [DOI:10.3923/pjbs.1999.1412.1414]
26. Kumar, A., Kaul, M.K., Bhan, M.K., Punit, K., Khanna, K. and Suri, A. 2007. Morphological and chemical variation in 25 collections of the Indian medicinal plant, Withania somnifera L. Dunal Solanaceae. Genetic Resources Crop Environmental, 54(3): 655-660. [DOI:10.1007/s10722-006-9129-x]
27. Lee, S.S. and Kim, J.H. 2000. Total sugars, α-amylase activity and germination after priming of normal and aged rice seeds. Korean Journal of Crop Science, 45(2): 108-111.
28. Lyaruu, H.V.M. 2008. Seed longevity of dominant plant species from degraded savanna in semi-arid Tanzania. Tanzania Journal Science, 34: 11-20. [DOI:10.4314/tjs.v34i1.44283]
29. Mahmoodzadeh, A., Nojavan, M. and Bagheri, Z. 2003. Effects of treatments on dormancy and germination of Melilotus officinalis L. seeds. Journal of Agricultural Science and Natural Resource, 10(1): 55-64. [In Persian with English Summary].
30. Mirjalili, M.H,. Moyano, E., Bonfill, M., Cusido, R.M. and Palazon, J. 2009. Steroidal lactones from Withania somnifera, an ancient plant for novel medicine. Molecules Journal, 14(7): 2373-2393. [DOI:10.3390/molecules14072373] [PMID] [PMCID]
31. Mohan, K.K., Reddy, A.R., Sharma, S. and Jyotsna, B. 2012. Effect of physical and chemical treatments on dormancy breaking, germination and vigor of certain medicinal plants. Journal of Pharmacognosy, 3(2): 71-72.
32. Nathiya, S., Pradeepa, D., Devasena, T. and Senthil, K. 2013. Studies on the effect of sucrose, light and hormons on micropropagation and in vitro flowering of Withania somnifera Var. JAWAHAR-20. The Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences, 23(5): 1391-1397.
33. Nawaz, A., Amjad, M., Aslam Pervez, M. and Afzal, I. 2011. Effect of halopriming on germination and seedling vigor of tomato. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 6(15): 3551-3559.
34. Niyaz, A. and Siddiqui, E.N. 2014. Seed germination of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. European Journal of Medicinal Plants, 4(8): 920-926. [DOI:10.9734/EJMP/2014/8916]
35. Pramanick, D.L. and Srivastava, S.K. 2015. Pharmacognostic evaluation of Withania coagulans Dunal (Solanaceae) - an important ethnomedicinal plant. Bioscience Discovery, 6(1): 6-13.
36. Rout, J., Sahoo, S.L. and Das, R. 2011. An attempt to conserve Withania somnifera L. Dual- A highly essential medicinal plant, through in Vitro callus culture. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 434: 1837-1842.
37. Shanmugaratnam, S., Mikunthan, G. and Thurairatnam, S. 2013. Potential of Withania somnifera Dunal cultivation as a medicinal crop in Jaffna district. American-Eurasian Journal Agriculture and Environment Science, 13(3): 357-361.
38. Sharifi, H., Khajeh Hosseini, M. and Rashed Mohassel, M.H. 2016. Effect of mechanical scarification on dormancy breaking and improved seed germination of 12 medicinal plant species. Journal of Seed Research, 18(6): 11-18. [In Persian Summary].
39. Soltani, A., Galashi, S., Zeinali, E. and Latifi, N. 2001. Genetic variation for and interrelationships among seed vigor traits in wheat from the Caspian Sea Coast of Iran. Seed Science and Technology, 29(3): 653-662.
40. Tavili, A., Zare, S. and Yari, R. 2010. Effect of different treatments on seed dormancy breaking and germination stimulation of Ammodendron persicum. Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research, 17(3): 466-475. [In Persian with English Summary].
41. Thakur, N.S., Verma, K.S. and Rana, R.C. 2014. Growth and yield performance of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) under agroforestry. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 84(8): 937-941.
42. The Herb Society of America (HSA). 2009. Promising Plant Profile. Withania somnifera.
43. Zare, M. and Heydari, M. 2012. The effect of scarification and potassium nitrate on seed germination of Acasia (Acacia nilotica). 2th National Conference on Seed Science and Technology, Islamic Azad University of Mashhad. [In Persian Summary].

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2023 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Iranian Journal of Seed Research

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.