Volume 7, Issue 1 ((Spring and Summer) 2020)                   Iranian J. Seed Res. 2020, 7(1): 53-65 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

lKhoshnoodashkarian F, Diyanat M, Noormohammadi G. (2020). Determination of Cardinal Temperature and Hydro Time Model of London Rocket Seed (Sisymbrium irio) Germination. Iranian J. Seed Res.. 7(1), 53-65. doi:10.29252/yujs.7.1.53
URL: http://yujs.yu.ac.ir/jisr/article-1-390-en.html
Department of Agriculture and Food Industry, Science and Research Branch, Islamic , ma_dyanat@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (5222 Views)

Extended abstract
Introduction: London rocket is an important winter annual weed of the mustard family (Brassicaceae), which is propagated by seed. Germination of a seed population in response to water potential reduction is modeled using the concept of hydro time. This model has outputs that are physiologically and ecologically meaningful. One of the presumptions of the Hydro time model is the normal distribution of the base water potential among the seed population.
Materials and methods: In order to quantify the germination characteristics and determine the cardinal temperature of germination of London rocket (Sisymbrium irio L.), an experiment was done in 2018 at Science Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. The seeds were placed at constant temperatures (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 °C). Germination percentage, germination rate, root length, shoot length, seedling length and seedling fresh weight were evaluated. Intersected-lines, dent-like and quadratic polynomial models were used to determine cardinal temperatures. London rocket seed germination was tested across a range of water potential (0, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6 and -0.8 MPa) at the optimal temperature of 22.80 °C. The hydro time model, based on the normal distributions was fitted to data.
Results: Results showed that seed of London rocket did not germinate at temperatures of 5, 35, 40 and 45° C, and 25° C was the best temperature for seed germination (48%). The longest root length (4.49 mm) was observed at 20°C, which did not have significant differences with temperatures of 15 and 25 °C. The longest shoot length (10.19 mm) was obtained at 25 °C and there were not any significant differences among this temperature and temperatures of 15 and 20 °C. Similar trend with the trait of root length was observed for the trait of seedling length. The best model for estimating the cardinal temperatures in London rocket was intersected-line model with respect to coefficient of determination and mean square error. According to the intersected-lines model in London rocket, the minimum, optimum and maximum temperatures were calculated 5.83, 22.80 and 37.91°C. According to the hydro-time model based on normal distribution, the hydro-time constant and the base-water potential (which is a threshold for germination beginning) of London rocket degree were 284.28 (MPa/h) and -1.18 (MPa) at 22.80 °C, respectively.
Conclusions: Knowledge of germination and emergence of weeds also helps to predict the potential distribution to new habitats. The obtained coefficient of determination (0.94) between observed germination and predicted germination showed that the hydro time model based on normal distribution fitted well to germination percentage of London rocket seed. Due to the low hydrotime coefficient of this weed and the drought problem that most provinces face, it is expected that this weed will become more problematic in most provinces of Iran in the future.
1- The best temperature for germination of London rocket seed is 25 °C.
2- The best model for estimating the cardinal temperatures in London rocket is intersected-line model
3- The hydro-time constant and the base-water potential of London rocket degree based on normal distribution are 284.28 (MPa/h) and -1.18 (MPa) at 22.80 °C, respectively.
Article number: 4
Full-Text [PDF 742 kb]   (1038 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Seed Ecology
Received: 2019/01/12 | Accepted: 2019/06/26

1. Akram-Ghaderi, F. 2008. The study of seed quality development, germination, longevity and deterioration in some medicinal plants: medicinal pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo.Convar.var. styriaca), cumin blank (Nigella sativa L.) and borago (Borago officinalis L.). Ph.D. Thesis, University of Gorgan. Agriculture Science Natural Resource, Iran. [In Persian with English Summary].
2. Alam, A., Juraimi A.S., Rafii, M.Y., Abdul Hamid, A. and Aslani, F. 2014. Screening of purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) accessions for high salt tolerance. The Scientific World Journal, 1-12. [DOI:10.1155/2014/627916] [PMID] [PMCID]
3. Alimagham, S.M., and Ghaderi-Far, F. 2014. Hydrotime model: Introduction and application of this model in seed researches. Environmental Stresses in Crop Sciences, 7: 41-52. [In Persian with English Summary].
4. Ansari, A., Gherekhloo, J., Ghaderifar, F. and Kamkar, B. 2017. Quantification of germination response of Malva sylvestris L. to water potential. Environmental Stresses in Crop Science, 10(1): 67-77. [In Persian with English Summary].
5. Azimi, R., Khajeh-Hosseinim, M. and Falahpor, F. 2014. Evaluation of seed germination features of Bromus kopetdaghensis Drobov under different temperature. Journal of Range and Watershed Management, 67: 253-261. [In Persian with English Summary].
6. Balbaki, R.Z., Zurayk, R.A., Blelk, M.M. and Tahouk, S.N. 1999. Germination and seedling development of drought tolerant and susceptible wheat under moisture stress. Seed Science and Technology, 27(1): 291-302.
7. Benvenuti, S., Macchia, M. and Miele, S. 2001. Quantitative analysis of emergence of seedlings from buried weed seeds with increasing soil depth. Weed Science, 4: 528-535. [DOI:10.1614/0043-1745(2001)049[0528:QAOEOS]2.0.CO;2]
8. Bewley, J.D., Bradford, K.J. Hilhorst, H.W.M. and Monogaki, H. 2013. Seeds: Physiology of Development, Germination and Dormancy. Third Edition, Springer, NY, 392p.
9. Bradford, K.J. 2002. Application of hydrothermal time to quantifying and modeling seed germination and dormancy. Weed Science, 50(2): 248-260. [DOI:10.1614/0043-1745(2002)050[0248:AOHTTQ]2.0.CO;2]
10. Cardoso, V.J.M. and Bianconi, A. 2013. Hydrotime model can describe the response of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds to temperature and reduced water potential. Biological Sciences, 35(2): 255-261. [DOI:10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i2.15393]
11. Daws, M.I., Crabtree, L.M., Dalling, J.W., Mullins, C.E. and Burslem, D.F. 2008. Germination responses to water potential in neotropical pioneers suggest large-seeded species take more risks. Annals of Botany, 102(6): 945-951. [DOI:10.1093/aob/mcn186] [PMID] [PMCID]
12. Derakhshan, A., Moradi Talavat., M.R. and Siadat, A. 2016. Hydrotime analysis of Yellow Sweetclover (Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam.), Wild Mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) and Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seed germination. Journal of Plant Protection, 30: 518-523. [In Persian with English Summary].
13. Forcella, F., Beneeh-Arnold, Sanchez, R.A. and Ghersa, C.M. 2000. Modelling seeding emergence. Field Crops Research, 67(2): 123-139. [DOI:10.1016/S0378-4290(00)00088-5]
14. Ghersa, C., Benech-Arnold, R., Satorre, E. and Martinez-Ghersa, M. 2000. Advances in weed management strategies. Field Crops Research, 67(2): 95-104. [DOI:10.1016/S0378-4290(00)00086-1]
15. Ghorbani, R., Seel, W. and Leifert, C. 1999. Effects of environmental factors on germination and emergence of Amaranthus retroflexus. Weed Science, 47: 505-510. [DOI:10.1017/S0043174500092183]
16. Grundy, A.C. 2003. Predicting weed emergence: a review of approaches and future challenges. Weed Research, 43(1): 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3180.2004.00447.x [DOI:10.1046/j.1365-3180.2003.00317.x]
17. Guillemin, J.P., Reibel, C. and Granger, S. 2008. Evaluation of base temperature of several weed species. P. 274. In: Valverde B.E. (ed.) Proceedings of the 5th International weed science congress, 23-27 June. 2008. International weed science society, Vancouver, Canada.
18. Hardegree, S. 2006. Predicting germination response to temperature. I. Cardinal temperature models and subpopulationspecific regression. Annals of Botany, 97(6): 1115- 1125. [DOI:10.1093/aob/mcl071] [PMID] [PMCID]
19. Hoseini, M., Mojab, M. and Zamani, Gh. 2012. Evaluation wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum Koch.) barley grass (H. murinum L.) and hoary cress (Cardaria draba L.) germination in different temperatures. p. 108. In proceeding 4th Iranian Weed Science Congress, 6-7 February. 2004. Ahvaz, Iran.
20. Huarte, R. 2006. Hydrotime analysis of the effect of fluctuating temperatures on seed germination in several non-cultivated species. Seed Science and Technology, 34(3): 533-547. [DOI:10.15258/sst.2006.34.3.01]
21. Jame, Y.W. and Cutforth, H.W. 2004. Simulating the effects of temperature and seeding depth on germination and emergence of spring wheat. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 124(3-4): 207-218. [DOI:10.1016/j.agrformet.2004.01.012]
22. Jeffrey, D.W., Timothym, C.M. and John, T.R. 1987. Solution volume and seed number: Often overlooked factors in allelopathic bioassays. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 13: 1424-1426. [DOI:10.1007/BF01012292] [PMID]
23. Kamkar, B., Jami Al-Ahmadi, M. and Mahdavi-Damghani, A. 2011. Quantification of the cardinal temperatures and thermal time requirement of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) seeds germinate using non-linear regression models. Industrial Crops and Products, 35(1): 192-198. [DOI:10.1016/j.indcrop.2011.06.033]
24. Karimi, H. 2008. Weeds of Iran. Centre of University Publishing, Tehran. [In Persian].
25. Khosravi, M. 1997. Seed Ecology (Translated). Jahade-Daneshgahi Mashhad Press. [In Persian].
26. Michel, B.E. 1983. Evaluation of the water potentials of solutions of polyethylene glycol 8000 both in the absence and presence of other solutes. Plant Physiology, 72(1): 66-70. [DOI:10.1104/pp.72.1.66] [PMID] [PMCID]
27. Phartyal, S.S., Thapial, R.C., Nayal, J.S., Rawat, M.M.S. and Joshi, G. 2003. The influence of temperatures on seed germination rate in Himalaya elm (Ulmus wallichiana). Seed Science and Technology, 31(1): 83-93. [DOI:10.15258/sst.2003.31.1.09]
28. Schellenberg, M.P. Biligetu, B. and Wei, Y. 2013. Predicting seed germination of slender wheatgrass [Elymus trachycaulus (Link) Gould subsp. trachycaulus] using thermal and hydrotime models. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 93: 793-798. [DOI:10.4141/cjps2013-028]
29. Shafii, B. and Price, W.J. 2001. Estimation of cardinal temperatures in germination data analysis. Journal of Agricultural Biological and Environmental Statistics, 6(3): 356-366. [DOI:10.1198/108571101317096569]
30. Soltani, A., Robertson, M.J., Torabi, B., Yousefi-Daz, M. and Sarparast, R. 2006. Modeling seedling emergence in chickpea as affected by temperature and sowing depth. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 138(1-4): 156-167. [DOI:10.1016/j.agrformet.2006.04.004]
31. Steinmaus, S.J., Prather, T.S. and Holt, J.S. 2000. Estimation of base temperature for nine weeds species. Journal of Experimental Botany, 51: 275-286. [DOI:10.1093/jexbot/51.343.275] [PMID]
32. Thygerson, T., Harris, J.M., Smith, B.N., Hansen, L.D., Pendleton, R.L. and Booth, D.T. 2002. Metabolic response to temperature for six populations of winter fat (Eurotia lanata). Thermochimica Acta, 394: 211-217. [DOI:10.1016/S0040-6031(02)00253-8]
33. Tolyat, M.A., Tavakkol Afshari, R., Jahansoz M.R., Nadjafi F. and Naghdibadi H.A. 2014. Determination of cardinal germination temperatures of two ecotypes of Thymus daenensis subsp. Daenensis. Seed Science and Technology, 42(1): 28-35. [DOI:10.15258/sst.2014.42.1.03]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2023 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Iranian Journal of Seed Research

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.