Volume 6, Issue 1 ((Spring and Summer) 2019)                   Iranian J. Seed Res. 2019, 6(1): 95-113 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Mehrabi A A, Hajinia S. The Effect of Seed Pre-treatments on Germination of Astragalus gossypinus Seed. Iranian J. Seed Res.. 2019; 6 (1) :95-113
URL: http://yujs.yu.ac.ir/jisr/article-1-371-en.html
University of Ilam , alia.mehrabi@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (117 Views)
DOR: 98.1000/2383-1251.1398.6.95.11.1.1578.41

Extended Abstract
Introduction: White Astragalus (Astragalus gossypinus Fisherr.) is one of the valuable plants for producing gum, which is of critical importance in soil conservation and the economy of the country. This plant is propagated by seed; its seeds are in the natural state of dormancy. Therefore, recognizing the factors affecting dormancy and creating optimal conditions for seed germination of this plant is necessary for the cultivation and reclamation of rangelands. This study was conducted with the aim of finding the best treatment for breaking the dormancy and improving seed germination under various chemical and physical treatments.
Materials and Methods: The experiment was carried out as a factorial based on a completely randomized design with four replications at the gene bank of cereal and legume Lab of Ilam University, 2017. The factors included two levels of scarification chemical (with and without sulfuric acid (H2SO4) for 10 minutes), three levels of stratification (control, moist chilling at +4 °C and dry chilling -20 °C), potassium nitrate in two levels (zero and 1% KNO3) and gibberellic acid in two levels (zero and 5 ppm GA3). Germination indices including germination percentage, germination rate, seedling and radicle length, seedling fresh weight and vigor index were measured.
Results: Initial assessment of vital indices in seed such as germination and primary growth showed that the simultaneous application of scarification by sulfuric acid and moist chilling at +4 °C has the most impact on removing dormancy and increasing germination percentage. The highest germination rate was observed in moist chilling at +4 °C, which was 32.19 percent more than that of the control treatment. Scarification by sulfuric acid reduced the mean germination time in moist chilling at +4 °C. Scarification by sulfuric acid increased the fresh weight of the seedling by 55.25 percent, compared with the control. Pre-treatments with potassium nitrate undre control conditions, moist chilling at +4 °C and dry chilling at -20 °C increased the fresh weight of seedlings, at 52.66, 30.94 and 17.18 percent, respectively. Application of potassium nitrate increased root length by about 60.7 percent, compared with control. The highest radicle length (78.71 mm) was obtained when the seed was treated with sulphuric acid with wet chilling at 4 ° C for two weeks, which was 30 percent higher than control. The highest seedling length (84.88 mm) was obtained in scarification with sulfuric acid, wet chilling, and potassium nitrate and gibberellic acid. The highest seed vigor index (61.85 %) was observed in the treatment of scarification with sulfuric acid under moist chilling, and pre-treatments of gibberellic acid and potassium nitrate.
Conclusions: In general, it can be concluded that seed dormancy of Astraglus gossypinus involves both physical and physiological dormancy. The best treatment for removing the dormancy of this species seems to be scarification with sulfuric acid for 10 minutes puls concentrated stratification in moist chilling at +4 °C for two weeks.
 
 
Highlights:
  1. Determination of the optimal seed dormancy techniques of white Astragalus for the purpose of increasing seed germination percentage.
  2. Comparison of the efficiency of different dormancy breaking techniques.
  3. The combined effect of sulfuric acid, chilling and priming with gibberellic acid and potassium nitrate on germination indices.
Full-Text [PDF 589 kb]   (12 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Applicable | Subject: Seed Physiology
Received: 2018/08/28 | Accepted: 2019/02/16

References
1. Alvarado, V., and Bradford, K.J. 2002. A hydrothermal time model explains the cardinal temperatures for seed germination. Plant, Cell and Environment, 25(8): 1061-1069. [DOI:10.1046/j.1365-3040.2002.00894.x]
2. Bradford, K.J. 2002. Application of hydrothermal time to quantifying and modeling seed germination and dormancy. Journal of Weed Science, 50(2): 248-260. [DOI:10.1614/0043-1745(2002)050[0248:AOHTTQ]2.0.CO;2]
3. Bryson, C.T., and Defelice, M.S. 2010. Weeds of the Midwestern United States and Central Canada, Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 195 p.
4. Buhler, D.D. 2000. Theoretical and practice challenges to an IPM approach to weed management. Journal of Weed Science, 48(3): 274-280. [DOI:10.1614/0043-1745(2000)048[0274:TAPCTA]2.0.CO;2]
5. Chauhan, B.S., and Abugho, S.B. 2012. Threelobe morningglory (Ipomoea triloba) germination and response to herbicides. Journal of Weed Science, 60(2): 199-204. [DOI:10.1614/WS-D-11-00137.1]
6. Chauhan, B.S., and Johnson, D.E. 2009. Ecological studies on Cyperus difformis, C. iria and Fimbristylis miliacea: three troublesome annual sedge weeds of rice. Annals of Applied Biology, 155(1): 103-112. [DOI:10.1111/j.1744-7348.2009.00325.x]
7. Chauhan, B.S., Gill, G., and Preston, C. 2006. Influence of environmental factors on seed germination and seedling emergence of Oriental mustard (Sisymbrium orientale). Journal of Weed Science, 54(6): 1025-1031. [DOI:10.1614/WS-06-092.1]
8. Crowley, R.H., and Buchan, G.H. 1978. Competition of four morning glory (Ipomoea spp.) species with cotton (Gossypium hiesutum). Journal of Weed Science, 26(5): 484-488. [DOI:10.1017/S0043174500050372]
9. Derakhshan, A., Gharekhlo, J., and Paravar, A. 2013. Estimation of cardinal temperatures and thermal time required for germination of (Cyperus difformis). Journal of Weed Science, 9: 27-38. [In Persian with English Summery].
10. Edalat, M., and Kazemeini, S.A. 2013. Estimating cardinal temperatures of tumble mustard (Sisymbrium altissimum) and slender foxtail (Alopecurus myosuroides) seed germinations. Pp: 280-283. The 5th Iranian Weed Science Congress. Tehran University, Iran. [In Persian with English Summery].
11. El-Dengawy, E.F.A. 2005. Promotion of seed germination and subsequent seedling growth of loaquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl) by moist-chilling and GA3 applications. Scientia Horticulturae, 105(3): 331-342. [DOI:10.1016/j.scienta.2005.01.027]
12. Forcella, F., Benech-Arnold, R.L. Sanchez, R., and Gersa, C.M. 2000. Modeling seeding emergence. Field Crops Research, 67: 123-139. [DOI:10.1016/S0378-4290(00)00088-5]
13. Ghaderifar, A., Alimagham, S.M., Rezaee Moghadam, H.V., and Haghighi, M. 2012. Effects of environmental factors on germination and emergence of rye crops in wheat fields as wild plant. Electronic Journal of Crop Production, 5(4): 133-121. [In Persian with English summery].
14. Jami-Al_Ahmadi, M., and Kafi, M. 2007. Cardinal temperature for germination of (Kochia scoparia L.). Journal of Arid Environments, 68(2): 308-314. [DOI:10.1016/j.jaridenv.2006.05.006]
15. Kallson, L.M., and Milberg, P. 2007. Seed dormancy pattern and germination preferences of the South African annual Papaver aculeatum. South African Journal of Botany, 73(3): 422-428. [DOI:10.1016/j.sajb.2007.03.007]
16. Kamaha, C., and Maguire, J.D. 1992. Effect of temperature on germination of six winter wheat cultivars. In Proceedings of the International Seed Testing Association.
17. Kamkar, B., Ahmadi, M., Mahdavi-Damghani, A., and Villalobos, F.J. 2012. Quantification of the cardinal temperatures and thermal time requirement of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) seeds to germinate using nonlinear regression models. Industrial Crops Products, 35(1): 192-198. [DOI:10.1016/j.indcrop.2011.06.033]
18. Kiyani, E. 2014. The effect of some environmental factors on seed germination of morning glory (Ipomoea spp.). M.Sc. Thesis. Azad University of Gorgan, Iran. 111 p. [In Persian with English Summary].
19. Leblanc, M.L. 1998. Facteurs impliques dans la levee des mauuvaises herbes au champ. Phytoprotection, 79: 111-127. [DOI:10.7202/706140ar]
20. Maguire, J.D. 1962. Seed of germination - aid in selection and evaluation for seedling emergence and vigour. Journal of Crop Science, 2: 176-177. [DOI:10.2135/cropsci1962.0011183X000200020033x]
21. Mahmoodi, A., Soltani, E., and Barani, H. 2008. Germination response to temperature of snail medic (Medicago scutellata L.). Iranian Society of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, 1(1): 54-63. [In Persian with English summery].
22. Mikulka, J., and Chodová, D. 2003. Germination and emergence of prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola L.) and its susceptibility to selected herbicides. Journal of Plant Soil and Environment, 49(2): 89-94. [DOI:10.17221/4095-PSE]
23. Moradi, A., Ghanbari, A., Rashedmohasel, M.H., and Izadi darbandi, A. 2015. Determination of the cardinal temperatures of Alhaji pseudalhagi. Journal of Plant Protection, 29(2): 283-290. [In Persian with English summery].
24. Nejadhasan, B. 2014. Effect of some environmental factors on seed germination of Arugula (Eruca sativa Mill). M.sc. Thesis on Agronomy, Agricultural Science and Natural Resources University of Gorgan, Iran. 102 p. [In Persian with English Summary].
25. Nishimoto, R.K., and Mccarty, L.B. 1997. Fluctuating temperature and light influence seed germination of goosegrass (Eleusine indica). Journal of Weed Science, 45: 426-429. [DOI:10.1017/S0043174500093103]
26. Norsworthy, J.K., and Oliveira, M.J. 2006. Pitted morningglory (Ipomoea lacunosa) germination and emergence as affected by environmental factors and seeding depth. Journal of Weed Science, 54(5): 910-916. [DOI:10.1614/WS-06-068R.1.1]
27. Phartyal, S.S., Thapial, R.C. Nayal, J.S. Rawat, M.M.S., and Joshi, G. 2003. The influence of temperatures on seed germination rate in Himalaya elm (Ulmus wallichiana). Seed Science and Technology, 31(1), 83-93. [DOI:10.15258/sst.2003.31.1.09]
28. Poortousi, N., Rashed Mohasel, M.H., and Ezadi Darbandi, E. 2008. Germination characteristics and cardinal temperature of lambsquarter, purselane and crabgrass. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 6(2): 255-261. [In Persian with English Summary].
29. Riemens Scheepens, P.C., and Vander Weide, R.Y. 2004. Dormancy, germination and emergence of weed seeds, with emphasis on influence of light. Plant Research International, 302: 1-12.
30. Rizzardi, M.A., Luiz, A.R. Roman, E.S., and Vargas. L. 2009. Effect of cardinal temperature and water potential on morning glory (Ipomoea triloba) seed germination. Planta Daninha, 27(1): 13-21. [DOI:10.1590/S0100-83582009000100003]
31. Savari-Nejad, A.R., Habibian, L., and Yunes-Abadi, M. 2010. The introduction of new invasive weeds of wild melon, morning glory and two spurge species in soybean fields in Golestan province. P. 26-27. In: The First National Conference on Advances in the production of plant oils, May. 2010. Bojnourd, Iran. [In Persian with English summery].
32. Siahmargoei, A., Nazarian, Z., and Ghaderifar, F. 2016. Germination response study of tall morningglory (Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth.), an invasive weed, to temperature and water potential. Journal of Weed Research, 8(1): 59-71. [In Persian with English Summery].
33. Singh, M., Ramirez, A.H.M. Shiv, D.S., and Amit, J. 2012. Factors affecting the germination of tall morningglory (Ipomoea purpurea). Journal of Weed Science, 60(1): 64-68. [DOI:10.1614/WS-D-11-00106.1]
34. Taassob-Shirazi, M., Forouzesh, S., Zare, A. and Rahimian-Mashhsdi, H. 2013. Germination phonology of invasive plant (Amsinckia menziesii). p. 448-451. In: The 5th Iranian Weed Science Congress, Tehran University. [In Persian with English Summery].
35. Torabi, B. 2004. Prediction of physiological development stages in chickpea. M.Sc. thesis in Agronomy. Agriculture and Natural Sciences, University of Gorgan, Iran. [In Persian with English Summary].

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

Send email to the article author


© 2019 All Rights Reserved | Iranian Journal of Seed Research

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.