Volume 3, Issue 2 ((Autumn & Winter) 2017)                   Iranian J. Seed Res. 2017, 3(2): 105-118 | Back to browse issues page


XML Persian Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Aghighi Shahverdi M, Omidi H, Mousavi S E. Effect of Chitosan on Seed Germination and Biochemical Traits of Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum) Seedling under Salt Stress. Iranian J. Seed Res.. 2017; 3 (2) :105-118
URL: http://yujs.yu.ac.ir/jisr/article-1-224-en.html
PhD student of Crop Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran , aghighim@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (5545 Views)

For the purpose of evaluating the effect of chitosan on seed germination and some biochemical characteristics of the milk thistle herb in the conditions of salinity, an experiment was conducted as factorial in a completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications in the Laboratory of Seed Science and Technology of Shahed University, Tehran in 2015. Experimental factors comprised salinity levels (0, 4, 8 and 12 dS.m-1) and different levels of Chitosan (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 percent). The results showed that salt stress reduced germination percentage, germination coefficient, germination speed, weight and length vigor index, radical, plumule and seedling length and total biomass and increased mean germination time. Seed priming with chitosan up to 0.5% concentration increased germination coefficient, weighted index vigor and plumule length. The highest amounts of total chlorophyll and total protein were obtained in seed priming with 0.5% chitosan levels in zero salinity level (control). By increasing salinity levels, the activity level of catalase and peroxidase increased, so that the highest level of the activity of these two enzymes was obtained in the salinity level of 12 dS.m-1 in pre-treatment with 0.5% Chitosan. The results showed that seed priming with chitosan of 0.5% could reduce harmful effects of salt stress on some traits of milk thistle seedlings and could even improve their growth.
 

Full-Text [PDF 206 kb]   (771 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Seed Physiology
Received: 2016/04/29 | Accepted: 2016/11/19

References
1. Afzal, I. 2005. Seed enhancement to induced salt tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Ph.D. Thesis, Agriculture University of Faisalabad, Pakistan.
2. Arnon, A.N. 1967. Method of extraction of chlorophyll in the plants. Agronomy Journal, 23: 112-121.
3. Boonlertnirun, S., Sarabol, E.D., Meechoui, S., and Sooksathan, I. 2007. Drought recovery and grain yield potential of rice after chitosan application. Kasetsart Journal: Nature Science, 41: 1-6.
4. Bradford, M.M. 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry, 72(1-2): 248-254. [DOI:10.1016/0003-2697(76)90527-3]
5. Bybordi, A., and Tabatabaei, J. 2009. Effect of salinity stress on germination and seedling properties in canola (Brassica napus L.). Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 37(2): 71-76.
6. Cho, M.H., No, H.K., and Prinyawiwatkal, W. 2008. Chitosan treatments after growth and selected quality of sunflower sprouts. Journal of Food Science, 73(1): 70-77. [DOI:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2007.00607.x] [PMID]
7. Coma, V., Martial-Gros, A., Garreou, S., Copinet, A., Salin, F., and Deschamps, A. 2002. Edible antimicrobial films based on chitosan matrix. Journal of Food Science, 67(3): 1162-1169. [DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2002.tb09470.x]
8. Dhindsa, R.H., Plumb-Dhindsa, R., and Thorpe, T.A. 1981. Leaf senescence correlated with increased level of membrane permeability, lipid peroxidation and decreased level of SOD and CAT. Journal of Experimental Botany, 32(1): 93-101. [DOI:10.1093/jxb/32.1.93]
9. Ellis, R.H., and Roberts, E.H. 1981. The quantification of ageing and survival in orthodox seeds. Seed Science and Technology, 9: 377-409.
10. Gornik, K., Grzesik, M., and Romanowska-Duda, B. 2008. The effect of chitosan on rooting of grapeving cutting and on subsequent plant growth under drought and temperature stress. Journal of Fruit and Ornamental Plant Research, 16: 333-343.
11. Guan, Y.J.J., Hu, X., Wang, J., and Shao, C.X. 2009. Seed priming with chitosan improves maize germination and seedling growth in relation to physiological changes under low temperature stress. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B, 10(6): 427-433. [DOI:10.1631/jzus.B0820373] [PMID] [PMCID]
12. Harish Prashanth, K.V., Dharmesh, S.M., Jagannatha Rao, K.S., and Tharanathan, R.N. 2007. Free radical-induced chitosan depolymerized products protect calf thymus DNA from oxidative damage. Carbohydrate Research, 342(2): 190-195. [DOI:10.1016/j.carres.2006.11.010] [PMID]
13. Hoogenboom, G., and Peterson, C.M. 1987. Shoot growth rate of soybean as affected by drought stress. Agronomy Journal, 79(4): 598-607. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj1987.00021962007900040003x [DOI:10.2134/agronj1987.00021962007900040004x]
14. ISTA, 2010. International rules for seed testing. International seed testing association (ISTA). Jiang, H.F., and Ren, X.P. 2003. The effect on SOD activity and protein content in groundnut leaves by drought stress. Zuo Wu Xue Bao, 30(2): 169-174.
15. Kader, M.A., and Jutzi, S.C. 2004. Effect of thermal and salt treatments during imbibition on germination seedling growth of sorghum (Sorghom bicolor L.) at 42/19. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 190(1): 35-38. [DOI:10.1046/j.0931-2250.2003.00071.x]
16. Kakreja, S., Nandval, A.S., Kumar, N., Sharma, S.K., Unvi, V., and Sharma, P.K. 2005. Plant water status, H2O2 scavenging enzymes, and ethylene evolution and membrane integrity of Cicer arietinum roots as affected by salinity. Biologia Plantarum, 49(2): 305-308. [DOI:10.1007/s10535-005-5308-4]
17. Khajeh, H., and Naderi, S. 2014. The effect of chitosan on some antioxidant enzymes activity and biochemistry characterization in Melissa (Melissa officinalis). Research Journal of Crop Science in Arid Area, 1: 100-116.
18. Kowalski, B., Jimenez, F., Herrera, L., and Agramonet Penalver, D. 2006. Application of soluble chitosan in vitro and in the greenhouse to increase yield and seed quality of potato minitubers. Potato Research, 49(3): 167-176. [DOI:10.1007/s11540-006-9015-0]
19. MacAdam, J.W., Nelson, R., and Sharp, E. 1992. Peroxidase activity in the leaf elongation zone of tall Fescue patial distribution of ionically bound peroxidase activity in genotypes differing in length of the elongation zone. Plant Physiology, 99(3): 872-878. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.99.3.872 [DOI:10.1104/pp.99.3.879] [PMID] [PMCID]
20. Mandal, S. 2010. Induction of phenolics, lignin and key defense enzymes in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) roots in response to elicitors. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9: 8038-8047. [DOI:10.5897/AJB10.984]
21. Miller, T.R., and Champan, S.R. 1978. Germination responses of three forage grasses to different concentration of six salts. Journal of Range Management, 31(2): 123-124. [DOI:10.2307/3897659]
22. Noor, M. E. H. E. R., and Khan, M. A. 1995. Factors affecting germination of summer and winter seeds of Halopyrum mucronatum. under salt stress. Biology of Salt Tolerant Plants, 6: 51-58.
23. Oksu, G., Kaya, M.D., and Atak, M. 2005. Effects of salt and drought stresses on germination and seedling growth of pea (Pisum sativum L.). Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 29(4): 237-242.
24. Pagter, M., Bragato, C., and Brix, H. 2005. Tolerance and physiological responses of (Phragmites australis to water deficit. Aquatic Botany, 81(4): 285-299. [DOI:10.1016/j.aquabot.2005.01.002]
25. Park, P.J., Je, J.Y., and Kim, S.K. 2004. Free radical scavenging activities of differently deacetylated chitosans using an ESR spectrometer. Carbohydrate Polymers, 55(1): 17-22. [DOI:10.1016/j.carbpol.2003.05.002]
26. Rauf, M., Munir, M., Hassan, M.U., Ahmad, M., and Afzal, M. 2007. Performance of wheat genotypes under osmotic stress at germination and early seedling growth stage. African Journal of Biotechnology, 6(8): 971-975.
27. Sairam, R.K., Rao, K.V., and Srivastava, G.C. 2002. Differential response of wheat genotypes to longterm salinity stress in relation to oxidative stress, Antioxidant active and osmolyte concentration. Plant Science, 163(5): 1037-1046. [DOI:10.1016/S0168-9452(02)00278-9]
28. Scott, S.J., James, R.A., and Williams, W.A. 1984. Review of data analysis methods for seed germination. Crop Science, 24(6): 1192-1199. [DOI:10.2135/cropsci1984.0011183X002400060043x]
29. Serrano, R., Macia, F.C., and Moreno, V. 1999. Genetic engineering of salt and drought tolerance with regulatory genes. Science Horticulture, 78(1): 261-269.
30. Yildirim, E., and Guvenc, I. 2006. Salt tolerance of pepper cultivars during germination and seedling growth. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 30(5): 347-353.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
Write the security code in the box

Send email to the article author


© 2018 All Rights Reserved | Iranian Journal of Seed Research

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.