Volume 5, Issue 1 ((Spring and Summer) 2018)                   Iranian J. Seed Res. 2018, 5(1): 147-159 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Mansouri A, Omidi H. Effect of Chitosan Nano Particle and Potassium Nitrate on Germination and Some Morpho-physiological Characteristics of Seedlings of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) . Iranian J. Seed Res.. 2018; 5 (1) :147-159
URL: http://yujs.yu.ac.ir/jisr/article-1-298-en.html
Department of Agronomy, Shahed University Tehran, Tehran, Iran , heshmatomidi@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (6394 Views)
DOR: 98.1000/2383-1251.1397.

Extended abstract
Introduction: Quinoa, with the scientific name (Chenopodium quinoa Willd), belongs to the Spencer family. Seeds vigor can be improved with a variety of seed priming methods. In this method, the seeds are soaked in water or various osmotic solutions and then dried to the original moisture. After priming treatment, seeds are stored and cultivated as untreated seeds. Potassium nitrate is the most frequently used chemical for the purpose of increasing seed germination and is recommended by the Society of Official Seed Specialists and the International Association of Seed Testing for germination experiments of many species. In recent years, the use of nanoscale materials has been of great interest to researchers. Chitin, one of the most abundant polysaccharides in nature, is a polymer chain of N-acetyl glucosamine and is associated with other proteins and other organic compounds, and numerous industrial, pharmaceutical and agricultural applications have been reported for it. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of chitosan nanoparticles and potassium nitrate on some morphological characteristics, germination characteristics, chlorophyll content and relative humidity of quinoa plant.
Materials and Methods: In order to investigate the effect of pretreatment of quinoa seeds with chitosan nanoparticles and potassium nitrate solution on the early stages of germination, a factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications in Seed Processing Laboratory, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran. Experimental treatments consisted of priming with chitosan nanoparticles in 4 levels (no primers, 0.01, 0.20 and 0.04% w / v) and potassium nitrate in 3 levels (no primers, 0.2 and 0.5% Weight percent) and hydroperime for 2 hours at 25° C. For each replicate of every treatment 100 seeds, using standard priming methods, were treated with the materials mentioned above and were dried in a petri dish on Watman paper No. 1 at 20 ± 1 ° C and relative humidity of 70% and 16 hours of daylight and 8 hours of darkness to make germination work. After that, germination percentage, root length, shoot length, germination coefficient, Allometric coefficient, relative water content, chlorophyll content a and b were measured, using standard methods.
Results: Seed treatment with 0.2% potassium nitrate solution increased germination by 9% and treatment with chitosan 0.01% increased germination by 14%, compared with the non-primer treatment. The priming treatment with a 0.5% solution of potassium nitrate and 0.01% chitosan increased germination by 36%, compared to the non-primer treatment. Potassium nitrate increased root length by 25% and shoot length by 10%. In addition, chitosan 0.01% increased the root length by 6%, and seeds with chitosan 0.02% and potassium nitrate 0.2% increased the root length by 32%. The effects of potassium nitrate, chitosan and their interaction on chlorophyll a and b were significant at 1% probability level. The highest levels of chlorophyll a were obtained in 0.02% chitosan and 0.2% potassium nitrate. This formulation increased the chlorophyll a content by 33%. The highest amount of chlorophyll b was obtained by applying 0.01% chitosan and 0.5% potassium nitrate.
Conclusion: The results of this study showed that treatment with 0.01% w/v chitosan and 0.5% w/v potassium nitrate resulted in the highest germination percentage, chlorophyll content a and b, relative water content, and stem length. Treatment with 0.02% chitosan and 0.2% potassium nitrate resulted in the highest allometric coefficient and root length.
  1. Chitosan nano particle and potassium nitrate increase quinoa germination.
  2. Chitosan nano particle and potassium nitrate increase the content of chlorophyll a and b.
Keywords: Allometric coefficient, Chlorophyll, Relative water content, Root length, Germination percentage
DOR: 98.1000/2383-1251.1397.
Full-Text [PDF 509 kb]   (1314 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Seed Physiology
Received: 2018/02/2 | Accepted: 2018/06/23

1. Abbas Nezhad, A., Hosseini, N., Tavakol Afshari, N. and Sharif Zadeh, F. 2009. Evaluation of the possibility of changing the sowing date using seed priming method on grain yield and its parts in chickpea cultivars. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science, 40(1): 26-39. [In Persian with English Summary].
2. Aisha, A.H., Rizk, F.A., Shaheen, A.M. and Abdel-Mouty, M.M. 2007. Onion plant growth, bulb yield and its physical and chemical properties as affected by organic and natural fertilization. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 3(5): 380-388.
3. Fathi Amirkhiz, K., Omidi, H., Heshmati, S. and Jafarzadeh, L. 2012. Study of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) germination attributes and seed vigur under salinity stress by osmopriming accelerators pretreatment. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 10(2): 299-310. [In Persian with English Summary].
4. Arnon, D.I. 1949. Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts, polyphenoxidase in Beta vulgaris. Plant Physiology, 24(1): 1-15. [DOI:10.1104/pp.24.1.1] [PMID] [PMCID]
5. Ayub, M., Ibrahim, M., Noorka, I.R., Tahir, M., Tanveer, A. and Ullah, A. 2013. Effect of seed priming on seed germination and seedling growth of garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.). International Journal of Agriculture and Applied Sciences, 5(2): 1-5.
6. Babel, S. and Kurniawan, T.A. 2003. Low-cost adsorbents for heavy metals uptake from contaminated water: a review. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 97: 219-243. [DOI:10.1016/S0304-3894(02)00263-7]
7. Bagheri, M., Zare, A. and Yari, R. 2011. Effect of drought stress on germination behavior and morphological characteristics of artemisia (Artemisia sieberi Besser) seedling. Pajouhesh and Sazandgi, 24(3): 65-71. [In Persian with English Summary].
8. Bhargava, A., Shukla, S. and Ohri, D. 2006. Chenopodium quinoa an Indian perspective. Industrial crops and products, 23(1): 73-87. [DOI:10.1016/j.indcrop.2005.04.002]
9. Bradford, K.J. 1995. Water relations in seed germination. In "Seed Development and Germination" (J. Kigel and G. Galili, Eds.). Marcel dekkerinc. New York. 351-396.
10. Copland, L.O. and McDonald, M.B. 1995. Principles of Seed Science and Technoloy. Thired edition. Champan and Hall. 393.
11. Dastborhan, S. and Ghassemi-Golezani, K. 2015. Influence of seed priming and water stress on selected physiological traits of borage. Polish Society for Horticultural Science, 2(27): 151-159. [DOI:10.1515/fhort-2015-0025]
12. Demir Kaya, M., Games, O., Atak, M., Cikili, Y. and Kolsarici, O. 2006. Seed treatment to overcome salt and drought stress during germination in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). European Journal of Agronomy, 24: 291-295. [DOI:10.1016/j.eja.2005.08.001]
13. Devlieghere, F., Vermeulen, A. and Debevere, J. 2004. Chitosan: antimicrobial activity, interactions with food components and applicability as a coating on fruit and vegetables. Food Microbiology, 21(6): 703-714. [DOI:10.1016/j.fm.2004.02.008]
14. FAO. 2011. Quinoa; an acient crop to contribute to world food security. Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean, 63 p.
15. Gangopadhyay, G., Das, S. and Mukherjee, K.K. 2002. Speciation in chenopodium in West Bengal, India. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 49: 503-510. [DOI:10.1023/A:1020909128003]
16. Guan, Y.J., Hu, J., Wang, X.J. and Shao, C.X. 2009. Seed priming with chitosan improves maize germination and seedling growth in relation to physiological changes under low temperature stress. Zhejiang University-Science, 10: 427-433. [DOI:10.1631/jzus.B0820373] [PMID] [PMCID]
17. Gudu, S. and Gupta, V.K. 1999. Male-sterility in the grain amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus ex-Nepal) variety Jumia. Euphytica, 37: 23-26. [DOI:10.1007/BF00037218]
18. Haghighi, M., Afifipour, Z. and Mozafarian, M. 2012. The effect of N-Si on tomato seed germination under levels. Journal of Biological and Environmental Sciences, 6(16): 87-90. [In Persian with English Summary].
19. Harish Prashanth, K.V., Dharmesh, S.M., Jagannatha Rao, K.S. and Tharana than, R.N. 2007. Free radical-induced chitosan depolymerized products protect calf thymus DNA from oxidative damage. Carbohydrate Research, 342: 190-195. [DOI:10.1016/j.carres.2006.11.010] [PMID]
20. Heydecker, W. and Coolbear, P. 1978. Seed treatment for improved performance: Survey and attempted prognosis. Seed Science and Technology, 5: 353-425.
21. Hosseini, F., Gharineh, M.H., Bakhshandeh, A.A., Fathi, Q.A. and Shirin, M. 2008. Seed effects on germination and other growth parameters of seedlings of five canola cultivars under laboratory conditions. Summary of articles of the first national conference on seeds science and technology of Iran. Gorgan University, Golestan, Iran. [In Persian with English Summary].
22. Jancurva, M. 2009. A Quinoa- areview. Czech science, 27(2): 71-79. [DOI:10.17221/32/2008-CJFS]
23. Kumar, A. and Singh, D.P. 1998. Use of physiological indices as screening technique for drought tolerance in oil seed Brassica species. Annuals of Botany, 81: 413-420. [DOI:10.1006/anbo.1997.0573]
24. Lee, Y.S., Kim, Y.H. and Kim, S.B. 2005. Changes in the respiration, growth and vitamin C content of soybean sprouts in response to chitosan of different molecular weights. Hort Science, 40: 1333-1335.
25. Limpanavech P., Chaiyasuta S., Vongpromek R., Pichyangkura R., Khunwasi C., Chadchawan S., Lotrakul P., Bunjongrat R., Chaidee A. and Bangyeekhun T. 2008. Chitosan effects on floral production, gene expression, and anatomical changes in the Dendrobium orchid. Hort Science, 116(1): 65-72. [DOI:10.1016/j.scienta.2007.10.034]
26. Liu, J., Li, J., Su, X. and Xia, Z. 2014. Grafting improves drought tolerance by regulating antioxidant enzyme activities and stress-responsive gene expression in tobacco. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 107: 173-179. [DOI:10.1016/j.envexpbot.2014.06.012]
27. Mahdavi, B. 2013. Seed germination and growth responses of Isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk) to chitosan and salinity. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences, 5(10):1084-1088.
28. Mansouri, G.V, Omidi, H., and Rezaei, M.K. 2015. Investigation of chitosan application on soybean germination (Glycine max L.) under salinity stress conditions. Iranian Journal of Seed Research, 2(3): 171-178. [In Persian with English Summary].
29. McDonald, M.B. 2000. Seed priming. (eds. M. Black and J. D. Bewley). Sheffield Academic press, 287-325.
30. Norasteh Nia, A. and Farjadi, M. 2015. Interaction between drought stress and potassium nitrate on some physiological responses of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). Journal of New Findings in Biological Sciences, 4(2): 260-271. [In Persian with English Summary].
31. Obara, K., Ishihara, M., Ishizuka, T., Fujita, M., Ozeki, Y., Maehara, T., Saito, Y., Yura, H., Matsui, T. and Hattori, H. 2003. Photocrosslinkable chitosan hydrogel containing fibroblast growth factor-2 stimulates wound healing in healing oxidative enzymes and osmoregulation among three different genotypes of Radix Astragali at seeding stage. Colloids and Surface Science Botany, 49: 60-65.
32. Parmoon, Gh., Ebadi, A., Ghaviazm, A., and Miri, M. 2013. Effect of seed priming on germination and seedling growth of Chamomile under salinity. Iranian Sosiaty Agronomy and Plant Breeding Sciences, 6: 145-164. [In Persian with English Summary].
33. Pospieszny, H., Chirkov, S. and Atabekov, J. 1991. Induction of antiviral resistance in plants by chitosan. Plant Science, 79: 63-68. [DOI:10.1016/0168-9452(91)90070-O]
34. Qasemi Pirbalooti, A., Golparvar, M., Dehkordi, V. and Navid, V. 2007. The effect of different treatments on sleep defeat and germination stimulation of five species of medicinal plants in Chaharmahal-o-Bakhtiyari. Pajouhesh and Sazandgi, 76: 176-191. [In Persian with English Summary].
35. Qasim, M., Ashraf, M.M., Jamil, A.M., Rehman, Y.S.U. and Rha, E.S. 2003. Water relations and gas exchange properties in some elite canola (Brassica napus L.) lines under salt stress. Annual Application of Biology, 142(3): 307-316. [DOI:10.1111/j.1744-7348.2003.tb00255.x]
36. Ramazan, A., Hafiz, I.A., Ahmad, T. and Abbasi, N.A. 2010. Effect of priming whit potassium nitrate and dehusking on seed germination of gladiolus (Gladiolus alatus). Pakistan Journal of Botany, 42(1): 247-258.
37. Rao, M.S.S. and Mendham, N.J. 1991. Soil-plant-water relations of oilseed rape (Brassica napus and B.campestris). The Journal of Agricultural Science, 117: 197-205. [DOI:10.1017/S002185960006528X]
38. Sukwattanasinitt, M., Klaikherd, A., Skulnee, K. and Aiba, S. 2001. Chitosan as a releasing device for 2,4-D herbicide, in: Uragami, T., Kurita, K., Fukamizo T. (Eds.), Chitin and Chitosan in Life Science, Yamaguchi, Japan, 142-143
39. Uthairatanakij, A., Teixeira da Silva J. A. and Obsuwan K. 2007. Chitosan for improving orchid production and quality. Orchid Science and Biotechnology, 1(1): 1-5.
40. Wang, X.H., Li, D.P., Wang, W.J., Feng, Q.L., Cui, F.Z., Xu, Y.X., Song, X.H. and vander Werf, M. 2003. Crosslinked collagen/chitosan matrix for artificial livers. Biomaterials, 24: 3213-3220. [DOI:10.1016/S0142-9612(03)00170-4]
41. Wanichpongpan, P., Suriyachan K. and Chandrkrachang, S. 2001. Effect of chitosan on the growth of Gerbera flower plant (Gerbera jamesonii). Chitin and chitosan: Chitin and Chitosan in Life Science, Yamaguchi, Japan, 198-201.
42. Wei, S., Zang, X.M., Xue, J.P. and Xiang G. 2007. Effect of chitosan on seeds germination and seedling physiological property of wheat. Periodicals. Journal of Biology, 24 (2): 51-53.
43. Yassen, B.T. and Mamari, A.L. 1995. Further evaluation of the resistance of black barley to water stress. Agronomy Journal, 174: 19-24.
44. Zeng, J., Chen, A., Li, D., Yi, B. and Wu, W. 2013. Effects of salt stress on the growth, physiological responses, and glycoside contents of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. Journal ofAgricultural and Food Chemistry, 61(24): 5720-5726. [DOI:10.1021/jf401237x] [PMID]
45. Zhou, Y.G., Yang, Y.D., Qi, Y.G., Zhang, Z.M., Wang, X.J., and Hu, X.J. 2002. Effects of chitosan on some physiological activity in germinating seed of peanut. Journal of Peanut Science, 31: 22-25.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

© 2020 All Rights Reserved | Iranian Journal of Seed Research

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.