Volume 5, Issue 2 ((Autumn & Winter) 2019)                   Iranian J. Seed Res. 2019, 5(2): 59-71 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Alizadeh Y, Zeidali E, Hassaneian Khoshro H. (2019). Allelopathic Effects of Mustard (Sinapis arvensis) on Germination, Morphological and Biochemical Characteristics of Barley (Hordeum vulgare). Iranian J. Seed Res.. 5(2), 59-71. doi:10.29252/yujs.5.2.59
URL: http://yujs.yu.ac.ir/jisr/article-1-275-en.html
Dryland Agricultural Research Institute (DARI) , H.hoseinian@ilam.ac.ir
Abstract:   (11417 Views)

Extended abstract
Introduction: Crop rotations are practiced to eliminate the effect of monoculture, but the succeeding crop may be influenced by the phytotoxins released by the preceding crop. Among plants, Brassica species contain allelochemical compounds as glucosinolate that is, under special conditions, released to environment and affects seed germination and plant growth. Wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) as a weed of 30 crops in 52 countries which has a series of allelopathic effects that prevent germination of other plants. Products of glucosinolate- like ionic thiocyanate (SCN-) inhibited the root or shoot growth of many crop species. Also volatile compounds like isoprenoid and benzenoid released from Brassica tissue degradation may suppress many crops growth. It was also found in many studies that allelochemicals, which inhibited the growth of some species at certain concentrations, might stimulate the growth of same or different species at lower concentrations. The present research was conducted to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract concentration of various mustard parts on barley seed germination and seedling growth.
Materials and Methods: In order to evaluate the allelopathic effect of mustard in agro ecosystems, a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications was carried out in botany laboratory of agriculture faculty, Illam University in 2014. Experimental treatments included five concentrations of mustards foliage and root aqueous extract (0, 10, 30, 50, and 70 percent) that were studied at germination and early growth stage of barley (cv. Abidar) in two separate experiments. In the seed germination section, the effects of aqueous extract of mustard on germination rate and germination percentage of barley seed were measured. In the study of the effect of aqueous extract of mustard on barley seedlings, weight and length of root and shoot, leaf chlorophyll content, proline and soluble sugars content were measured.
Results: Results showed that the highest amount of barley seed germination percentage and germination rate (100 and 19.5, respectively) were observed in control and the lowest amount (40 and 9.5, respectively) belonged to mustard root aqueous treatment with 70 percent concentration. The most decrease in barley seedlings length and weight were observed at the highest concentration of aqueous extract. The amount of chlorophyll a decreased from 2.39 in control to 1.66 mg per fresh weight in 70 percent concentration of aqueous extract treatment. The highest amount of proline (66.8 μM per fresh weight) in barley foliage was observed in 70 percent aqueous extract treatment. The results from this study showed that mustard allelopathic effect may be a possible mechanism controlling the barley germination and early growth stage in agro ecosystems.
Conclusion: Generally, we were able to demonstrate short term auto toxicity and possible short-term allelopathy due to mustard has harmful effects on barley including reduced seed germination and emergence of barley seedling. Depending on the concentrations of Mustard extract, allelopathic activity will vary Mustard. Further investigations are also needed to determine the influence of cultivar variations, and to identify the active compounds involved in mustard auto toxicity and Allelopathy.
1-Mustards aqueous extract reduced seed germination percentage and plant growth in barley.
2-Mustards aqueous extract increased proline and soluble sugars in barley, but it reduced amount of chlorophyll in this plant.

Full-Text [PDF 459 kb]   (1484 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: General
Received: 2018/02/2 | Accepted: 2018/06/23

1. Annett, R. Habibi, H.R. and Hontela, A. 2014. Impact of glyphosate and glyphosate based herbicides on the freshwater environment. Journal of Applied Toxicology, 34(5): 458-479. [DOI:10.1002/jat.2997] [PMID]
2. Arnon, A.N. 1967. Method of extraction of chlorophyll in the plants. Agronomy Journal, 23: 112-121.
3. Azizi, M., Alimardani, L., and Rashed Mohassel, M.H. 2006. Allelopathic effects of Bunium persicum and Cuminum cyminum on germination of some weed. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 22: 198-208 [In Persian with English Summary].
4. Bates, L., Waldren, R., and Teare, I. 1973. Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant and Soil, 39: 205-207. [DOI:10.1007/BF00018060]
5. Beres, I., and Kazinczi, G. 2000. Allelopathic effects of shoot extracts and residue of weeds on field crops. Allelopathy Journal, 7: 93-98.
6. Bertholdsson, N.O., Andersson, S.C., and Merker, A. 2012. Allelopathic potential of Triticum spp., Secale spp. and Triticosecale spp. and use of chromosome substitutions and translocations to improve weed suppression ability in winter wheat. Plant Breeding, 131(1): 75-80. [DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0523.2011.01895.x]
7. Chi-Ming, Y., Chyoung-Ni, L., and Chang-Hung, C. 2002. Effect of three allelopathic phenolics on chlorophyll accumulation of rice (Oryza sativa) seedling: I. Inhibition of supply- orientation. Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica, 43: 299-304.
8. Daizy, R.B., Lavanya, K., Singh, H.P., and Kohli, R.K. 2007. Phenolic allelochemicals released by Chenopodium murale affect the growth nodulation and macromolecule content in chickpea and pea. Plant Growth Regulator, 51(2): 119-128. [DOI:10.1007/s10725-006-9153-z]
9. Didon, U.M., Kolseth, A.K., Widmark, D., and Persson, P. 2014. Cover crop residues effects on germination and early growth of annual weeds. Weed Science, 62(2): 294-302. [DOI:10.1614/WS-D-13-00117.1]
10. Doll, H. 1997. The ability of barley to compete with weeds. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture, 14(1): 43-51 [DOI:10.1080/01448765.1997.10749917]
11. Dubois, D., Wizeler, M., and Nösnerger, J. 1990. Fructan accumulation and sucrose: sucrose fructosyl transferase activity in stem of spring wheat genotype. Crop Science, 30(2): 315-319. [DOI:10.2135/cropsci1990.0011183X003000020014x]
12. Fahey, J.W., Zalcmann, A.T., and Talalay, P. 2001. The chemical diversity and distribution of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates among plants. Phytochemistry, 56(1): 5-51. [DOI:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)00316-2]
13. Farooq, M., Jabran, K., Cheema, Z.A., Wahid, A., and Siddique, K.H. 2011. The role of allelopathy in agricultural pest management. Pest Management Science, 67(5): 493-506. [DOI:10.1002/ps.2091] [PMID]
14. Jabran, k., Mahajan, G., Sardana, V., and Chauhan, B.S. 2015. Allelopathy for weed control in agricultural systems. Crop Protection, 72: 57-65.
15. Kalantar, A., and Naghashbandi, N. 2008. Chemical stress induced by heliotrope (Helitropium europaeum L.) allelochemicals and increased activity of antioxidant enzymes. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 11(6): 915-919. [DOI:10.3923/pjbs.2008.915.919]
16. Le-Thi, H., Lin, C.H., Smeda, R.J., Leigh, N.D., Wycoff, W.G., and Fritschi, F.B. 2014. Isolation and identification of an allelopathic phenylethylamine in rice. Phytochemistry, 108: 109-121 [DOI:10.1016/j.phytochem.2014.08.019] [PMID]
17. Macias, F.A., Oliveros-Bastidas, A., Marin Mateos, D., Chinchilla, N., Castellano, D., and Gonzalez Molinillo, J.M. 2014. Evidence for an allelopathic interaction between rye and wild oats. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 62(39): 9450-9457. [DOI:10.1021/jf503840d] [PMID]
18. Mason, W., Jessop, R.S., and Lovett, J.V. 2005. Differential phytotoxicity among species and cultivars of the genus Brassica to wheat. I. laboratory and field screening of species. Plant and Soil, 93(1): 3-16. [DOI:10.1007/BF02377141]
19. Mirsky, S.B., Ryan, M.R., Teasdal, J.R., Curran. W.S., Reberg-Horton, C.S., Spargo, J.T., Wells, M.S., Keene, C.L., and Moyer, J.W. 2013. Overcoming weed management challenges in cover crop-based organic rotational no-till soybean production in the eastern United States. Weed Technology, 27: 193-200. [DOI:10.1614/WT-D-12-00078.1]
20. Morra, M.J., and Kirkegaard, A. 2002. Isothiocyanate release from soil-incorporated Brassica tissues. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 34: 1683-1690. [DOI:10.1016/S0038-0717(02)00153-0]
21. Rezvani, H., Asghari, J., and Ehteshami, M.R. 2014. Evaluation of allelopathy of wild mustard on germination characteristics of four wheat cultivars using gas chromatography (MS-GC). Iranian Journal of Seed Science and Research, 1(2): 38-55 [In Persian with English Summary].
22. Rice, A., Johnson-Maynard, J., Thill, D. and Morra, M. 2007. Vegetable crop emergence and weed control following amendment with different Brassicaceae seed meals. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 22(3): 204-212. [DOI:10.1017/S1742170507001743]
23. Samdani, B., and Baghestani, M.A. 2005. Allelopathic effects of Artemisia (Artemisia spp.) On germination and seedling growth of wild oat (Avena ludiviciana). Journal of Research and Planning in Agriculture and Horticulture, 68: 69-74. [In Persian with English Summary].
24. Saraei, R., Lahooti, M., and Ganjali, A. 2012. Investigating the Allelopathy effects of Eucalyptus (globulus Labill) on characteristic of germination, morphology and biochemical of flixweed (Descurainia Sophia) and barley (Hordeum vulgare). Journal of Agroecology, 4(3): 215-222 [In Persian with English Summary].
25. Smol, M., and Chojnawoski, A.M. 1993. Effect of osmotic treatment and sunflower seed germination in relation with-temperature and oxygen. Basic and Applied Aspects of Seed Biology, 3: 1033-1038.
26. Tripathi, S., Tripathi, A., and Kori, D.C. 1999. Allelopathic evaluation of Tectona grandis leaf, root and soil aqueous extracts on soybean. Indian Journal of Forestry, 22: 366-74.
27. Verma, D.P., and Hong, Z. 2000. Removal of feedback inhibition of Δl-pyrrolin-5carboxylate synthetase results in increased praline accumulation and protection of plants from osmotic stress, Plant Physiology, 122: 1129-1136. [DOI:10.1104/pp.122.4.1129] [PMCID]
28. Young, S.L., Pierce, F.J., and Nowak, P. 2014. Introduction: Scope of the problem—rising costs and demand for environmental safety for weed control, in: Young, S.L., Pierce, F.J. (Eds.), Automation: The Future of Weed Control in Cropping Systems. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7512-1 [DOI:10.1007/978-94-007-7512-1_1]
29. Zuo, S., Li, X., Ma, Y., and Yang, S. 2014. Soil microbes are linked to the allelopathic potential of different wheat genotypes. Plant and Soil, 378: 49-58. [DOI:10.1007/s11104-013-2020-6]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2023 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Iranian Journal of Seed Research

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.